Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
Learning Tongan
Learning Tongan
Published: 2015/11/21
Channel: AkoeLeaFakaTonga
LEARN TONGAN | LESSON 01
LEARN TONGAN | LESSON 01
Published: 2016/12/19
Channel: Andrew Joakim
Tongan Greetings - Tongan Language Week
Tongan Greetings - Tongan Language Week
Published: 2013/09/04
Channel: Randwikianz
TAGATA PASIFIKA: Tongan Language Week 2016
TAGATA PASIFIKA: Tongan Language Week 2016
Published: 2016/09/13
Channel: Tagata Pasifika
Samoan Vs Tongan ­čśé­čśé Just a Jokes
Samoan Vs Tongan ­čśé­čśé Just a Jokes
Published: 2017/03/22
Channel: Sebasss 808
The Jesus Film - Tongan / Tonga Language
The Jesus Film - Tongan / Tonga Language
Published: 2013/10/05
Channel: eyong52
SHOW ME HOW TO LEA FAKATONGA
SHOW ME HOW TO LEA FAKATONGA
Published: 2016/12/16
Channel: Andrew Joakim
Overseas Tongans who speak Tongan language
Overseas Tongans who speak Tongan language
Published: 2014/09/01
Channel: p0litics676
Learning tongan with tongan baby
Learning tongan with tongan baby
Published: 2015/08/25
Channel: Colton Stradling
Learn Tongan :  Lessons 2 - 9 for Beginners
Learn Tongan : Lessons 2 - 9 for Beginners
Published: 2016/01/21
Channel: Language Beat
Tongan Language Week 2015
Tongan Language Week 2015
Published: 2015/08/31
Channel: AUTUNI
Colours - Tongan Language Week
Colours - Tongan Language Week
Published: 2014/08/31
Channel: Randwikianz
The Difference Between Tongans and Samoans
The Difference Between Tongans and Samoans
Published: 2016/11/04
Channel: Andrew Joakim
Is Tonga music alive in NZ?
Is Tonga music alive in NZ?
Published: 2013/09/05
Channel: Tagata Pasifika
How to speak in Tongan ­čśé
How to speak in Tongan ­čśé
Published: 2016/05/30
Channel: Kalolaine Fifita
AUCKLAND Museum Tongan Language Event Part 01
AUCKLAND Museum Tongan Language Event Part 01
Published: 2017/09/09
Channel: Soane Gallaher
AUCKLAND Museum Tongan Language Event part 02
AUCKLAND Museum Tongan Language Event part 02
Published: 2017/09/09
Channel: Soane Gallaher
Tongan Language Week song by Indira Stewart and John Pulu
Tongan Language Week song by Indira Stewart and John Pulu
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Tagata Pasifika
TAGATA PASIFIKA: Tongan Language Week 2017
TAGATA PASIFIKA: Tongan Language Week 2017
Published: 2017/09/02
Channel: Tagata Pasifika
St Thomas boys perform at assembly for Tongan Language Week 2017
St Thomas boys perform at assembly for Tongan Language Week 2017
Published: 2017/09/01
Channel: Brendan Biggs Biggsie3
Tonga Language Week 2017 - Kanokupolu Trust
Tonga Language Week 2017 - Kanokupolu Trust'
Published: 2017/09/06
Channel: Soane Gallaher
Counting in Tongan - Tongan Language Week
Counting in Tongan - Tongan Language Week
Published: 2013/09/04
Channel: Randwikianz
Uike K─ütoangaÔÇÖi ÔÇśo e Lea Faka-Tonga Tongan Language Week 2017
Uike K─ütoangaÔÇÖi ÔÇśo e Lea Faka-Tonga Tongan Language Week 2017
Published: 2017/08/31
Channel: Rotorua Museum
TONGAN LANGUAGE WEEK 2017
TONGAN LANGUAGE WEEK 2017
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Raumae'ae'a Ngatuakana
LEARN TONGAN | LESSON 03
LEARN TONGAN | LESSON 03
Published: 2016/12/29
Channel: Andrew Joakim
Tongan Language Week 2017 - Tongan NCEA Class
Tongan Language Week 2017 - Tongan NCEA Class
Published: 2017/09/04
Channel: Stapukz
Tongan Language Week 2017 - Stanhope Road School
Tongan Language Week 2017 - Stanhope Road School
Published: 2017/09/07
Channel: Elizabeth Joe
Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe) Top # 9 Facts
Tonga language (Zambia and Zimbabwe) Top # 9 Facts
Published: 2015/10/25
Channel: Rathina Kaustubh
Tongan Language Week
Tongan Language Week
Published: 2015/09/03
Channel: Digicel Tonga
Tongan Language Week 2017
Tongan Language Week 2017
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: Pacific at AUT
Tongan Language Week 2015
Tongan Language Week 2015
Published: 2015/08/10
Channel: Lita Otufangaloa Makaafi
Tenisia teaching Tongan language Lesson 1   How to learn Tongan, German, Spanish, Japanese etc
Tenisia teaching Tongan language Lesson 1 How to learn Tongan, German, Spanish, Japanese etc
Published: 2013/12/29
Channel: deTonga
Cowra Festival Carnival 2016 - Sydney Tongan Language Ma
Cowra Festival Carnival 2016 - Sydney Tongan Language Ma'ulu'ulu #8
Published: 2016/03/17
Channel: Paula Moimoi Latu
Matipo School Tongan Language Week
Matipo School Tongan Language Week
Published: 2017/09/11
Channel: MatipoSchoolWeb
LEARN TONGAN | LESSON 02
LEARN TONGAN | LESSON 02
Published: 2016/12/21
Channel: Andrew Joakim
Cowra Festival Carnival 2016 - ACT Tongan Language & Cultural School Tau
Cowra Festival Carnival 2016 - ACT Tongan Language & Cultural School Tau'olunga Item #13
Published: 2016/03/17
Channel: Paula Moimoi Latu
Tongan words you Dont teach a Filipino!
Tongan words you Dont teach a Filipino!
Published: 2015/06/13
Channel: Vise and Shiree Ma'asi
LEARN TONGAN | LESSON 04
LEARN TONGAN | LESSON 04
Published: 2017/01/01
Channel: Andrew Joakim
Tongan Days and Months - Tongan Language Week
Tongan Days and Months - Tongan Language Week
Published: 2013/09/04
Channel: Randwikianz
Tongan Language Week 2012
Tongan Language Week 2012
Published: 2012/09/07
Channel: Tagata Pasifika
Tonga language speech
Tonga language speech
Published: 2016/09/09
Channel: RNZ
Tongan Language Week 2015: Andrew Little and Jenny Salesa
Tongan Language Week 2015: Andrew Little and Jenny Salesa
Published: 2015/08/27
Channel: New Zealand Labour Party
Manu
Manu 'o Palataisi | Lisia & Isabella Tau'olunga | ACT Tongan Language & Cultural School
Published: 2016/11/08
Channel: Paula Moimoi Latu
Tongan Nursery Rhymes | ACT Tongan Language and Cultural School
Tongan Nursery Rhymes | ACT Tongan Language and Cultural School
Published: 2016/11/08
Channel: Paula Moimoi Latu
Happy Tongan Language week Aotearoa 2015
Happy Tongan Language week Aotearoa 2015
Published: 2015/08/31
Channel: Sola Vuna
Song: Read Your Bible (English, Fijian, Tongan languages)
Song: Read Your Bible (English, Fijian, Tongan languages)
Published: 2015/06/30
Channel: Mission Bible Class
School - Tongan Language Week
School - Tongan Language Week
Published: 2014/09/01
Channel: Randwikianz
Happy Uike K─ütoangaÔÇÖi ÔÇśo e Lea Faka-Tonga / Tongan Language Week 2016!
Happy Uike K─ütoangaÔÇÖi ÔÇśo e Lea Faka-Tonga / Tongan Language Week 2016!
Published: 2016/11/17
Channel: AUTUNI
Tenisia teaching Tongan language comparatively : lesson 1.2  The alphabet A E F H
Tenisia teaching Tongan language comparatively : lesson 1.2 The alphabet A E F H
Published: 2014/01/04
Channel: deTonga
LEARN TONGAN | LESSON 05
LEARN TONGAN | LESSON 05
Published: 2017/01/03
Channel: Andrew Joakim
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Tongan
lea faka-Tonga
Native to Tonga;
significant immigrant community in New Zealand and the United States
Native speakers
96,000 in Tonga (1998)[1]
73,000 elsewhere (no date), primarily in NZ, US, and Australia[2]
Latin-based
Official status
Official language in
 Tonga
Language codes
ISO 639-1 to
ISO 639-2 ton
ISO 639-3 ton
Glottolog tong1325[3]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Tongan /╦łt╔ĺ┼ő╔Ön/[4] (lea fakatonga) is an Austronesian language of the Polynesian branch spoken in Tonga. It has around 200,000 speakers[5][not in citation given] and is a national language of Tonga. It is a VSO (verbÔÇôsubjectÔÇôobject) language.

Related languages[edit]

Tongan is one of the multiple languages in the Polynesian branch of the Austronesian languages, along with Hawaiian, Maori, Samoan and Tahitian, for example. Together with Niuean, it forms the Tongic subgroup of Polynesian.

Tongan is unusual among Polynesian languages in that it has a so-called definitive accent. As with all Polynesian languages, Tongan has adapted the phonological system of proto-Polynesian.

  1. Tongan has retained the original proto-Polynesian *h, but has merged it with the original *s as /h/. (The /s/ found in modern Tongan derives from *t before high front vowels). Most Polynesian languages have lost the original proto-Polynesian glottal stop /q/; however, it has been retained in Tongan and a few other languages including Rapa Nui.[6]
  2. In proto-Polynesian, *r and *l were distinct phonemes, but in most Polynesian languages they have merged, represented orthographically as r in most East Polynesian languages, and as l in most West Polynesian languages. However, the distinction can be reconstructed because Tongan kept the *l but lost the *r.[7]
Polynesian sound correspondences
Phoneme Proto-Polynesian Tongan Niuean S─ümoan Rapa Nui Tahitian M─üori Cook Is. M─üori Hawaiian English
/┼ő/ *ta┼őata tangata tangata tagata tangata ta╩╗ata tangata tangata kanaka person
/s/ *sina hina hina sina hina hinahina hina ╩╗ina hina grey-haired
/h/ *kanahe kanahe kanahe ╩╗anae ╩╗anae kanae kanae ╩╗anae mullet (fish)
/ti/ *tiale siale tiale tiale tiare tiare t─źare tiare kiele gardenia
/k/ *waka vaka vaka va╩╗a vaka va╩╗a waka vaka wa╩╗a canoe
/f/ *fafine fefine fifine fafine vahine vahine wahine va╩╗ine wahine woman
/ʔ/ *matuqa[8] matuʻa matua matua matuʻa metua matua metua, matua makua parent
/r/ *rua ua ua lua rua rua[9] rua rua 'elua two
/l/ *tolu tolu tolu tolu toru toru toru toru 'ekolu three

Tongan alphabet[edit]

Tongan is written in a subset of the Latin script. In the old, "missionary" alphabet, the order of the letters was modified: the vowels were put first and then followed by the consonants: a, e, i, o, u, f, etc. This was still so as of the Privy Council decision of 1943 on the orthography of the Tongan language. However, C.M. Churchward's grammar and dictionary favoured the standard European alphabetical order, and since his time that one has been in use exclusively:

Tongan alphabet
Letter a e f h i k l m n ng o p s t u v ╩╗ (fakau╩╗a)
Pronunciation /a/ /e/ /f/ /h/ /i/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /┼ő/1 /o/ /p/2 /s/3 /t/ /u/ /v/ /╩ö/4

Notes:

  1. written as g but still pronounced as [┼ő] (as in Samoan) before 1943
  2. unaspirated; written as b before 1943
  3. sometimes written as j before 1943 (see below)
  4. the glottal stop. It should be written with the modifier letter turned comma (Unicode 0x02BB) and not with the single quote open or with a mixture of quotes open and quotes close. See also ╩╗okina.

Note that the above order is strictly followed in proper dictionaries. Therefore, ngatu follows nusi, ╩╗a follows vunga and it also follows z if foreign words occur. Words with long vowels come directly after those with short vowels. Improper wordlists may or may not follow these rules. (For example, the Tonga telephone directory for years now ignores all rules.[citation needed])

The original j, used for /tʃ/, disappeared in the beginning of the 20th century, merging with /s/. By 1943, j was no longer used. Consequently, many words written with s in Tongan are cognate to those with t in other Polynesian languages. For example, Masisi (a star name) in Tongan is cognate with Matiti in Tokelauan; siale (Gardenia taitensis) in Tongan and tiare in Tahitian. This seems to be a natural development, as /tʃ/ in many Polynesian languages derived from Proto-Polynesian /ti/.

Syllabification[edit]

  • Each syllable has exactly one vowel. The number of syllables in a word is exactly equal to the number of vowels it has.
  • Long vowels, indicated with a toloi (macron), count as one, but may in some circumstances be split up in two short ones, in which case, they are both written. Toloi are supposed to be written where needed, in practice this may be seldom done.
  • Each syllable may have no more than one consonant.
  • Consonant combinations are not permitted. The ng is not a consonant combination, since it represents a single sound. As such it can never be split, the proper hyphenation of fakatonga (Tongan) therefore is fa-ka-to-nga.
  • Each syllable must end in a vowel. All vowels are pronounced, but an i at the end of an utterance is usually unvoiced.
  • The fakau╩╗a is a consonant. It must be followed (and, except at the beginning of a word, preceded) by a vowel. Unlike the glottal stops in many other Polynesian languages texts, the fakau╩╗a is always written. (Only sometimes before 1943.)
  • Stress normally falls on the next to last syllable of a word with two or more syllables; example: m├│he (sleep), moh├ęnga (bed). If, however, the last vowel is long, it takes the stress; example: kum─ü (mouse) (stress on the long ─ü). The stress also shifts to the last vowel if the next word is an enclitic; example: f├íle (house), fal├ę ni (this house). Finally the stress can shift to the last syllable, including an enclitic, in case of the definitive accent; example: moheng├í ((that) particular bed), fale n├ş (this particular house). It is also here that a long vowel can be split into two short ones; example: p┼Ź (night), po├│ ni (this night), p┼Ź n├ş (this particular night). Or the opposite: ma├íma (light), m─üm├í ni (this light), maama n├ş (this particular light). Of course, there are some exceptions to the above general rules. The stress accent is normally not written, except where it is to indicate the definitive accent or fakamamafa. But here, too, people often neglect to write it, only using it when the proper stress cannot be easily derived from the context.

Although the acute accent has been available on most personal computers from their early days onwards, when Tongan newspapers started to use computers around 1990 to produce their papers, they were unable to find, or failed to enter, the proper keystrokes, and it grew into a habit to put the accent after the vowel instead of on it: not á but a´. But as this distance seemed to be too big, a demand arose for Tongan fonts where the acute accent was shifted to the right, a position halfway in between the two extremes above. Most papers still follow this practice.

Articles[edit]

English, like most European languages, uses only two articles:

  • indefinite a
  • definite the

By contrast, Tongan has three articles, and possessives also have a three-level definiteness distinction:

  • indefinite ha. Example: ko ha p─ülangi ('a white person', or any other person from somewhere other than Tonga)
  • semi-definite (h)e. Example: ko e p─ülangi ('the white person' in the sense that the person does not belong to some other race, but still rather 'a white person' if there are several of them)
  • definite (h)e with the shifted ultimate stress. Example: ko e p─ülang├ş ('the white person', that particular person there and no one else).

Registers[edit]

There are three registers which consist of

  • ordinary words (the normal language)
  • honorific words (the language for the chiefs)
  • regal words (the language for the king)

There are also further distinctions between

  • polite words (used for more formal contexts)
  • derogatory words (used for informal contexts, or to indicate humility)

For example, the phrase "Come and eat!" translates to:

  • ordinary: ha╩╗u 'o kai (come and eat!); Friends, family members and so forth may say this to each other when invited for dinner.
  • honorific: me╩╗a mai pea ╩╗ilo (come and eat!); The proper used towards chiefs, particularly the nobles, but it may also be used by an employee towards his boss, or in other similar situations. When talking about chiefs, however, it is always used, even if they are not actually present, but in other situations only on formal occasions. A complication to the beginning student of Tongan is that such words very often also have an alternative meaning in the ordinary register: me╩╗a (thing) and ╩╗ilo (know, find).
  • regal: h─ü╩╗ele mai pea taumafa (come and eat!); Used towards the king or God. The same considerations as for the honorific register apply. H─ü╩╗ele is one of the regal words which have become the normal word in other Polynesian languages.

Pronouns[edit]

The Tongan language distinguishes 3 numbers: singular, dual, and plural. They appear as the 3 major columns in the tables below.

The Tongan language distinguishes 4 persons: First person exclusive, first person inclusive, second person and third person. They appear as the 4 major rows in the tables below. This gives us 12 main groups.

Subjective and objective[edit]

In addition, possessive pronouns are either alienable (reddish) or inalienable (greenish), which Churchward termed subjective and objective. This marks a distinction that has been referred to, in some analyses of other Polynesian languages, as a-possession versus o-possession, respectively,[10] though more Tongan-appropriate version would be e-possession and ho-possession.

Subjective and objective are fitting labels when dealing with verbs: 'eku taki "my leading" vs. hoku taki "my being led". However, this is less apt when used on nouns. Indeed, in most contexts hoku taki would be interpreted as "my leader", as a noun rather than a verb. What then of nouns that have no real verb interpretation, such as fale "house"?

Churchward himself laid out the distinction thus:[11]

But what about those innumerable cases in which the possessive can hardly be said to correspond either to the subject or to the object of a verb? What, for example, is the rule or the guiding principle, which lies behind the fact that a Tongan says 'eku pa'anga for ' my money' but hoku fale for 'my house'? It may be stated as follows: the use of eku for 'my' implies that I am active, influential, or formative, &c., towards the thing mentioned, whereas the use of hoku for 'my' implies that the thing mentioned is active, influential, or formative, &c., towards me. Or, provided that we give a sufficiently wide meaning to the word 'impress', we may say, perhaps, that 'eku is used in reference to things upon which I impress myself, while hoku is used in reference to things which impress themselves upon me.

'E possessives are generally used for:

  • Goods, money, tools, utensils, instruments, weapons, vehicles, and other possessions which the subject owns or uses ('eku pa'anga, "my money")
  • Animals or birds which the subjects owns or uses ('eku fanga puaka, "my pigs")
  • Things which the subject eats, drinks, or smokes ('eku me'akai, "my food")
  • Things which the subject originates, makes, mends, carries, or otherwise deals with ('eku kavenga, "my burden")
  • Persons in the subject's employ, under their control, or in their care ('eku tamaio'eiki "my male servant")

Ho possessives are generally used for

  • Things which are a part of the subject or 'unalienable' from the subject, such as body parts (hoku sino, "my body")
  • Persons or things which represent the subject (hoku hingoa, "my name")
  • The subject's relatives, friends, associates, or enemies (hoku hoa, "my companion (spouse)")
  • Things which are provided for the subject or devolve to them or fall to their lot (hoku tofi'a, "my inheritance")
  • In general, persons or things which surround, support, or control the subject, or on which the subject depends (hoku kolo, "my village/town")

There are plenty of exceptions which do not fall under the guidelines above, for instance, 'eku tamai, "my father". The number of exceptions is large enough to make the alienable and inalienable distinction appear on the surface to be as arbitrary as the grammatical gender distinction for Romance languages, but by and large the above guidelines hold true.

Cardinal pronouns[edit]

The cardinal pronouns are the main personal pronouns which in Tongan can either be preposed (before the verb, light colour) or postposed (after the verb, dark colour). The first are the normal alienable possessive pronouns, the latter the stressed alienable pronouns, which are sometimes uses as reflexive pronouns, or with kia te in front the inalienable possessive forms. (There is no possession involved in the cardinal pronouns and therefore no alienable or inalienable forms).

Cardinal pronouns
Position Singular Dual Plural
1st person exclusive
(I, we, us)
preposed u, ou, ku ma mau
postposed au kimaua kimautolu
inclusive
(one, we, us)
preposed te ta tau
postposed kita kitaua kitautolu
2nd person preposed ke mo mou
postposed koe kimoua kimoutolu
3rd person preposed ne na nau
postposed ia kinaua kinautolu

Remember:

  • all the preposed pronouns of one syllable only (ku, u, ma, te, ta, ke, mo, ne, na) are enclitics which never can take the stress, but put it on the vowel in front of them. Example: ╩╗oku na├║ versus ╩╗ok├║ na (not: ╩╗oku n├í).
  • first person singular, I uses u after kuo, te, ne, and also ka (becomes kau), pea, mo and ╩╗o; but uses ou after ╩╗oku; and uses ku after na╩╗a.
  • first person inclusive (I and you) is of course somewhat a misnomer, at least in the singular. The meanings of te and kita can often rendered as one, that is the modesty I.

Examples of use.

  • Na╩╗a ku fehu╩╗i: I asked
  • Na╩╗e fehu╩╗i (╩╗e) au: I(!) asked (stressed)
  • ╩╗Oku ou fehu╩╗i au: I ask myself
  • Te u fehu╩╗i kiate koe: I shall ask you
  • Te ke tali kiate au: You will answer me
  • Kapau te te fehu╩╗i: If one would ask
  • Tau ┼Ź ki he hulohula?: Are we (all) going to the ball?
  • Sinitalela, mau ┼Ź ki he hulohula: Cinderella, we go to the ball (... said the evil stepmother, and she went with two of her daughters, but not Cinderella)

Another archaic aspect of Tongan is the retention of preposed pronouns.[citation needed] They are used much less frequently in S─ümoan and have completely disappeared in East Polynesian languages, where the pronouns are cognate with the Tongan postposed form minus ki-. (We love you: ╩╗Oku ╩╗ofa kimautolu kia te kimoutolu; M─üori: e aroha nei m─ütou i a koutou).

Possessive pronouns[edit]

The possessives for every person and number (1st person plural, 3rd person dual, etc.) can be further divided into normal or ordinary (light colour), emotional (medium colour) and emphatic (bright colour) forms. The latter is rarely used, but the two former are common and further subdivided in definite (saturated colour) and indefinite (greyish colour) forms.

Possessive
pronouns
definite
or not
type singular dual plural
alienable2,5 inalienable2,5 alienable2,5 inalienable2,5 alienable2,5 inalienable2,5
1st person
(exclusive)
(my, our)
definite ordinary he╩╗eku1 hoku he╩╗ema1 homa he╩╗emau1 homau
indefinite ha╩╗aku haku ha╩╗ama hama ha╩╗amau hamau
definite emotional si╩╗eku si╩╗oku si╩╗ema si╩╗oma si╩╗emau si╩╗omau
indefinite si╩╗aku si╩╗aku si╩╗ama si╩╗ama si╩╗amau si╩╗amau
emphatic3 ha╩╗aku ho╩╗oku ha╩╗amaua ho╩╗omaua ha╩╗amautolu ho╩╗omautolu
1st person
(inclusive)4
(my, our)
definite ordinary he╩╗ete1 hoto he╩╗eta1 hota he╩╗etau1 hotau
indefinite ha╩╗ate hato ha╩╗ata hata ha╩╗atau hatau
definite emotional si╩╗ete si╩╗oto si╩╗eta si╩╗ota si╩╗etau si╩╗otau
indefinite si╩╗ate si╩╗ato si╩╗ata si╩╗ata si╩╗atau si╩╗atau
emphatic3 ha╩╗ata ho╩╗ota ha╩╗ataua ho╩╗otaua ha╩╗atautolu ho╩╗otautolu
2nd person
(your)
definite ordinary ho╩╗o ho ho╩╗omo homo ho╩╗omou homou
indefinite ha╩╗o hao ha╩╗amo hamo ha╩╗amou hamou
definite emotional si╩╗o si╩╗o si╩╗omo si╩╗omo si╩╗omou si╩╗omou
indefinite si╩╗ao si╩╗ao si╩╗amo si╩╗amo si╩╗amou si╩╗amou
emphatic3 ha╩╗au ho╩╗ou ha╩╗amoua ho╩╗omoua ha╩╗amoutolu ho╩╗omoutolu
3rd person
(his, her, its, their)
definite ordinary he╩╗ene1 hono he╩╗ena1 hona he╩╗enau1 honau
indefinite ha╩╗ane hano ha╩╗ana hana ha╩╗anau hanau
definite emotional si╩╗ene si╩╗ono si╩╗ena si╩╗ona si╩╗enau si╩╗onau
indefinite si╩╗ane si╩╗ano si╩╗ana si╩╗ana si╩╗anau si╩╗anau
emphatic3 ha╩╗ana ho╩╗ona ha╩╗anaua ho╩╗onaua ha╩╗anautolu ho╩╗onautolu

Notes:

  1. the ordinary definite possessives starting with he (in italics) drop this prefix after any word except ╩╗i, ki, mei, ╩╗e. Example: ko ╩╗eku tohi, my book; ╩╗i he╩╗eku tohi, in my book.
  2. all ordinary alienable possessive forms contain a fakau╩╗a, the inalienable forms do not.
  3. the emphatic forms are not often used, but if they are, they take the definitive accent from the following words (see below)
  4. first person inclusive (me and you) is of course somewhat a misnomer. The meanings of he╩╗ete, hoto, etc. can often rendered as one's, that is the modesty me.
  5. the choice between an alienable or inalienable possessive is determined by the word or phrase it refers to. For example: ko ho fale '(it is) your house' (inalienable), ko ho'o tohi, '(it is) your book' (alienable). *Ko ho tohi, ko ho╩╗o fale* are wrong. Some words can take either, but with a difference in meaning: ko ╩╗ene taki 'his/her leadership'; ko hono taki 'his/her leader'.

Examples of use.

  • ko ha╩╗aku/haku kahoa: my garland (any garland from or for me)
  • ko ╩╗eku/hoku kahoa: my garland (it is my garland)
  • ko ╩╗eku/hoku kaho├í: my garland, that particular one and no other
  • ko he╩╗ete/hoto kahoa: one's garland {mine in fact, but that is not important}
  • ko si╩╗aku kahoa: my cherished garland (any cherished garland from or for me)
  • ko si╩╗eku/si╩╗oku kahoa: my cherished garland (it is my cherished garland)
  • ko ha╩╗ak├║/ho╩╗ok├║ kahoa: garland (emphatically mine) ÔÇô that particular garland is mine and not someone else's
  • ko homa kahoa: our garlands (exclusive: you and I are wearing them, but not the person we are talking to)
  • ko hota kahoa: our garlands (inclusive: you and I are wearing them, and I am talking to you)

Other pronouns[edit]

These are the remainders: the pronominal adjectives (mine), indirect object pronouns or pronominal adverbs (for me) and the adverbial possessives (as me).

other
pronouns
type singular1 dual plural
alienable inalienable alienable inalienable alienable inalienable
1st person
(exclusive)
(my, our)
pronominal adjective ╩╗a╩╗aku ╩╗o╩╗oku ╩╗amaua ╩╗omaua ╩╗amautolu ╩╗omautolu
pronominal adverb ma╩╗aku mo╩╗oku ma╩╗amaua mo╩╗omaua ma╩╗amautolu mo╩╗omautolu
adverbial possessive ma╩╗aku mo╩╗oku ma╩╗ama mo╩╗oma ma╩╗amau mo╩╗omau
1st person
(inclusive)
(my, our)
pronominal adjective ╩╗a╩╗ata ╩╗o╩╗ota ╩╗ataua ╩╗otaua ╩╗atautolu ╩╗otautolu
pronominal adverb ma╩╗ata mo╩╗ota ma╩╗ataua mo╩╗otaua ma╩╗atautolu mo╩╗otautolu
adverbial possessive ma╩╗ate mo╩╗oto ma╩╗ata mo╩╗ota ma╩╗atau mo╩╗otau
2nd person
(your)
pronominal adjective ╩╗a╩╗au ╩╗o╩╗ou ╩╗amoua ╩╗omoua ╩╗amoutolu ╩╗omoutolu
pronominal adverb ma╩╗au mo╩╗ou ma╩╗amoua mo╩╗omoua ma╩╗amoutolu mo╩╗omoutolu
adverbial possessive ma╩╗o mo╩╗o ma╩╗amo mo╩╗omo ma╩╗amou mo╩╗omou
3rd person
(his, her, its, their)
pronominal adjective ╩╗a╩╗ana ╩╗o╩╗ona ╩╗anaua ╩╗onaua ╩╗anautolu ╩╗onautolu
pronominal adverb ma╩╗ana mo╩╗ona ma╩╗anaua mo╩╗onaua ma╩╗anautolu mo╩╗onautolu
adverbial possessive ma╩╗ane mo╩╗ono ma╩╗ana mo╩╗ona ma╩╗anau mo╩╗onau

Notes:

  1. the first syllable in all singular pronominal adjectives (in italics) is reduplicated and can be dropped for somewhat less emphasis
  • the pronominal adjectives put a stronger emphasis on the possessor than the possessive pronouns do
  • the use of the adverbial possessives is rare

Examples of use:

  • ko hono val├í: it is his/her/its clothing/dress
  • ko e vala ╩╗ona: it is his/her/its (!) clothing/dress
  • ko e vala ╩╗o╩╗ona: it is his/her/its (!!!) clothing/dress
  • ko hono val├í ╩╗ona: it is his/her/its own clothing/dress
  • ko hono vala ╩╗on├í: it is his/her/its own clothing/dress; same as previous
  • ko hono vala ╩╗o╩╗on├í: it is his/her/its very own clothing/dress
  • ╩╗oku ╩╗o╩╗ona ╩╗a e val├í ni: this cloting is his/hers/its
  • ╩╗oku mo╩╗ona ╩╗a e val├í: the clothing is for him/her/it
  • ╩╗oange ia mo╩╗ono val├í: give it (to him/her/it) as his/hers/its clothing

Counting[edit]

0-9
0 noa
1 taha 2 ua 3 tolu
4 f─ü 5 nima 6 ono
7 fitu 8 valu 9 hiva

For 'simple' two-digit multiples of ten both the 'full-style' and 'telephone-style' numbers are in equally common use, while for other two-digit numbers the 'telephone-style' numbers are almost exclusively in use:

10-90 'tens'
# 'full-style' 'telephone-style'
10 hongofulu taha-noa
20 ungofulu/uofulu ua-noa
30 tolungofulu tolu-noa
...
11-99
# 'full-style' 'telephone-style'
11 hongofulu ma taha taha-taha
24 ungofulu ma f─ü ua-f─ü
...
exceptions
# Tongan
22 uo-ua
55 nime-nima
99 hive-hiva
100-999 'simple'
# Tongan
100 teau
101 teau taha
110 teau hongofulu
120 teau-ua-noa
200 uongeau
300 tolungeau
...
100-999 'complex'
# Tongan
111 taha-taha-taha
222 uo-uo-ua
482 f─ü-valu-ua
...
1000-
# Tongan
1000 taha-afe
2000 ua-afe
...
10000 mano
100000 kilu
1000000 miliona
...

╩╗Oku fiha ia? (how much (does it cost)?) Pa╩╗anga ╩╗e ua-nima-noa (T$2.50)

In addition there are special, traditional counting systems for fish, coconuts, yams, etc.[12]

Literature[edit]

Tongan is primarily a spoken, rather than written, language. The Bible and the Book of Mormon were translated into Tongan and few other books were written in it.[citation needed]

There are several weekly and monthly magazines in Tongan, but there are no daily newspapers.

Weekly newspapers, some of them twice per week:

  • Ko e Kalonikali ╩╗o Tonga
  • Ko e Kele╩╗a
  • Taimi ╩╗o Tonga
  • Talaki
  • Ko e Tau╩╗at─üina

Monthly or two-monthly papers, mostly church publications:

Calendar[edit]

The Tongan calendar was based on the phases of the moon and had 13 months. The main purpose of the calendar, for Tongans, was to determine the time for the planting and cultivation of yams, which were Tonga's most important staple food.

Name Compared to Modern Calendar
Lihamu'a mid-November to early December
Lihamui mid-December to early January
Vaimu'a mid-January to early February
Vaimui mid-February to early March
Fakaafu Mo'ui mid-March to early April
Fakaaafu Mate mid-April to early May
Hilingakelekele mid-May to early June
Hilingamea'a mid-June to early July
'Ao'aokimasisiva mid-July to early August
Fu'ufu'unekinanga mid-August to early September
'Uluenga mid-September to early October
Tanumanga early October to late October
'O'oamofanongo late October to early November.

[14]

Day Tongan Term
Monday M┼Źnite
Tuesday T┼źsite
Wednesday Pulelulu
Thursday Tu'apulelulu
Friday Falaite
Saturday Tokonaki
Sunday S─üpate
Month Transliteration
January Sanuali
February Fepueli
March Ma'asi
April 'Epeleli
May M─ô
June Siune
July Siulai
August 'Aokosi
September Sepitema
October 'Okatopa
November N┼Źvema
December T─źsema

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Tongan at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Tongan language at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  3. ^ Hammarstr├Âm, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tonga (Tonga Islands)". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  4. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics StudentÔÇÖs Handbook, Edinburgh
  5. ^ "Kingdom of Tonga country brief". Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 2010-09-24. 
  6. ^ The glottal stop in most other Polynesian languages are the reflexes of other consonants of proto-Polynesian; for example, the glottal stop of Samoan and Hawaiian is a reflex of the original *k; the glottal stop of Cook Islands M─üori represents a merger of the original *f and *s. Tongan does not show changes such as the *t to /k/ and *┼ő to /n/ of Hawaiian; nor has Tongan shifted *f to /h/. Although Tongan, Samoan and other Western Polynesian languages are not affected by a change in Central Eastern Polynesian languages (such as New Zealand M─üori) involving the dissimilation of /faf/ to /wah/, Tongan has vowel changes (as seen in monumanu from original manumanu) which are not a feature of other languages.
  7. ^ This loss may be quite recent. The word "lua", meaning "two", is still found in some placenames and archaic texts. "Marama" (light) thus became "maama", and the two successive "a"s are still pronounced separately, not yet contracted to "m─üma". On the other hand "toro" (sugarcane) already has become "t┼Ź" (still "tolo" in S─ümoan).
  8. ^ Glottal stop is represented as 'q' in reconstructed Proto-Polynesian words.
  9. ^ Archaic: the usual word in today's Tahitian is 'piti'.
  10. ^ These a and o refer to the characteristic vowel used in those pronouns. In Tongan, however, this distinction is much less clear, and rather a characteristic for the indefinite and definite forms respectively. Use of the a & o terms therefore is not favoured.
  11. ^ Churchward, C.M. (1999). Tongan Grammar. Vava'u Press Limited. p. 81. ISBN 982-213-007-4. 
  12. ^ Churchward, C.M. (1999). Tongan Grammar. Vava'u Press Limited. pp. 184ÔÇô189. ISBN 982-213-007-4. 
  13. ^ Online Tongan edition of Liahona, lds.org
  14. ^ [1] Archived October 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license