Tuchola [tuˈxɔla] (German: Tuchel) is a town in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship in northern Poland. The Pomeranian town, which is the seat of Tuchola County, had a population of 13,976 as of 2004.
Tuchola is located about 50 km north of Bydgoszcz, close to the Tuchola Forests. Forest areas to the east and north of the town form the protected area of Tuchola Landscape Park.
Settlement around Tuchola dates to 980, while the town was first mentioned in 1287. The place was one of the strongholds of the count of Nowe Peter Swienca, who owned a fortified domicile in the area. In 1330 Tuchola came into possession of the Teutonic Order. It received Culm law in 1346 from Heinrich Dusemer, the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights.
After the Order's defeat in the Battle of Grunwald, a Polish-Lithuanian army captured the town on November 5, 1410. The Order retained the town in the First Peace of Thorn. At the end of the Thirteen Years' War (1454–1466), however, it was ceded to Poland in the Second Peace of Thorn and became part of Polish Royal Prussia.
During the First Partition of Poland in 1772, Royal Prussia was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia. On May 17, 1781 the Church of St. Bartholomäus and vast parts of the town burned down. Around 1785 there existed 148 households inside Tuchel, and the town owned both the village of Kelpin and the small estate named Wymislawe. Under Frederick the Great the town was built up again, and at this occasion the Protestants obtained a church in the town hall. Tuchel became part of the German Empire in 1871.
A prisoner-of-war camp was established near the town by Germany during World War I. After the town was transferred to the Second Polish Republic in 1920 following the Treaty of Versailles, the camp became known as Camp No. 7 and existed until 1923. Beginning in the autumn of 1920 during Polish-Soviet war thousands of captured Red Army men were placed in the camp of Тuchola . These prisoners of war (POWs) lived in dugouts and hunger, cold, and infectious diseases killed many of them. According to historians Zbigniew Karpus and Waldemar Rezmer up to 2000 prisoners died in the camp during its time in operation.
Tuchola was annexed by Nazi Germany during World War II. After the defeat of the Nazis Tuchola reverted to Polish control.
Number of inhabitants by year
Note that the above table is based on primary, possibly biased, sources.
- Higher School of Environmental Management (Polish: Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania Środowiskiem)
- ^ Johann Friedrich Goldbeck: Volständige Topographie des Königreichs Preussen, Part II: Topograpie von West-Preussen, Marienwerder 1789, p. 76, no. 2) (in German).
- ^ a b August Eduard Preuß: Preußische Landes- und Volkskunde, Königsberg 1835, p. 383–384, no. 16.
- ^ Pamyatnykh, Alex (October 2005). "ПЛЕННЫЕ КРАСНОАРМЕЙЦЫ В ПОЛЬСКИХ ЛАГЕРЯХ (Red Army prisoners in the Polish camps)". Нoвaя Poльшa. Retrieved 2013-04-19.
- ^ Ludwig von Baczko: Handbuch der Geschichte, Erdbeschreibung und Statistik Preussens, Vol. II, Part 2, Königsberg and Leipzig 1803, p. 69 (in German).
- ^ August Carl von Holsche: Geographie und Statistik von West-, Süd- und Neu-Ostpreußen. Nebst einer kurzen Geschichte des Königreichs Polen bis zu dessen Zertheilung. Vol. 3, Berlin 1807, p. 110 (in German).
- ^ W. F. C. Starke: Beiträge zur Kenntniß dere bestehenden Gerichtsverfassung und der neuesten Resutate der Justizverwaltung und des Preussischen Staates, Vol. II, Part 1: Preußen, Posen, Pommern, Schlesien. Berlin 1839, p. 158 (in German).
- ^ Archiv der Pharmacie, Vol. XCII, Hannover 1845, p. 256 (in German).
- ^ Meyers Großes Konversatins-Lexikon, 6th edition, Vol. 19, Leizig and Vienna 1909, pp. 791-792.
- ^ Michael Rademacher: Deutsche Verwaltungsgeschichte Provinz Westpreußen (2006) (in German).
- ^ Topographisch-statistisches Handbuch für den Regierungsbezirk Marienwerder, Danzig 1868; see III. Kreis Konitz, pp. 50-51, entry no. 349 (in German).
Coordinates: 53°36′N 17°51′E / 53.600°N 17.850°E