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Transport in Melbourne consists of extensive networks and a wide variety of transport services in the city of Melbourne, Australia, including:
According to the 2006 Census, in terms of travel to work or study Melbourne has the second highest rate of public transport usage among Australian capital cities with 17.7%, however this is a far distant second to Sydney's 26.3% and only just greater than Brisbane's 17.5%. As of 2009, the share of public transport measured in passenger kilometres is around 11%, with private motor vehicle accounting for 89%. Melbourne has more roadspace per capita than any Australian city and its network of freeways is comparable with cities including Los Angeles and Atlanta and the city is also home to much of Australia's Automotive industry (although Holden, Ford and Toyota will pull out at the end of 2017, 2013 and the end of 2017 respectively). In 2002, the state government set an "aspirational goal" as part of Melbourne 2030 for this mode share to decrease to 80%, however the Eddington Report released in 2008 concluded that the mode share of private vehicles is likely to stay the same (or increase) to over 90% in 2005. This is despite booming figures for public transport growth in recent years and despite studies into road congestion in 2008, official VicRoads figures showed no growth in car travel on Melbourne's roads, possibly due to roads reaching full capacity.
Melbourne is served by a public transport system integrating rail, tram and bus services. Its extensive tram network is the largest in the world, integrated into both bus and train networks. Almost 300 bus routes and a train system comprising 16 lines service Melbourne, Greater Melbourne and suburban regions. Metropolitan, rural and interstate railway networks link together at Southern Cross railway station, in Melbourne's CBD.
A Space Syntax Approach Multiple Centrality Analysis of Melbourne's public transport network (excluding buses which were deemed too inefficient) in 2009, found that approximately 8.8% of the greater urban area and approximately 448,000 residents were serviced within 30 minutes of anywhere in the greater Melbourne area. This concluded that only 10–15% of the residents in Melbourne are serviced by appropriate and timely public transport.
The public transport system in Melbourne carries 7% of all trips within the metropolitan area. In early 2009 this figure increased to 9%, with the share measured in passenger kilometres increasing to 11%.
Since World War II, Melbourne urban form changed to a dispersed city, car-oriented pattern which caused a decline in public transport use by commuters. Yet the old pattern of transport still reflected the Melbourne’s urban form. In 1999, operation of the city's public transport system was franchised with Government through a dedicated statutory office, the Director of Public Transport, contracting out operation of rail and tram services. In 2006, franchising was estimated to have cost taxpayers $1.2 billion more than if the system had remained publicly operated. With the franchise extensions in 2009, taxpayers will pay an estimated $2.1 billion more by 2010.
Melbourne has an integrated public transport ticketing system through the contactless ticketing system myki. Myki operates on all of Melbourne's trains (Metro and V/Line), trams and buses it requires commuters to "touch-on" and "touch-off" at every entry and exit point. The rollout for myki began on 29 December 2009, beginning with Melbourne's metropolitan railway network, and progressively onto trams, buses and regional trains (V/Line). Took over from Metcard as the only valid ticketing system on 30 June 2013.
Myki Replaced the older Metcard as the only valid ticketing system on 30 June 2013. The Metcard system that used Magstrip technology and required to be validated, It also allowed use on all Train, Trams and Buses in the metropolitan system and some regional trains and coaches.
A public bike-hire system came into service in mid-2010. Due to laws requiring all bike users to wear helmets, usage on the system has been lower than seen in other cities with similar systems. An attempt by the government has been made to rectify this by having helmet vending machines at some of the major bike stations, allowing spur-of-the-moment travel without risking a fine. The success of this is disputed. Public debate about the helmet laws remains ongoing.
Melbourne transit is unique in the way that the stations are considerably closer to each other than are other similar train services. Melbourne is also unique in the fact that most of the forms of mass transport in the city would actually be considered hybrids if not a class of their own. The tramway is, by definition (excluding station distances), a tramway/light rail hybrid. Similarly, the Melbourne trains are commuter rails/heavy rails hybrids. Passenger trains in Victoria do, however, have regional rail and inter-city rail (non-hybrid).
As of October 2013, smoking tobacco is prohibited in the sheltered areas of train stations, and tram and bus stops—between 2012 and 2013, 2002 people were issued with infringement notices. The state government announced a plan in October 2013 to prohibit smoking on all Victorian railway station platforms and raised tram stops. This plan was implemented on 1 March 2014 prohibiting smoking at all metropolitan public transport infrastructure.
The bus network is run by several bus companies (approximately 50) under a franchise from the State Government. There are approximately 300 routes in operation with a varying range of service frequencies. There 21 Night Bus routes that run every 30 to 60 minutes. Many routes run every hour to connect with trains at suburban stations. SmartBuses are a bus rapid transit service that operates around Melbourne, with routes:
All of the buses in Melbourne use the Myki ticketing system. The Skybus Super Shuttle is a non-Myki based airport bus service. In addition, several local government councils operate free local community bus services within their local areas.
Melbourne has the world's largest tram network, consisting of 245 kilometres of track, nearly 500 trams on 28 routes, and 1,813 tram stops. Two light-rail routes are also a part of the tram network. The tram network is a part of the Public Transport Victoria network and a part of the Myki ticketing system.
The tram network is operated by Keolis Downer trading as Yarra Trams after winning a contract to run the tram network from a company trading under the same name. Trams operate on many of the major roads in the inner suburbs, but only some trams operate on roads in middle and outer suburbs.
Heritage trams operate on the free City Circle route, intended for visitors to Melbourne, and privately run Colonial Tramcar Restaurant trams travel through the city during the evening.
Melbourne's metro train network is operated by Metro Trains Melbourne which took over from Connex Melbourne on 30 November 2009. The rail network consists of 16 railway lines and is a part of the Metro network and a part of the Myki ticketing system. Several sections of lines which are part of the V/Line network and which fall into the metropolitan area are also covered by Myki.
With the exception of the Stony Point line and the greater metropolitan lines served by V/Line, the rest of the suburban railway network is electrified and services are operated by a fleet of 326 EMU trains.
Melbourne is the centre of a statewide railway network, consisting of various lines used for both freight and passenger services.
Intrastate passenger services are operated by V/Line and a fleet of locomotive hauled trains and Diesel Multiple Units. There are seven passenger railway lines connecting Melbourne to various towns and cities in Victoria. Four of these lines were upgraded as part of the Regional Fast Rail project. The centre of the regional passenger railway network is Southern Cross railway station located in the Melbourne CBD.
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Melbourne, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 80 min. 28.% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 14 min, while 20% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 9.8 km, while 26% travel for over 12 km in a single direction. 
|Melbourne metropolitan trips in 2008|
|Trips to Melbourne CBD in 2006[dubious ]|
|Passenger trips by motorised mode||Mode||Million trips|
|Private Car (driver or passenger)||2190|
Melbourne uses an integrated Public Transport system covering all modes of transport (train, bus, tram) that is divided into 2 Zones (excluding the newly introduced free tram zone covering the CBD and some surrounding areas.)
Myki allows for 2 forms of tickets, either Myki-money that allows money to be loaded onto a Myki and let the system select the "best fare" and the Myki-pass where commuters must pre buy tickets (or passes). For regular travels the Pass system can work out cheaper.
|Myki money 2 hour fare|
|2 Hour||Zone 1||Zone 2||Zone 1+2|
|Myki money Daily fare|
|Daily||Zone 1||Zone 2||Zone 1+2|
|Daily||Zone 1||Zone 2||Zone 1+2|
|Myki Daily fare caps|
|Weekend Daily Cap||$6.00|
|Public Holiday Cap||$6.00|
|Seniors Daily cap||$4.10|
|Myki pass 7 day fare|
|2 Hour||Zone 1||Zone 2||Zone 1+2|
|Myki pass 28-365**day fare|
|Daily||Zone 1||Zone 2||Zone 1+2|
The Port of Melbourne is Australia's largest container and general cargo port. Regular shipping lines operate to around 300 cities around the world and 3200 ships visit the port each year. The Port of Melbourne is located in the inner west of Melbourne, near the junction of the Maribyrnong and Yarra rivers.
On 8 February 2008 the Port Phillip Channel Deepening Project, a dredging project to deepen Melbourne's shipping channels, began.
Melbourne also has an extensive network of railway lines and yards to serve freight traffic. The lines are of two gauges – 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm) broad gauge and 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge, and are not electrified. In the inner western suburbs of the city, freight trains have their own lines to operate upon, but in other areas trains are required to share the tracks with Metro Trains Melbourne and V/Line passenger services. The majority of freight terminals are located in the inner suburbs about the Port of Melbourne, located between the Melbourne CBD and Footscray.
Melbourne Airport, located in the north-western suburb of Tullamarine, is the nation's second busiest airport. Over 30 airlines and 22 million international and domestic passengers are served and service there each year. The airport is a hub for passenger airlines Qantas, Jetstar Airways, Tiger Airways Australia and Virgin Australia; and cargo airlines Qantas Freight and Toll Priority.
Melbourne's second major passenger airport, Avalon Airport (Melbourne Avalon), is south-west of Melbourne, and north-east of Geelong. Avalon Airport is primarily used by Jetstar and operates flights to Brisbane, Sydney and Perth. AirAsia X was expected to commence flights from Avalon to Kuala Lumpur in October 2009, providing a low-cost service. This provides Melbourne with a second international airport (albeit notably closer to Geelong), unique among all capital cities in Australia.
Melbourne's first major airport, Essendon Airport, is no longer used for scheduled international flights. Although a small number of regional airline flights operate from there it caters mainly to general aviation. The airport is also home to the state's Air Ambulance service.
Moorabbin Airport is located to the south of Melbourne, and is primarily used for recreational flying and for flying lessons. Moorabbin is also used for a small number of regional airline services, most notably to King Island, Tasmania. Moorabbin is a GAAP airport and its code is YMMB.
Motor vehicles are the predominate travel mode, as a result the freeways and roads in Melbourne are critically congested during peak hours. Many residents are car dependent due to minimal public transport outside of the inner city – the city is one of the most car-dependent cities in the world. The freeway network is the largest of any Australian city, with an extensive grid of arterial roads; the locations of which date back to the initial surveying of the city.
The total urban road area in Melbourne is 21,381 kilometres.
The beginnings of the freeway network was the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan, which included a grid of freeways that would cover the entire metropolitan area. In 1973 these plans were reviewed, with a large number of inner city projects deleted.
Freeways that were built throughout the 1960s and 1970s included the South Eastern Arterial (now part of the Monash Freeway), the Tullamarine Freeway, the Lower Yarra Freeway (now West Gate Freeway) and the Eastern Freeway.
Further expansion occurred over the next thirty years, with the 'missing links' between the existing freeways built – completion of the Monash Freeway, CityLink, and the Western Ring Road. This period also saw further freeway expansion into suburbia with the Mornington Peninsula Freeway, Eastern Freeway extension, and the South Gippsland Freeway being constructed.
2008 saw the construction and opening of the EastLink radial freeway, as well as further extensions of existing freeways.
Despite government figures slowed growth in road travel since 2006 and zero growth in 2008/09 and the government's goal to reduce road use to 80% of all motorised trips, the State government announced a massive road infrastructure investment, continuing to complete some of the road projects from the 1969 Transport plan including Peninsula Link, East West Link and North East Link.
Peninsula Link was completed in 2013.
Around two per cent of all journeys in Melbourne are made by bicycle.
On 31 May 2010 the first public bicycle sharing system in Australia was launched in Melbourne. On completion the system will consist of 50 docking stations with 600 bikes, situated around the Melbourne CBD.
Singaporean bike-share company oBike entered Melbourne mid 2017, and unlike the original system in Melbourne, the oBikes can be parked at will rather than at a docking station  However, they have attracted criticism, complaints on some bikes abandoned (including in the Yarra River and up trees), and large clusters of bicycles cluttering up the footpath and the Melbourne City Council starting to remove some.
Taxis in Melbourne are regulated by the Taxi Services Commission which commenced that role on 1 July 2013 and began operation on 19 July. The inquiry is resulting in major reforms to Victoria's taxi industry and have far reaching impacts on taxi services in Melbourne and beyond. They are required to be painted canary yellow, but since October 2008 those that can operate at peak times, at night and at special events only must have green tops. Taxis operate and charge on a meter. There are 4,660 licensed taxis in Melbourne (including 443 wheelchair-accessible taxis).
Public Transport Victoria oversees two ferry services in Victoria; the Westgate Punt between Spotswood and Fishermans Bend, and the French Island Ferry operating between Stony Point railway station, French Island and Cowes on Phillip Island.
Station Pier in Port Phillip Bay is where cruise ships and ferries dock; the Spirit of Tasmania which crosses Bass Strait to Tasmania docks here. Privately run ferries and cruises also travel from Southbank along the Yarra River and around the bay to Williamstown, and also across Port Phillip Bay.
The prime transport statute in Victoria is the Transport Integration Act. The Act establishes and sets the charters of the state agencies charged with providing transport services and managing the state's transport system. The Department of Transport is the agency responsible for the integration and coordination of Victoria's transport system and decision makers. The other key state agencies are –
A new Victorian Government was elected in late November 2010. There have been a number of significant organisational changes made by the Government through substantial change to the Transport Integration Act.
A key policy of the Government leading into the election was to create a Public Transport Development Authority (PTDA). The Government positioned the VTDA as an agency which is independent and which will coordinate all aspects of public transport in Victoria. The Government indicated that the authority will plan, co-ordinate, manage and administer metropolitan trams, buses and trains, regional trains and buses, replacing the current structure of multiple agencies. The body was established in late 2011 and is expected to be fully operational by mid-2012. Planning for the Melbourne Airport, Rowville and Doncaster rail lines may be overseen by the new transport authority. The PTDA or Public Transport Victoria is now fully operational and has fully taken over the rail, tram and bus responsibilities of the Director of Public Transport and the activities of the Transport Ticketing Authority and MetLink which have each been abolished.
The Government announced a Taxi Industry Inquiry and the establishment of a Taxi Services Commission (TSC) in early 2011. The inquiry was headed by Professor Allan Fels and is well underway. The agency which conducted the inquiry, the TSC, was announced as the successor to the current taxi industry regulator, the Victorian Taxi Directorate (part of the office of the Director of Public Transport which in turn forms part of the Department of Transport). The Government introduced special legislation to empower the inquiry – the Transport Legislation Amendment (Taxi Services Reform and Other Matters) Act 2011 – which was enacted in late June 2011. The TSC was formally established on 19 July 2011 and formally took over as the States's taxi and hire car regulator on 1 July 2013.
The Government reversed the merger of the Port of Melbourne Corporation (PMC) and the Port of Hastings Corporation which occurred in late 2010. Ports Minister, Denis Napthine, devised a new agency, the Port of Hastings Development Authority, oversee the development of the port of Hastings as a competitor in container trade to the PMC. Legislation for this purpose was passed by the Victorian Parliament towards the end of 2011 and the authority commenced operation on 1 January 2012.
The safety of rail operations in Melbourne is regulated by the Rail Safety Act 2006 which applies to all commercial passenger and freight operations as well as tourist and heritage railways. The Act creates a framework containing safety duties for all rail industry participants and requires rail operators who manage infrastructure and rolling stock to obtain accreditation prior to commencing operations. Accredited rail operators are also required to have a safety management system to guide their operations. Sanctions applying to the safety scheme established under the Rail Safety Act are contained in the Transport (Compliance and Miscellaneous) Act 1983.
Safety regulation of the bus and marine sectors is also overseen by the Director, Transport Safety under the Bus Safety Act 2009 and the Marine Act 1988 respectively. These sectors are also subject to a no blame safety investigations regime conducted by the Chief Investigator, Transport Safety.
The safety regulator for the rail, bus and marine systems in Melbourne is the Director, Transport Safety (trading as Transport Safety Victoria). The Director's office is established under the Transport Integration Act 2010.
Rail, bus and marine operators in Victoria can also be the subject of no blame investigations conducted by the Chief Investigator, Transport Safety or the Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB). The Chief Investigator is charged by the Transport Integration Act with conducting investigations into rail, bus and marine safety matters including incidents and trends. ATSB, on the other hand, has jurisdiction over rail matters only where they occur on the Designated Interstate Rail Network, marine matters if the ships are under Commonwealth or AMSA regulation and bus safety matters by invitation of the jurisdiction.
Ticketing requirements for rail, tram and buses services in Victoria are mainly contained in the Transport (Ticketing) Regulations 2006 and the Victorian Fares and Ticketing Manual. Rules about safe and fair behaviour on trains and trams in Victoria are generally contained in the Transport (Compliance and Miscellaneous) Act 1983 and the Transport (Conduct) Regulations 2005. Conduct requirements for buses are set out in the same Act as well as the Transport (Passenger Vehicles) Regulations 2005.
During Melbourne's history, the transport system and infrastructure has been subject to strategic planning at several levels of government.
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