|Number of lines
|Number of stations
||December 30, 1927
||Tokyo Metro Co., Ltd., Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation (Toei)
||310.3 km (192.8 mi)
||1,067 mm (1,435 mm for Ginza, Marunouchi, Toei Asakusa & Toei Ōedo Lines, 1,372 mm for Toei Shinjuku Line)
The history of Tokyo Subway
The Tokyo subway (東京の地下鉄 Tōkyō no chikatetsu) is an integral part of the world's most extensive rapid transit system in a single metropolitan area, Greater Tokyo. While the subway system itself is largely within the city center, the lines extend far out via extensive through services onto suburban railway lines.
As of 2013, the entire network of Tokyo Metro and Toei has 290 stations and 13 lines. The Tokyo Metro and Toei networks together carry a combined average of over eight million passengers daily. Despite being ranked first in worldwide subway usage, subways make up a small fraction of heavy rail rapid transit in Tokyo alone—only 274 out of 882 railway stations, as of 2007. The Tokyo subway at 8.7 million daily passengers only represents 22% of Tokyo's 40 million daily rail passengers (see Transport in Greater Tokyo).
There are two primary subway operators in Tokyo:
- Tokyo Metro. Formerly Teito Rapid Transit Authority (TRTA), privatized in 2004 and presently operating 184 stations and nine lines. The minimum price for one ride is 160 yen.
- Toei Subway (Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation). An arm of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, operates 106 stations in four lines. The minimum price for one ride is 170 yen.
In addition, but not formally designated as subways:
The Yamanote Line and the Chūō-Sōbu Line are not subway lines, but above-ground busy commuter lines which operate with metro-like frequencies and trains owned by JR East. They act as key transportation arteries in central Tokyo, and are often marked on Tokyo subway maps.
The Yokohama Subway, Minatomirai Line (and the planned Kawasaki Subway) also operate in the Greater Tokyo Area, but they are not directly linked to the Tokyo subway network. However, on special occasions (typically holiday weekends), the Tokyo Metro Hibiya Line and Namboku Line operate special Minato Mirai (みなとみらい号 Minatomirai-gō) direct through services onto Yokohama's Minatomirai Line via the Tōkyū Tōyoko Line railway. From 2013, the Tokyo Metro Fukutoshin Line will also have regular through service to the Minatomirai Line.
System administration 
Both Tokyo Metro and Toei Subway systems are closely integrated with a unified system of line colors, line codes, and station numbers. However, the separate administration of metro systems has some ramifications:
- For single rides across Metro and Toei systems, a special transfer ticket is required. It costs 70 yen less than the sum of the Metro fare and the Toei fare, calculated based on the shortest possible route between the origin and destination stations. The Passnet system simplified such ticketing problems, by allowing one stored-fare card to be used on most of the rail operators in the Greater Tokyo Area (with the noticeable exception of JR East which continued to use its own Suica system). The new PASMO system was introduced in 2007 and completely replaced the Passnet in 2008, finally allowing for one unified stored fare system for most of the Tokyo transit system, including JR East. The fare charged by the stored fare system is the same as for the users of paper tickets.
- The systems represent the metro network differently in station, train, and customer information diagrams. For example, the Toei map represents the Toei Ōedo Line as a circle in the centre, whereas the Tokyo Metro's map saves the central ring line for the Marunouchi Line and the JR Yamanote Line. As well, each system's lines are generally rendered with thicker lines on their respective system maps.
Reciprocal operation 
As is common with Japanese subway systems, many above-ground and underground lines in the Greater Tokyo Area operate through services with the Tokyo Metro and Toei lines, in a broader sense they are considered a part of the Tokyo subway network, allowing it to reach farther out into the suburbs.
Tokyo Metro 
Toei Subway 
1995 sarin attack 
In 1995, Aum Shinri Kyo, a doomsday cult, attacked the subway system with sarin nerve gas at Kasumigaseki Station and a few others, leading to 12 deaths and 1,034 people injured.
See also 
Further reading 
External links