Play Video
1
Trade Wind - Suffer Just To Believe (Full EP)
Trade Wind - Suffer Just To Believe (Full EP)
::2014/05/27::
Play Video
2
Trade Wind - Fixed Blade (Official Video)
Trade Wind - Fixed Blade (Official Video)
::2014/03/26::
Play Video
3
Trade Wind - "White Pipes" (Official Video)
Trade Wind - "White Pipes" (Official Video)
::2014/05/07::
Play Video
4
Trade Wind - Dead Leaves
Trade Wind - Dead Leaves
::2014/05/27::
Play Video
5
Trade Wind - Pain Is A Gift
Trade Wind - Pain Is A Gift
::2014/05/27::
Play Video
6
TRADE WIND/杉山清貴&オメガトライブ
TRADE WIND/杉山清貴&オメガトライブ
::2014/07/19::
Play Video
7
Rod Stewart - Trade Winds
Rod Stewart - Trade Winds
::2012/06/08::
Play Video
8
54 The Coriolis Force and the Trade Winds - Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis
54 The Coriolis Force and the Trade Winds - Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis
::2012/05/18::
Play Video
9
Trade Wind - Pulling Strings
Trade Wind - Pulling Strings
::2014/05/27::
Play Video
10
F-0692 Video: A Report on the Convair R3Y Tradewind
F-0692 Video: A Report on the Convair R3Y Tradewind
::2013/05/09::
Play Video
11
F-0114 Convair R3Y Tradewind "The Flying Task Force"
F-0114 Convair R3Y Tradewind "The Flying Task Force"
::2011/10/03::
Play Video
12
Windsurf - Trade Wind 1984
Windsurf - Trade Wind 1984
::2013/04/24::
Play Video
13
Convair R3Y Tradewind
Convair R3Y Tradewind
::2008/12/16::
Play Video
14
Trade Wind Gypsies - Cape Town to St Helena
Trade Wind Gypsies - Cape Town to St Helena
::2014/06/14::
Play Video
15
ASC - "Tradewind"
ASC - "Tradewind"
::2010/01/08::
Play Video
16
Randy Crawford - Trade Winds
Randy Crawford - Trade Winds
::2012/10/08::
Play Video
17
Burning Hearts - Trade Winds
Burning Hearts - Trade Winds
::2012/02/14::
Play Video
18
The Trade Winds - Mind Excursion
The Trade Winds - Mind Excursion
::2008/05/02::
Play Video
19
Roberta Flack - Trade Winds
Roberta Flack - Trade Winds
::2010/11/13::
Play Video
20
Trade Wind Gypsies
Trade Wind Gypsies
::2013/11/25::
Play Video
21
The Trade Wind (HD)
The Trade Wind (HD)
::2009/08/29::
Play Video
22
DAVE MARTINS & THE TRADEWINDS - 9 CLASSIC TRACKS
DAVE MARTINS & THE TRADEWINDS - 9 CLASSIC TRACKS
::2012/01/12::
Play Video
23
TRADE WINDS - MAXINE AND OCEAN SCENES - PT. 3
TRADE WINDS - MAXINE AND OCEAN SCENES - PT. 3
::2013/06/06::
Play Video
24
Trade Winds - Lou Rawls
Trade Winds - Lou Rawls
::2012/08/27::
Play Video
25
Tradewind 35 full sail.
Tradewind 35 full sail.
::2012/03/11::
Play Video
26
Question1: What are trade winds?
Question1: What are trade winds?
::2014/02/12::
Play Video
27
Al Hodge (Trade Wind)
Al Hodge (Trade Wind)
::2014/03/05::
Play Video
28
Convair R3Y Tradewind
Convair R3Y Tradewind
::2009/09/20::
Play Video
29
Trade Wind Sailing  Indian Ocean  Cocos Keeling to Mauritius
Trade Wind Sailing Indian Ocean Cocos Keeling to Mauritius
::2010/08/04::
Play Video
30
TRADE WINDS - MAXINE AND OCEAN SCENES - PT.  1
TRADE WINDS - MAXINE AND OCEAN SCENES - PT. 1
::2013/06/06::
Play Video
31
Restoring Trade Wind at Rockport Marine
Restoring Trade Wind at Rockport Marine
::2011/07/07::
Play Video
32
"Tradewind", eden ahbez
"Tradewind", eden ahbez
::2011/10/05::
Play Video
33
F-0796 Convair R3Y Tradewind
F-0796 Convair R3Y Tradewind
::2011/10/31::
Play Video
34
Into The Tradewind by Phil Thornton
Into The Tradewind by Phil Thornton
::2012/12/28::
Play Video
35
Lou Rawls - Trade Winds 1971
Lou Rawls - Trade Winds 1971
::2009/05/24::
Play Video
36
Terumasa Hino - Trade Wind
Terumasa Hino - Trade Wind
::2011/04/09::
Play Video
37
Trade Wind Sailing Twizzle Rig
Trade Wind Sailing Twizzle Rig
::2011/09/28::
Play Video
38
Goodbye Doldrums, Hello Trade Winds
Goodbye Doldrums, Hello Trade Winds
::2014/10/24::
Play Video
39
Why winds explain earth
Why winds explain earth's surface warming slowdown
::2014/02/09::
Play Video
40
Trade Winds @ Busch Gardens Williamsburg
Trade Winds @ Busch Gardens Williamsburg
::2013/07/23::
Play Video
41
Airstream Tradewind 1965 FOR SALE
Airstream Tradewind 1965 FOR SALE
::2010/07/16::
Play Video
42
AIRSTREAM 1976-25ft-Land Yacht-Tradewind-Classic Vintage Caravan-"FOR SALE" FLORIDA
AIRSTREAM 1976-25ft-Land Yacht-Tradewind-Classic Vintage Caravan-"FOR SALE" FLORIDA
::2012/03/03::
Play Video
43
Tradewind - Skylar Marks Original
Tradewind - Skylar Marks Original
::2010/02/16::
Play Video
44
Mark-Almond - Trade Winds
Mark-Almond - Trade Winds
::2012/03/16::
Play Video
45
1972 Airstream Tradewind
1972 Airstream Tradewind
::2013/06/20::
Play Video
46
Global Winds
Global Winds
::2012/10/15::
Play Video
47
Era Special / Trade Wind (Live at 晴れたら空に豆まいて)
Era Special / Trade Wind (Live at 晴れたら空に豆まいて)
::2011/12/04::
Play Video
48
Tradewind 39 SOLD
Tradewind 39 SOLD
::2010/10/07::
Play Video
49
Jimmy Lennon Jr. Talks About Tradewind LIME
Jimmy Lennon Jr. Talks About Tradewind LIME
::2012/03/29::
Play Video
50
Tradewind Dolphins Cape Verde to The Caribbean
Tradewind Dolphins Cape Verde to The Caribbean
::2014/03/26::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Tradewinds)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the weather phenomenon. For other uses, see Tradewind.
The westerlies (blue arrows) and trade winds (yellow and brown arrows)

The trade winds (sometimes called trades) are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator.[1] The trade winds blow predominantly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere, strengthening during the winter and when the Arctic oscillation is in its warm phase. Historically, the trade winds have been used by captains of sailing ships to cross the world's oceans for centuries, and enabled European empire expansion into the Americas and trade routes to become established across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

In meteorology, the trade winds act as the steering flow for tropical storms that form over the Atlantic, Pacific, and southern Indian Oceans and make landfall in North America, Southeast Asia, and Madagascar and eastern Africa, respectively. Trade winds also transport African dust westward across the Atlantic Ocean into the Caribbean Sea, as well as portions of southeastern North America. Shallow cumulus clouds are seen within trade wind regimes, and are capped from becoming taller by a trade wind inversion, which is caused by descending air aloft from within the subtropical ridge. The weaker the trade winds become, the more rainfall can be expected in the neighboring landmasses.

History[edit]

A Spanish galleon

The term trade winds originally derives from the early fourteenth century late Middle English word 'trade' meaning "path" or "track."[2] The Portuguese recognized the importance of the trade winds in navigation in both the north and south Atlantic ocean as early as the 15th century.[3] They learned, in order to reach South Africa, they needed to go far out in the ocean, head for Brazil and around 30°S go east again. Following the African coast southbound means upwind in the Southern hemisphere. In the Pacific ocean, the full wind circulation, which included both the trade wind easterlies and higher-latitude Westerlies, was un-known (to Europeans) until Andres de Urdaneta's voyage in 1565.[4]

The captain of a sailing ship seeks a course along which the winds can be expected to blow in the direction of travel.[5] During the Age of Sail the pattern of prevailing winds made various points of the globe easy or difficult to access, and therefore had a direct impact on European empire-building and thus on modern political geography. For example, Manila galleons could not sail into the wind at all.[4]

By the 18th century the importance of the trade winds to England's merchant fleet for crossing the Atlantic Ocean had led both the general public and etymologists to identify the name with a later meaning of 'trade', "(foreign) commerce".[6] Between 1847 and 1849, Matthew Fontaine Maury collected enough information to create wind and current charts for the world's oceans.[7]

The French word, also a women's name, Alizé or Alizée (French pronunciation: ​[a.li.ze], means trade winds. Examples are: Alizée and Alizé Cornet.

Cause[edit]

3D map showing Hadley cells in relationship to trade winds on the surface.

As part of the Hadley cell circulation, surface air flows toward the equator while the flow aloft is towards the poles. A low-pressure area of calm, light variable winds near the equator is known as the doldrums,[8] equatorial trough,[9] intertropical front, or the Intertropical Convergence Zone.[10] When located within a monsoon region, this zone of low pressure and wind convergence is also known as the monsoon trough.[11] Around 30° in both hemispheres air begins to descend toward the surface in subtropical high-pressure belts known as subtropical ridges. The subsident (sinking) air is relatively dry because, as it descends, the temperature increases but the absolute humidity remains constant, which lowers the relative humidity of the air mass. This warm, dry air is known as a superior air mass and normally resides above a maritime tropical (warm and moist) air mass. An increase of temperature with height is known as a temperature inversion. When it occurs within a trade wind regime, it is known as a trade wind inversion.[12]

The surface air that flows from these subtropical high-pressure belts toward the Equator is deflected toward the west in both hemispheres by the Coriolis effect.[13] These winds blow predominantly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere.[14] Because winds are named for the direction from which the wind is blowing,[15] these winds are called the northeasterly trade winds in the Northern Hemisphere and the southeasterly trade winds in the Southern Hemisphere. The trade winds meet at the doldrums.[8]

As they blow across tropical regions, air masses heat up over lower latitudes due to more direct sunlight. Those that develop over land (continental) are drier and hotter than those that develop over oceans (maritime), and travel northward on the western periphery of the subtropical ridge.[16] Maritime tropical air masses are sometimes referred to as trade air masses.[17] The one region of the Earth which has an absence of trade winds is the north Indian ocean.[18]

Weather effects[edit]

Nā Pali coast, Kauaʻi, showing trade wind cumuli

Clouds which form above regions within trade wind regimes are typically composed of cumulus which extend no more than 4 kilometres (13,000 ft) in height, and are capped from being taller by the trade wind inversion.[19] Trade winds originate more from the direction of the poles (northeast in the Northern Hemisphere, southeast in the Southern Hemisphere) during the cold season, and are stronger in the winter than the summer.[20] As an example, the windy season in the Guianas, which lie at low latitudes in South America, occurs between January and April.[21] When the phase of the Arctic oscillation (AO) is warm, trade winds are stronger within the tropics. The cold phase of the AO leads to weaker trade winds.[22] When the trade winds are weaker, more extensive areas of rain fall upon landmasses within the tropics, such as Central America.[23]

During mid-summer in the Northern Hemisphere (July), the westward-moving trade winds south of the northward-moving subtropical ridge expand northwestward from the Caribbean sea into southeastern North America. When dust from the Sahara moving around the southern periphery of the ridge travels over land, rainfall is suppressed and the sky changes from a blue to a white appearance which leads to an increase in red sunsets. Its presence negatively impacts air quality by adding to the count of airborne particulates.[24] Over 50% of the African dust that reaches the United States affects Florida.[25] Since 1970, dust outbreaks have worsened due to periods of drought in Africa. There is a large variability in the dust transport to the Caribbean and Florida from year to year.[26] Dust events have been linked to a decline in the health of coral reefs across the Caribbean and Florida, primarily since the 1970s.[27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (2010). "trade winds". American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2008-09-08. 
  2. ^ Carol G. Braham, Enid Pearsons, Deborah M. Posner, Georgia S. Maas, and Richard Goodman (2001). Random House Webster's College Dictionary (second ed.). Random House. p. 1385. ISBN 0-375-42560-8. 
  3. ^ Hermann R. Muelder (2007). Years of This Land - A Geographical History of the United States. Read Books. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-4067-7740-6. Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  4. ^ a b Derek Hayes (2001). Historical atlas of the North Pacific Ocean: maps of discovery and scientific exploration, 1500-2000. Douglas & McIntyre. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-55054-865-5. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  5. ^ Cyrus Cornelius Adams (1904). A text-book of commercial geography. D. Appleton and company. p. 19. Retrieved 2009-11-07. 
  6. ^ Oxford English Dictionary (2 ed.). p. 225. 
  7. ^ Derek Hayes (2001). Historical atlas of the North Pacific Ocean: maps of discovery and scientific exploration, 1500-2000. Douglas & McIntyre. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-55054-865-5. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  8. ^ a b Sverre Petterssen (1941). Introduction to Meteorology. Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. p. 110. ISBN 978-1-4437-2300-8. Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  9. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (June 2000). "Doldrums". American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  10. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (June 2000). "Intertropical Convergence Zone". American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  11. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (June 2000). "Monsoon Trough". American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  12. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (June 2000). "Superior air". American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  13. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (2009). "trade winds". Glossary of Meteorology. American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2008-09-08. 
  14. ^ Ralph Stockman Tarr and Frank Morton McMurry (1909).Advanced geography. W.W. Shannon, State Printing, pp. 246. Retrieved on 2009-04-15.
  15. ^ JetStream (2008). "How to read weather maps". National Weather Service. Retrieved 2007-05-16. 
  16. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (June 2000). "Tropical air". American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  17. ^ Glossary of Meteorology (June 2000). "Trade air". American Meteorological Society. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  18. ^ John E. Oliver (2005). Encyclopedia of world climatology. Springer. p. 128. ISBN 978-1-4020-3264-6. Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  19. ^ Bob Rauber (2009-05-22). "Research-The Rain in Cumulus over the Ocean Campaign". Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  20. ^ James P. Terry (2007). Tropical cyclones: climatology and impacts in the South Pacific. Springer. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-387-71542-1. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  21. ^ G. E. Pieter and F. Augustinus. "The influence of the trade winds on the coastal development of the Guianas at various scale levels: a synthesis". Marine Geology 208 (2-4): 145–151. doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2004.04.007. 
  22. ^ Robert R. Steward (2005). "The Ocean's Influence on North American Drought". Texas A&M University. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  23. ^ John E. Oliver (2005). Encyclopedia of world climatology. Springer. p. 185. ISBN 978-1-4020-3264-6. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  24. ^ Science Daily (1999-07-14). African Dust Called A Major Factor Affecting Southeast U.S. Air Quality. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
  25. ^ Science Daily (2001-06-15). Microbes And The Dust They Ride In On Pose Potential Health Risks. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
  26. ^ Usinfo.state.gov (2003). Study Says African Dust Affects Climate in U.S., Caribbean. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
  27. ^ U. S. Geological Survey (2006). Coral Mortality and African Dust. Retrieved on 2007-06-10.
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014