Play Video
1
The 1915 Treaty of London
The 1915 Treaty of London
::2012/08/06::
Play Video
2
"The Mountain War 1915-1918" diorama in 54mm scale
"The Mountain War 1915-1918" diorama in 54mm scale
::2014/03/16::
Play Video
3
Greek Occupation Of Izmir ( Smyrna )  1919-1922
Greek Occupation Of Izmir ( Smyrna ) 1919-1922
::2014/01/17::
Play Video
4
[APH] treaty of London
[APH] treaty of London
::2013/11/10::
Play Video
5
"Daydreams"-1915-Yevgeni Bauer-A fine and beautiful drama silent film-Full movie-Eng Sub-Soundtrack
"Daydreams"-1915-Yevgeni Bauer-A fine and beautiful drama silent film-Full movie-Eng Sub-Soundtrack
::2013/04/11::
Play Video
6
first london naval treaty
first london naval treaty
::2010/03/23::
Play Video
7
Ireland
Ireland's New Viceroy (1915)
::2014/04/13::
Play Video
8
An Conradh - The Treaty 1921 Part One
An Conradh - The Treaty 1921 Part One
::2011/12/12::
Play Video
9
Dissolving The Ottoman Empire - The Treaty of Sèvres
Dissolving The Ottoman Empire - The Treaty of Sèvres
::2014/01/11::
Play Video
10
Japanese Surrender 1915 To 1930 News Radio WWII News August 14, 1945
Japanese Surrender 1915 To 1930 News Radio WWII News August 14, 1945
::2013/07/16::
Play Video
11
Italy during WW1
Italy during WW1
::2012/08/30::
Play Video
12
The Battle of Loos by Bob Chambers
The Battle of Loos by Bob Chambers
::2011/08/25::
Play Video
13
Snapshot - English VII.A - 2013 (HD)
Snapshot - English VII.A - 2013 (HD)
::2013/06/11::
Play Video
14
6/23/1982 Thatcher & Reagan - Alzheimer
6/23/1982 Thatcher & Reagan - Alzheimer's genetic disorder, Lutheran gene on Chromosome 19
::2014/01/05::
Play Video
15
National Geographic - Balkan Wars 1912-1913 2/6
National Geographic - Balkan Wars 1912-1913 2/6
::2013/05/13::
Play Video
16
Britain & Wahhabism
Britain & Wahhabism
::2013/03/25::
Play Video
17
The destruction of the Khalifa, Ummah, jamarat & the Hajj. Dajjal Kingdom & his Obelisks
The destruction of the Khalifa, Ummah, jamarat & the Hajj. Dajjal Kingdom & his Obelisks
::2013/09/19::
Play Video
18
Wilson, Keppel And Betty - From
Wilson, Keppel And Betty - From 'london Clubs And Cabarets - Trocadero Restaurant' (1933)
::2014/04/13::
Play Video
19
History Video - Italy and The Treaty Of Versailles
History Video - Italy and The Treaty Of Versailles
::2012/07/10::
Play Video
20
Genocide 1915 1918
Genocide 1915 1918
::2013/01/25::
Play Video
21
National Geographic - Balkan Wars 1912-1913, 6/6
National Geographic - Balkan Wars 1912-1913, 6/6
::2012/04/18::
Play Video
22
National Geographic - Balkan Wars 1912-1913, 3/6
National Geographic - Balkan Wars 1912-1913, 3/6
::2012/04/18::
Play Video
23
National Geographic - Balkan Wars 1912-1913, 5/6
National Geographic - Balkan Wars 1912-1913, 5/6
::2012/04/18::
Play Video
24
SEE! TODAY IN HISTORY March 26
SEE! TODAY IN HISTORY March 26
::2013/03/26::
Play Video
25
"Some" Republicans attack START treaty
"Some" Republicans attack START treaty
::2010/07/17::
Play Video
26
Thomas Harper Ince: The Invaders (1912)
Thomas Harper Ince: The Invaders (1912)
::2014/02/09::
Play Video
27
Chelmsford Museum 43/55 - Nazi Saar banner  + German Footballer statuette
Chelmsford Museum 43/55 - Nazi Saar banner + German Footballer statuette
::2010/02/07::
Play Video
28
Sgt. W. C.  Pendell - The London Regiment - 1914 - 1918
Sgt. W. C. Pendell - The London Regiment - 1914 - 1918
::2008/11/06::
Play Video
29
[ World War I ] The Last Ottoman Defeat - Ending All Peace In The Middle East
[ World War I ] The Last Ottoman Defeat - Ending All Peace In The Middle East
::2013/12/16::
Play Video
30
Gebietsverluste des Osmanischen Reiches
Gebietsverluste des Osmanischen Reiches
::2012/08/21::
Play Video
31
Хичээнгүй сайд Б.Цэрэндорж 2/2
Хичээнгүй сайд Б.Цэрэндорж 2/2
::2010/02/05::
Play Video
32
Historic Moments(Pictures) Part 2
Historic Moments(Pictures) Part 2
::2009/12/30::
Play Video
33
LE GENOCIDE SIONISTE DES CHRETIENS D
LE GENOCIDE SIONISTE DES CHRETIENS D'ARMENIE Interview par Makow.mp4
::2012/08/13::
Play Video
34
BBC Locomotion Dan Snows History of Railways Episode 1
BBC Locomotion Dan Snows History of Railways Episode 1
::2013/12/04::
Play Video
35
Imperial War Museum ~ World War 1
Imperial War Museum ~ World War 1
::2008/02/17::
Play Video
36
Tommy Drennan O Holy Night
Tommy Drennan O Holy Night
::2012/12/20::
Play Video
37
Amnesty TV - Episode 8
Amnesty TV - Episode 8
::2011/10/28::
Play Video
38
I AM THEATRE: Torange Yeghiazarian
I AM THEATRE: Torange Yeghiazarian
::2011/12/22::
Play Video
39
Time To Remember - The Peace Makers 1919 - Reel 4 (1919)
Time To Remember - The Peace Makers 1919 - Reel 4 (1919)
::2014/04/13::
Play Video
40
Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
::2011/06/29::
Play Video
41
Sir Henry Newbolt "He Fell Among Thieves" Poem animation
Sir Henry Newbolt "He Fell Among Thieves" Poem animation
::2012/08/13::
Play Video
42
world war 1 radio play
world war 1 radio play
::2011/04/01::
Play Video
43
Sinn Fein Rising - Liberty Hall - Part  2 (1916)
Sinn Fein Rising - Liberty Hall - Part 2 (1916)
::2014/04/13::
Play Video
44
(WW1) The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century - Legacy (Part 7 of 7)
(WW1) The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century - Legacy (Part 7 of 7)
::2014/04/06::
Play Video
45
UK to Provide 13,500 Troops to Guard 2012 Olympics
UK to Provide 13,500 Troops to Guard 2012 Olympics
::2011/12/16::
Play Video
46
End of World War One, 1910
End of World War One, 1910's - Film 41904
::2013/06/11::
Play Video
47
5of6 China: The Roots of Madness 1967
5of6 China: The Roots of Madness 1967
::2010/11/20::
Play Video
48
(WW1) The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century - Explosion (Part 1 of 7)
(WW1) The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century - Explosion (Part 1 of 7)
::2014/04/05::
Play Video
49
3of6 China: The Roots of Madness 1967
3of6 China: The Roots of Madness 1967
::2010/11/19::
Play Video
50
(WW1) The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century - Stalemate (Part 2 of 7)
(WW1) The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century - Stalemate (Part 2 of 7)
::2014/04/05::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

London Pact (Italian: Patto di Londra), or more correctly, the Treaty of London, 1915, was a secret pact between the Triple Entente and Italy, signed in London on 26 April 1915 by the United Kingdom, France, Russia, and the Kingdom of Italy.[1] Its intent was to gain the alliance of Italy against its former allies, including Germany.

According to the pact, Italy was to leave the Triple Alliance and join Triple Entente; Italy was to declare war against Germany and Austria-Hungary within a month (this happened against Austria-Hungary within a month, but not until 1916 against Germany). Assuming victory against Germany and its allies, the Triple Entente promised Italy the following territorial gains (see Italia irredenta) at the end of the war:

Tyrol, partitioned in 1918, parts remaining Austrian referred to as Nordtirol and Osttirol, but part of one Federal State of Tirol
Lands offered to Italy, Serbia and Montenegro by the Allies in 1915
  1. Tyrol, up to the Alpine water divide at the Brenner Pass, which includes the modern-day Italian provinces of Trentino and South Tyrol.
  2. The entire Austrian Littoral, including the port of Trieste and the Cres-Lošinj (Cherso-Lussino) archipelago, but without the Hungarian port of Rijeka (Fiume).
  3. Northern Dalmatia, including Zadar (Zara), Šibenik (Sebenico), and most of the Dalmatian islands, except Krk and Rab.
  4. The Dodecanese Islands (held by Italy since 1912)
  5. The port of Vlorë in Albania
  6. A protectorate over Albania ("Italy should be entrusted with the task of representing the State of Albania in its relations with Foreign Powers").
  7. Parts of the German colonies in Asia and Africa[2]
  8. In the event of the partition of Turkey, Italy "ought to obtain a just share of the Mediterranean region adjacent to the province of Adalia"[2]

The Kingdom of Serbia, which was not present nor a signatory, was assigned:

  1. The Dalmatian coast between the Krka and Ston, including the Pelješac peninsula (Sabbioncello), the port of Split, and the island of Brač (Brazza).

The Kingdom of Montenegro, which was not present nor a signatory, was assigned:

  1. The Dalmatian coast between Budva (Budua) and Ston, including Dubrovnik (Ragusa) and Kotor Bay (it. Cattaro), but without the Pelješac peninsula;
  2. The coast south to the Albanian port of Shengjin (San Giovanni di Medua).

Also, but less precisely, Serbia was assigned:

  1. Bosnia and Herzegovina
  2. Srem
  3. Bačka
  4. Slavonia (against Italian objections)
  5. Some unspecified areas of Albania (to be divided among Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece).

Italy insisted, and the Allies agreed, that the question of the Adriatic coast between Zara and Istria should be settled after the war. Italy also insisted that Serbia should not be informed about the agreements. However, the Allies overruled this by sending an official note to Serbia on 4 August 1915, confirming the post-war territorial claims of Serbia and Montenegro.

The pact was to be kept secret, but after the October Revolution in Russia, it was published in November 1917 by the Russian journal Izvestia.

Paris Peace Conference[edit]

After the war, Italy would only negotiate with Serbia and Montenegro. The Italian delegation staged a walk-out for a number of months when faced with the denial of their territorial demands.

The pact was nullified by the Treaty of Versailles. Before 1918, the contents of the Pact of London had been published to the world by the Bolshevik Russian State. The Fourteen Points, as proposed by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson, contained a number of clauses that argued for ethnic or national self-determination and against respecting the provisions of the Treaty of London:

  • Point 1: There should be open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.
  • Point 9: There should be a readjustment of the frontiers of Italy to be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality.
  • Point 11: Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored...
  • Point 12: The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty...

In Wilson's view, the Pact of London had been arrived by secret contract, hence was not valid. Overall Wilson sought to achieve borders being determined by the populations present in the area rather than by outside parties; the pact of London adjudicated to Italy areas that did not have a majority-Italian population. Wilson believed that Slavic claims to some of the disputed regions were more sound than those of Italy.[3]

Italy ultimately was denied other gains promised in the Treaty: a share of German colonies and control of Albania.[2] Italy tried to establish a physical claim in Anatolia (Turkey), but was quickly forced to evacuate. The partition of the Tyrol on the water divide line was confirmed by the Treaty of St. Germain.

Repercussions of the disavowal of the Treaty[edit]

After the war British and French leaders refused to fulfil all the promises in the pact. The irredentist nationalist element of Italy considered this an inexcusable betrayal by these two European allies. The colonial gains by Britain and France from the war further angered the Italians, who felt excluded.

The breakdown of the London Pact helped give rise to a belief in a so-called "mutilated victory" within Italy, which played a role in determining Italian inter-war imperialism. In 1920 Italian nationalists created the Free State of Fiume, although it had not been assigned to Italy in the Treaty of London. This underscored the unstable results of the Treaty of Versailles relative to Italian claims.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Baker, Ray Stannard. Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement, Volume I Doubleday, Page, and Company, 1923. pages 52–55 [1]
  2. ^ a b c http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/london1915.htm
  3. ^ American Society of International Law. Volume 15, Oxford University Press, 1921, p. 253

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014