Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
Game of Zones - S4:E4:
Game of Zones - S4:E4: 'Trade Winds'
Published: 2017/05/11
Channel: Bleacher Report
Favorites Songs from Dave Martin & The Tradewinds
Favorites Songs from Dave Martin & The Tradewinds
Published: 2017/02/17
Channel: Selecta Ricky
Question1: What are trade winds?
Question1: What are trade winds?
Published: 2014/02/13
Channel: Hélène Gaonac'h
Pepper - Tradewinds
Pepper - Tradewinds
Published: 2011/06/01
Channel: starkey39
Trade Winds easily explained
Trade Winds easily explained
Published: 2016/03/27
Channel: FREE STUDY CIRCLE (FSC)
Trade Wind "Radio Songs"
Trade Wind "Radio Songs"
Published: 2016/07/14
Channel: Equal Vision Records
Global Winds
Global Winds
Published: 2012/10/15
Channel: MusselmanScience
New York
New York's A Lonely Town Tradewinds 1965
Published: 2012/11/21
Channel: Gene Tourangeau
TRADE WINDS x264
TRADE WINDS x264
Published: 2015/04/02
Channel: Valencia Olitz
THE TRADEWINDS - Cricket In The Jungle
THE TRADEWINDS - Cricket In The Jungle
Published: 2010/06/16
Channel: Bajanbloom Bloom
Trade winds - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Trade winds - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/02
Channel: Wiz Science™
Roberta Flack - Trade Winds
Roberta Flack - Trade Winds
Published: 2010/11/14
Channel: Pierre Smith
TRADE WINDS - MAXINE AND OCEAN SCENES - PT. 3
TRADE WINDS - MAXINE AND OCEAN SCENES - PT. 3
Published: 2013/06/06
Channel: Valencia Olitz
Rod Stewart - Trade Winds
Rod Stewart - Trade Winds
Published: 2012/06/08
Channel: rodstewartmexico
The Tradewinds- Guyana Medley
The Tradewinds- Guyana Medley
Published: 2008/03/05
Channel: badbwoyconnection
THE TRADEWINDS  - Boyhood Days
THE TRADEWINDS - Boyhood Days
Published: 2010/08/12
Channel: Bajanbloom Bloom
THE TRADEWINDS - Civilization
THE TRADEWINDS - Civilization
Published: 2010/08/12
Channel: Bajanbloom Bloom
TRADE WINDS by Frederick Keel
TRADE WINDS by Frederick Keel
Published: 2012/12/21
Channel: Ro Hancock-Child
Randy Crawford - Trade Winds
Randy Crawford - Trade Winds
Published: 2013/09/06
Channel: Nostalgicjukebox
THE TRADEWINDS  ~  Wong Ping
THE TRADEWINDS ~ Wong Ping
Published: 2010/08/12
Channel: Bajanbloom Bloom
Trade Wind - Dead Leaves (Official Video)
Trade Wind - Dead Leaves (Official Video)
Published: 2015/03/28
Channel: Other People Records
Exercise TRADEWINDS 2017 ~ (Filmed entirely with drones)
Exercise TRADEWINDS 2017 ~ (Filmed entirely with drones)
Published: 2017/07/13
Channel: Alwyn Kirk
1940 HITS ARCHIVE: Trade Winds - Bing Crosby
1940 HITS ARCHIVE: Trade Winds - Bing Crosby
Published: 2015/03/05
Channel: MusicProf78
THE TRADEWINDS - Women In Love
THE TRADEWINDS - Women In Love
Published: 2010/08/12
Channel: Bajanbloom Bloom
Trade Wind "Tatiana (I Miss You So Much)"
Trade Wind "Tatiana (I Miss You So Much)"
Published: 2016/07/14
Channel: Equal Vision Records
Explore TradeWinds Island Grand Resort
Explore TradeWinds Island Grand Resort
Published: 2015/12/16
Channel: TradeWindsResort
Let
Let's play: Tradewinds 2
Published: 2014/05/18
Channel: Papa Boris
Trade Wind "Rare"
Trade Wind "Rare"
Published: 2016/07/14
Channel: Equal Vision Records
Tradewinds Classic - Let
Tradewinds Classic - Let's Play Commentary, simples(1/4)
Published: 2012/03/03
Channel: StarCloud14
Part 1: Tradewinds Quilt with an Indian Batik Jelly Roll
Part 1: Tradewinds Quilt with an Indian Batik Jelly Roll
Published: 2017/02/22
Channel: Jordan Fabrics
Michelle David & The Gospel Sessions - Tradewinds - Live uit Lloyd
Michelle David & The Gospel Sessions - Tradewinds - Live uit Lloyd
Published: 2016/07/17
Channel: rtvrijnmond
TRADE WIND - Untitled (Official Music Video)
TRADE WIND - Untitled (Official Music Video)
Published: 2017/04/27
Channel: End Hits Records
Tradewinds by Palm harbor homes all together
Tradewinds by Palm harbor homes all together
Published: 2016/10/25
Channel: Tony Nitro
TRADE WIND - I Hope I Don
TRADE WIND - I Hope I Don't Wake Up (Official Music Video)
Published: 2016/06/02
Channel: End Hits Records
THE TRADEWINDS - Friendship
THE TRADEWINDS - Friendship
Published: 2010/10/12
Channel: Bajanbloom Bloom
TRADE WIND - Lowest Form (Official Music Video)
TRADE WIND - Lowest Form (Official Music Video)
Published: 2016/06/16
Channel: End Hits Records
Owners
Owners' Panel at the TradeWinds Shipowners Forum, Posidonia 2016
Published: 2016/07/22
Channel: TradeWinds Events
Tradewinds Strip Quilt with Tonga Treats
Tradewinds Strip Quilt with Tonga Treats
Published: 2012/07/10
Channel: Fabric Depot
TradeWinds Cruise Club Vacations
TradeWinds Cruise Club Vacations
Published: 2011/05/04
Channel: RCI Vacations
THE TRADEWINDS - You Can
THE TRADEWINDS - You Can't Get
Published: 2010/06/16
Channel: Bajanbloom Bloom
Tradewinds Resort Room Review  St Petersburg Florida
Tradewinds Resort Room Review St Petersburg Florida
Published: 2015/04/30
Channel: Autisticglobetrotting
Trade Wind "Grey Light"
Trade Wind "Grey Light"
Published: 2016/06/30
Channel: Equal Vision Records
JetLev Water Sport Activity at TradeWinds Island Resorts
JetLev Water Sport Activity at TradeWinds Island Resorts
Published: 2012/03/09
Channel: TradeWindsResort
TradeWinds Island Resorts on St. Pete Beach
TradeWinds Island Resorts on St. Pete Beach
Published: 2017/05/09
Channel: Visit St. Pete Clearwater
2000 National RV Tradewinds 7371 Diesel Pusher Class A , Slide Out, Low Miles, $37,900
2000 National RV Tradewinds 7371 Diesel Pusher Class A , Slide Out, Low Miles, $37,900
Published: 2014/06/27
Channel: Parkwayrvcenter
Trade Wind - "White Pipes" (Official Video)
Trade Wind - "White Pipes" (Official Video)
Published: 2014/05/07
Channel: Other People Records
Trade Wind "Je T
Trade Wind "Je T'aimerais Toujours"
Published: 2016/07/14
Channel: Equal Vision Records
Trade Winds ✧ Lou Rawls
Trade Winds ✧ Lou Rawls
Published: 2016/09/05
Channel: oldskoolmaster2000
Tradewinds square tower A ( A malaysia tallest skyscraper )
Tradewinds square tower A ( A malaysia tallest skyscraper )
Published: 2017/01/01
Channel: V Gaming
Super Furry Animals -Tradewinds
Super Furry Animals -Tradewinds
Published: 2014/07/16
Channel: VimanaRama
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Tradewinds)
Jump to: navigation, search
The westerlies (blue arrows) and trade winds (yellow and brown arrows)

The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator. The trade winds blow predominantly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere, strengthening during the winter and when the Arctic oscillation is in its warm phase. Trade winds have been used by captains of sailing ships to cross the world's oceans for centuries, and enabled European empire expansion into the Americas and trade routes to become established across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

In meteorology, the trade winds act as the steering flow for tropical storms that form over the Atlantic, Pacific, and southern Indian Oceans and make landfall in North America, Southeast Asia, and Madagascar and eastern Africa, respectively. Trade winds also transport African dust westward across the Atlantic Ocean into the Caribbean Sea, as well as portions of southeastern North America. Shallow cumulus clouds are seen within trade wind regimes, and are capped from becoming taller by a trade wind inversion, which is caused by descending air aloft from within the subtropical ridge. The weaker the trade winds become, the more rainfall can be expected in the neighboring landmasses.

History[edit]

A Spanish galleon

The term trade winds originally derives from the early fourteenth century late Middle English word 'trade,' meaning "path" or "track."[1] The Portuguese recognized the importance of the trade winds (then the Volta do mar, meaning in Portuguese "turn of the sea" but also "return from the sea") in navigation in both the north and south Atlantic ocean as early as the 15th century.[2] From West Africa, the Portuguese had to sail away from continental Portugal, that is, to west and northwest. They could then turn northeast, to the area around the Azores islands, and finally east to mainland Europe. They also learned that to reach South Africa, they needed to go far out in the ocean, head for Brazil, and around 30°S go east again. Following the African coast southbound means upwind in the Southern hemisphere. In the Pacific ocean, the full wind circulation, which included both the trade wind easterlies and higher-latitude Westerlies, was unknown to Europeans until Andres de Urdaneta's voyage in 1565.[3]

The captain of a sailing ship seeks a course along which the winds can be expected to blow in the direction of travel.[4] During the Age of Sail, the pattern of prevailing winds made various points of the globe easy or difficult to access, and therefore had a direct impact on European empire-building and thus on modern political geography. For example, Manila galleons could not sail into the wind at all.[3]

By the 18th century the importance of the trade winds to England's merchant fleet for crossing the Atlantic Ocean had led both the general public and etymologists to identify the name with a later meaning of 'trade', "(foreign) commerce".[5] Between 1847 and 1849, Matthew Fontaine Maury collected enough information to create wind and current charts for the world's oceans.[6]

Cause[edit]

3D map showing Hadley cells in relationship to trade winds on the surface.

As part of the Hadley cell circulation, surface air flows toward the equator while the flow aloft is towards the poles. A low-pressure area of calm, light variable winds near the equator is known as the doldrums,[7] near-equatorial trough,[8] intertropical front, or the Intertropical Convergence Zone.[9] When located within a monsoon region, this zone of low pressure and wind convergence is also known as the monsoon trough.[10] Around 30° in both hemispheres, air begins to descend toward the surface in subtropical high-pressure belts known as subtropical ridges. The subsident (sinking) air is relatively dry because as it descends, the temperature increases, but the absolute humidity remains constant, which lowers the relative humidity of the air mass. This warm, dry air is known as a superior air mass and normally resides above a maritime tropical (warm and moist) air mass. An increase of temperature with height is known as a temperature inversion. When it occurs within a trade wind regime, it is known as a trade wind inversion.[11]

The surface air that flows from these subtropical high-pressure belts toward the Equator is deflected toward the west in both hemispheres by the Coriolis effect.[12] These winds blow predominantly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere.[13] Because winds are named for the direction from which the wind is blowing,[14] these winds are called the northeasterly trade winds in the Northern Hemisphere and the southeasterly trade winds in the Southern Hemisphere. The trade winds of both hemispheres meet at the doldrums.[7]

As they blow across tropical regions, air masses heat up over lower latitudes due to more direct sunlight. Those that develop over land (continental) are drier and hotter than those that develop over oceans (maritime), and travel northward on the western periphery of the subtropical ridge.[15] Maritime tropical air masses are sometimes referred to as trade air masses.[16] The one region of the Earth which has an absence of trade winds is the north Indian ocean.[17]

Weather effects[edit]

Clouds which form above regions within trade wind regimes are typically composed of cumulus which extend no more than 4 kilometres (13,000 ft) in height, and are capped from being taller by the trade wind inversion.[18] Trade winds originate more from the direction of the poles (northeast in the Northern Hemisphere, southeast in the Southern Hemisphere) during the cold season, and are stronger in the winter than the summer.[19] As an example, the windy season in the Guianas, which lie at low latitudes in South America, occurs between January and April.[20] When the phase of the Arctic oscillation (AO) is warm, trade winds are stronger within the tropics. The cold phase of the AO leads to weaker trade winds.[21] When the trade winds are weaker, more extensive areas of rain fall upon landmasses within the tropics, such as Central America.[22]

During mid-summer in the Northern Hemisphere (July), the westward-moving trade winds south of the northward-moving subtropical ridge expand northwestward from the Caribbean sea into southeastern North America (Florida and Gulf Coast). When dust from the Sahara moving around the southern periphery of the ridge travels over land, rainfall is suppressed and the sky changes from a blue to a white appearance which leads to an increase in red sunsets. Its presence negatively impacts air quality by adding to the count of airborne particulates.[23] Although the Southeast USA has some of the cleanest air in North America, much of the African dust that reaches the United States affects Florida.[24] Since 1970, dust outbreaks have worsened due to periods of drought in Africa. There is a large variability in the dust transport to the Caribbean and Florida from year to year.[25] Dust events have been linked to a decline in the health of coral reefs across the Caribbean and Florida, primarily since the 1970s.[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Carol G. Braham; Enid Pearsons; Deborah M. Posner; Georgia S. Maas & Richard Goodman (2001). Random House Webster's College Dictionary (second ed.). Random House. p. 1385. ISBN 0-375-42560-8. 
  2. ^ Hermann R. Muelder (2007). Years of This Land - A Geographical History of the United States. Read Books. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-4067-7740-6. Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  3. ^ a b Derek Hayes (2001). Historical atlas of the North Pacific Ocean: maps of discovery and scientific exploration, 1500-2000. Douglas & McIntyre. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-55054-865-5. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  4. ^ Cyrus Cornelius Adams (1904). A text-book of commercial geography. D. Appleton and company. p. 19. Retrieved 2009-11-07. 
  5. ^ Oxford English Dictionary (2 ed.). p. 225. 
  6. ^ Derek Hayes (2001). Historical atlas of the North Pacific Ocean: maps of discovery and scientific exploration, 1500-2000. Douglas & McIntyre. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-55054-865-5. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  7. ^ a b Sverre Petterssen (1941). Introduction to Meteorology. Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-4437-2300-8. Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  8. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (June 2000). "Doldrums". American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  9. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (June 2000). "Intertropical Convergence Zone". American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  10. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (June 2000). "Monsoon Trough". American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  11. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (June 2000). "Superior air". American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  12. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (2009). "trade winds". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2008-09-08. 
  13. ^ Ralph Stockman Tarr and Frank Morton McMurry (1909).Advanced geography. W.W. Shannon, State Printing, pp. 246. Retrieved on 2009-04-15.
  14. ^ JetStream (2008). "How to read weather maps". National Weather Service. Retrieved 2007-05-16. 
  15. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (June 2000). "Tropical air". American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  16. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (June 2000). "Trade air". American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  17. ^ John E. Oliver (2005). Encyclopedia of world climatology. Springer. p. 128. ISBN 978-1-4020-3264-6. Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  18. ^ Bob Rauber (2009-05-22). "Research-The Rain in Cumulus over the Ocean Campaign". Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  19. ^ James P. Terry (2007). Tropical cyclones: climatology and impacts in the South Pacific. Springer. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-387-71542-1. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  20. ^ G. E. Pieter & F. Augustinus. "The influence of the trade winds on the coastal development of the Guianas at various scale levels: a synthesis". Marine Geology. 208 (2-4): 145–151. doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2004.04.007. 
  21. ^ Robert R. Steward (2005). "The Ocean's Influence on North American Drought". Texas A&M University. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  22. ^ John E. Oliver (2005). Encyclopedia of world climatology. Springer. p. 185. ISBN 978-1-4020-3264-6. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  23. ^ Science Daily (1999-07-14). African Dust Called A Major Factor Affecting Southeast U.S. Air Quality. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
  24. ^ Science Daily (2001-06-15). Microbes And The Dust They Ride In On Pose Potential Health Risks. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
  25. ^ Usinfo.state.gov (2003). Study Says African Dust Affects Climate in U.S., Caribbean. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
  26. ^ U. S. Geological Survey (2006). Coral Mortality and African Dust. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license