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Torque Vectoring Differential - Explained
Torque Vectoring Differential - Explained
Published: 2015/02/01
Channel: Engineering Explained
Rimac All Wheel Torque Vectoring
Rimac All Wheel Torque Vectoring
Published: 2016/02/18
Channel: RimacAutomobili
Audi. Torque vectoring
Audi. Torque vectoring
Published: 2012/03/30
Channel: km77.com
Benefits of torque vectoring enabled by Protean Electric in-wheel motors
Benefits of torque vectoring enabled by Protean Electric in-wheel motors
Published: 2017/06/08
Channel: Protean Electric
Mazda
Mazda's New & Unique Torque-Vectoring Technology Demonstrated & Explained
Published: 2016/07/19
Channel: TFLnow
JP Performance - Torque Vectoring | Lexus RC-F
JP Performance - Torque Vectoring | Lexus RC-F
Published: 2017/10/26
Channel: JP Performance
Audi quattro with sports differential
Audi quattro with sports differential
Published: 2010/03/08
Channel: Audi Deutschland
Torque Vectoring Electric Drive Module
Torque Vectoring Electric Drive Module
Published: 2013/11/22
Channel: BorgWarnerCorporate
Nissan JUKE Torque Vectoring
Nissan JUKE Torque Vectoring
Published: 2010/07/21
Channel: reviewcars
2014 Porsche Macan - Porsche Torque Vectoring Plus (PTV Plus)
2014 Porsche Macan - Porsche Torque Vectoring Plus (PTV Plus)
Published: 2013/12/13
Channel: GommeBlog.it: Car & Performance
2017 ACURA NSX - the ONLY true torque vector steering car in the World
2017 ACURA NSX - the ONLY true torque vector steering car in the World
Published: 2016/06/13
Channel: thedriversseat
Opel Insignia Grand Sport | 4x4 with Torque Vectoring | Driving dynamics
Opel Insignia Grand Sport | 4x4 with Torque Vectoring | Driving dynamics
Published: 2017/03/19
Channel: Opel
Torque Vectoring - Controller Design, Tuning, and Testing - MATLAB and Simulink Racing Lounge
Torque Vectoring - Controller Design, Tuning, and Testing - MATLAB and Simulink Racing Lounge
Published: 2015/04/07
Channel: MATLAB
Vehicle Modeling and Simulation: Implementing a Torque-Vectoring Stability Controller
Vehicle Modeling and Simulation: Implementing a Torque-Vectoring Stability Controller
Published: 2014/08/05
Channel: Maplesoft
Ford Focus with Torque Vectoring Control
Ford Focus with Torque Vectoring Control
Published: 2011/04/05
Channel: Ford UK
Ford - Torque Vectoring Control
Ford - Torque Vectoring Control
Published: 2010/12/07
Channel: Ford Europe
ZF vector differential
ZF vector differential
Published: 2010/02/21
Channel: PetrolSmell
torque vectoring
torque vectoring
Published: 2015/10/28
Channel: Can Tho Ford
Nissan Juke 2012 - Torque Vectoring System
Nissan Juke 2012 - Torque Vectoring System
Published: 2011/12/15
Channel: weblogssl
So funktioniert das Torque Vectoring Differential am Lexus GS-F und RC-F
So funktioniert das Torque Vectoring Differential am Lexus GS-F und RC-F
Published: 2015/12/06
Channel: mein-auto-blog.de
HSV GEN-F GTS Torque Vectoring Overview
HSV GEN-F GTS Torque Vectoring Overview
Published: 2013/07/12
Channel: Official HSV
Do you know ,Torque Vectoring ? | QuickTalk
Do you know ,Torque Vectoring ? | QuickTalk
Published: 2016/03/26
Channel: Automobiles Encyclopedia
Torque Vectoring Driving Innovation
Torque Vectoring Driving Innovation
Published: 2012/09/18
Channel: DrivingTelevision
Porsche Boxster S - Porsche Torque Vectoring (PTV)
Porsche Boxster S - Porsche Torque Vectoring (PTV)
Published: 2015/11/02
Channel: Porsche of South Shore
Rimac All Wheel Torque Vectoring development and calibration
Rimac All Wheel Torque Vectoring development and calibration
Published: 2014/08/31
Channel: Evans Electric
Can Torque Vectoring By Braking Stop
Can Torque Vectoring By Braking Stop 'One Tyre Fire'?
Published: 2016/03/09
Channel: Car Throttle Extra
Jaguar F-TYPE | Torque Vectoring
Jaguar F-TYPE | Torque Vectoring
Published: 2017/01/10
Channel: Jaguar
Ricardo Torque Vectoring
Ricardo Torque Vectoring
Published: 2012/07/19
Channel: RicardoGroup
Porche Torque Vectoring
Porche Torque Vectoring
Published: 2016/01/19
Channel: TREMECtv
Mercedes SLS Electric Drive. Can Volts Ever Match Pistons? - /CHRIS HARRIS ON CARS
Mercedes SLS Electric Drive. Can Volts Ever Match Pistons? - /CHRIS HARRIS ON CARS
Published: 2013/04/10
Channel: /DRIVE
NSX Torque Vectoring
NSX Torque Vectoring
Published: 2017/02/22
Channel: George Thomas
Torque Vectoring Control | Ford How-To Video
Torque Vectoring Control | Ford How-To Video
Published: 2013/12/16
Channel: Ford Australia
TORQUE VECTORING IN THE FOCUS ST
TORQUE VECTORING IN THE FOCUS ST
Published: 2016/08/24
Channel: TItus Joseph Drexler
Nissan Juke: Torque Vectoring explained
Nissan Juke: Torque Vectoring explained
Published: 2015/10/14
Channel: The Citizen
heat 3: Torque Vectoring Control
heat 3: Torque Vectoring Control
Published: 2011/04/04
Channel: Ford Nederland
The new 718 Cayman – PTV (Porsche Torque Vectoring)
The new 718 Cayman – PTV (Porsche Torque Vectoring)
Published: 2016/05/13
Channel: Porsche
AWD torque vectoring differential prototype
AWD torque vectoring differential prototype
Published: 2015/07/14
Channel: brickosouch
How does Active Torque Vectoring (ATV) assist for safer driving?
How does Active Torque Vectoring (ATV) assist for safer driving?
Published: 2017/02/20
Channel: Subaru South Africa
2015 Nissan Juke NISMO RS AWD Torque Vectoring Demo
2015 Nissan Juke NISMO RS AWD Torque Vectoring Demo
Published: 2015/07/15
Channel: alex Bruce
Simulink Challenge 2016
Simulink Challenge 2016
Published: 2016/12/07
Channel: KA-RaceIng e.V.
Ford Torque Vectoring Control
Ford Torque Vectoring Control
Published: 2013/07/18
Channel: Yude Canahuati Ford Honduras
Lexus RC F - Torque-Vectoring Differential
Lexus RC F - Torque-Vectoring Differential
Published: 2014/08/27
Channel: Lexus UK
2014 All New Range Rover Sport Prototype Driving Footage Torque Vectoring   YouTube
2014 All New Range Rover Sport Prototype Driving Footage Torque Vectoring YouTube
Published: 2013/11/01
Channel: 2014 CARS HIT
2013 Ford Focus -  Torque Vectoring Control (English)
2013 Ford Focus - Torque Vectoring Control (English)
Published: 2013/02/17
Channel: Ford Middle East
Nissan ALL MODE 4x4 i with Torque Vectoring
Nissan ALL MODE 4x4 i with Torque Vectoring
Published: 2013/01/09
Channel: Automotive Zone
Audi A6 Quattro 48V eRDM Torque Vectoring - 3 laps @ the Aachen test track
Audi A6 Quattro 48V eRDM Torque Vectoring - 3 laps @ the Aachen test track
Published: 2015/10/09
Channel: Martin Hardy
Torque Vectoring E-Axle
Torque Vectoring E-Axle
Published: 2014/01/22
Channel: David Carson
Middletown Nissan - Nissan Juke Torque Vectoring AWD
Middletown Nissan - Nissan Juke Torque Vectoring AWD
Published: 2011/07/01
Channel: MiddletownNissanTV
Porsche 991 (2012) - Porsche Torque Vectoring Plus (PTV Plus) [fulvio.msc]
Porsche 991 (2012) - Porsche Torque Vectoring Plus (PTV Plus) [fulvio.msc]
Published: 2012/02/08
Channel: Fulvio Musicò
Porsche Macan Sport w/Steel Springs & No Torque Vectoring Plus Option
Porsche Macan Sport w/Steel Springs & No Torque Vectoring Plus Option
Published: 2014/07/03
Channel: SlashGear
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Torque vectoring is a technology employed in automobile differentials. A differential transfers engine torque to the wheels. Torque vectoring technology provides the differential with the ability to vary the torque to each wheel. This method of power transfer has recently become popular in all-wheel drive vehicles.[1] Some newer front-wheel drive vehicles also have a basic torque vectoring differential. As technology in the automotive industry improves, more vehicles are equipped with torque vectoring differentials. This allows for the wheels to grip the road for better launch and handling.

History[edit]

The phrase "Torque Vectoring" was first used by Ricardo in 2006 SAE 2006-01-0818 in relation to their driveline technologies. The torque vectoring idea builds on the basic principles of a standard differential. A torque vectoring differential performs basic differential tasks while also transmitting torque independently between wheels. This torque transferring ability improves handling and traction in almost any situation. Torque vectoring differentials were originally used in racing. Mitsubishi rally cars were some of the earliest to use the technology.[2] The technology has slowly developed and is now being implemented in a small variety of production vehicles. The most common use of torque vectoring in automobiles today is in all-wheel drive vehicles.

Functional description[edit]

The idea and implementation of torque vectoring are both complex. The main goal of torque vectoring is to independently vary torque to each wheel. Differentials generally consist of only mechanical components. A torque vectoring differential requires an electronic monitoring system in addition to standard mechanical components. This electronic system tells the differential when and how to vary the torque. Due to the number of wheels that receive power, a front or rear wheel drive differential is less complex than an all-wheel drive differential. The impact of torque distribution is the generation of yaw moment arising from longitudinal forces and changes to the lateral resistance generated by each tyre. Applying more longitudinal force reduces the lateral resistance that can be generated. The specific driving condition dictates what the trade-off should be to either damp or excite yaw acceleration. The function is independent of technology and could be achieved by driveline devices for a conventional powertrain, or with electrical torque sources. Then comes the practical element of integration with brake stability functions for both fun and safety.

Front/Rear Wheel Drive Vectoring[edit]

Torque vectoring differentials on front or rear wheel drive vehicles are less complex, yet share many of the same benefits as all-wheel drive differentials. The differential only varies torque between two wheels. The electronic monitoring system only monitors two wheels, making it less complex. A front-wheel drive differential must take into account several factors. It must monitor rotational and steering angle of the wheels. As these factors vary during driving, different forces are exerted on the wheels. The differential monitors these forces, and adjusts torque accordingly. Many front-wheel drive differentials can increase or decrease torque transmitted to a certain wheel.[3] This ability improves a vehicle’s capability to maintain traction in poor weather conditions. When one wheel begins to slip, the differential can reduce the torque to that wheel, effectively braking the wheel. The differential also increases torque to the opposite wheel, helping balance the power output and keep the vehicle stable. A rear-wheel drive torque vectoring differential works the same way as a front-wheel drive differential.

All-Wheel Drive Vectoring[edit]

Most torque vectoring differentials are on all-wheel drive vehicles. A basic torque vectoring differential varies torque between the front and rear wheels. This means that, under normal driving conditions, the front wheels receive a set percentage of the engine torque, and the rear wheels receive the rest. If needed, the differential can transfer more torque between the front and rear wheels to improve vehicle performance.

For example, a vehicle might have a standard torque distribution of 90% to the front wheels and 10% to the rear. Under harsh conditions, the differential changes the distribution to 50/50. This new distribution spreads the torque more evenly between all four wheels. Having more even torque distribution increases the vehicle’s traction.[4]

There are more advanced torque vectoring differentials as well. These differentials build on basic torque transfer between front and rear wheels. They add the capability to transfer torque between individual wheels. This provides an even more effective method of improving handling characteristics. The differential monitors each wheel independently, and distributes available torque to match current conditions. Acura’s Super Handling All-Wheel Drive (SH-AWD) can transfer power between front and rear and vary the amount of torque transmitted to each rear wheel. The front wheels, however, do not receive different amounts of torque.[5] Audi produced a torque vectoring system capable of varying the torque received by any wheel of the vehicle: quattro with torque vectoring. This allows each wheel to receive independent torque amounts to increase the overall performance of the vehicle.

Torque Vectoring in Electric Vehicles[edit]

In an electric vehicle all-wheel drive can be implemented with two independent electric motors, one for each axle. In this case the torque vectoring between the front and rear axles is just a matter of electronically controlling the power distribution between the two motors, which can be done on a millisecond scale.[6]

Torque vectoring is even more effective if it is actuated through two electric motor drives located on the same axle, as this configuration can be used for shaping the vehicle understeer characteristic and improving the transient response of the vehicle.[7][8] A special transmission unit is used in the experimental car MUTE of the Technical University of Munich, where the bigger motor is providing the driving power and the smaller for the torque vectoring functionality. The detailed control system of the torque vectoring is described in the doctoral thesis of Dr.-Ing. Michael Graf.[9] In case of electric vehicles with four electric motor drives, the same total wheel torque and yaw moment can be generated through an infinite number of wheel torque distributions. Energy efficiency can be used as a criterion for allocating the torques among the individual wheels.[10][11]

In 2012, Mercedes introduced the SLS AMG Electric Drive. Mercedes engineers were able to make the system work with a higher traction torque level on the outer wheels than on the inner wheels during cornering, in order to tighten the turning radius.[12][13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ireson, Nelson (Dec 28, 2010). "The 2012 Ford Focus Gets Torque Vectoring, We're Not Thrilled". motorauthority.com. Retrieved 2 November 2012. 
  2. ^ "Torque Vectoring and Active Differential". Torque-vectoring.belisso.com. 2009-11-22. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  3. ^ "Torque Vectoring" (PDF). www.vehicledynamicsinternational.com. 
  4. ^ "Torque Vectoring: The Hyper-Smart, Fuel-Efficient Future of All-Wheel Drive". Popular Mechanics. 2009-10-01. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  5. ^ "2012 Acura TL | Features | Performance". Acura.com. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  6. ^ Davies, Alex (2014-10-10). "The Model D Is Tesla's Most Powerful Car Ever, Plus Autopilot". Wired.com. Retrieved 2014-10-11. Musk said the added efficiency is thanks to the electronic system that will shift power between the front and rear motors from one millisecond to the next, so each is always operating at its most efficient point. 
  7. ^ De Novellis, L.; Sorniotti, A.; Gruber, P.; Orus, J.; Rodríguez, J.M.; Theunissen, J.; De Smet, J. (2015). "Direct Yaw Moment Control Actuated through Electric Drivetrains and Friction Brakes: Theoretical Design and Experimental Assessment". Mechatronics. 26: 1–15. doi:10.1016/j.mechatronics.2014.12.003. 
  8. ^ Goggia, T., Sorniotti, A., De Novellis, L., Ferrara, A., Gruber, P., Theunissen, J., Steenbeke, D., Knauder, B., Zehetner, J. 'Integral Sliding Mode for the Torque-Vectoring Control of Fully Electric Vehicles: Theoretical Design and Experimental Assessment', IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 2014 (http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6857437&tag=1)
  9. ^ Graf M. 'Methode zur Erstellung und Absicherung einer modellbasierten Sollvorgabe für Fahrdynamikregelsysteme', Technical University of Munich, 2014(https://mediatum.ub.tum.de/doc/1221813/1221813.pdf)
  10. ^ De Novellis, L., Sorniotti, A., Gruber, P. 'Wheel Torque Distribution Criteria for Electric Vehicles With Torque-Vectoring Differentials', IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol.63 (4), pp. 1593-1602, 2013(http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=6656947)
  11. ^ Chen, Y., Wang, J. 'Fast and Global Optimal Energy-Efficient Control Allocation With Applications to Over-Actuated Electric Ground Vehicles', IEEE Transaction on Control Systems Technology, vol.20 (5), pp. 1202-1211, 2012(http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5981409)
  12. ^ "Harris Helps Us Understand Negative Torque with Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG E-Cell Test". carscoops.com. 2013-04-11. Retrieved 2013-09-21. 
  13. ^ "Mercedes SLS Electric Drive (2013) sets new Nürburgring lap record". carmagazine.co.uk. 2013-06-07. Retrieved 2013-09-21. 

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