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1
TUMBAGA FESTIVAL 2013 MONTERÍA - CÓRDOBA.
TUMBAGA FESTIVAL 2013 MONTERÍA - CÓRDOBA.
::2013/12/27::
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2
TUMBAGA MALLORQUINA
TUMBAGA MALLORQUINA
::2013/06/03::
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3
La Montaña - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae (Letra en la descripción)
La Montaña - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae (Letra en la descripción)
::2013/02/01::
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4
Lamtio Voice - Si Boru Tumbaga (Opera Batak)
Lamtio Voice - Si Boru Tumbaga (Opera Batak)
::2013/03/16::
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5
Lina Pandiangan - Si Boru Tumbaga
Lina Pandiangan - Si Boru Tumbaga
::2007/02/09::
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6
Plato Ginting - Si Boru Tumbaga ( Theme Song Opera Batak Si Boru Tumbaga )
Plato Ginting - Si Boru Tumbaga ( Theme Song Opera Batak Si Boru Tumbaga )
::2013/04/19::
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7
La TUMBAGA - Virus
La TUMBAGA - Virus
::2010/07/09::
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8
La Tumbaga - Coartada - Festival Internacional Altavoz 2012
La Tumbaga - Coartada - Festival Internacional Altavoz 2012
::2013/11/20::
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9
Tres Pedazos - Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
Tres Pedazos - Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
::2014/06/29::
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10
Andung Ni Siboru Tumbaga
Andung Ni Siboru Tumbaga
::2009/03/23::
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11
Mc Guerrero y  Dj FyahStyle -  Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
Mc Guerrero y Dj FyahStyle - Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
::2014/06/30::
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12
Sugat Ni Ayat - Vhen Bautista & Laila Tumbaga
Sugat Ni Ayat - Vhen Bautista & Laila Tumbaga
::2008/08/11::
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13
Shety Simamora - Andung ni Si boru Tumbaga
Shety Simamora - Andung ni Si boru Tumbaga
::2014/04/14::
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14
Boru tumbaga
Boru tumbaga
::2013/06/18::
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15
Suramerica, tumbaga fest 2013 monteria cordoba.
Suramerica, tumbaga fest 2013 monteria cordoba.
::2013/07/28::
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16
magkabilang mundo.cover by Jesther Tumbaga
magkabilang mundo.cover by Jesther Tumbaga
::2014/02/14::
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17
Long Distance Nga Ayat - Vhen Bautista & Laila Tumbaga
Long Distance Nga Ayat - Vhen Bautista & Laila Tumbaga
::2008/08/11::
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18
LA TUMBAGA ALTA VOZ 2012 -Audio en vivo-
LA TUMBAGA ALTA VOZ 2012 -Audio en vivo-
::2012/10/16::
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19
TUMBAGA SON. PANTALEON.. FESTIGAITAS 2012. OVEJAS SUCRE
TUMBAGA SON. PANTALEON.. FESTIGAITAS 2012. OVEJAS SUCRE
::2012/10/16::
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20
ROTUA FEBRIANI, Drama Tari dengan judul Siboru Tumbaga
ROTUA FEBRIANI, Drama Tari dengan judul Siboru Tumbaga
::2013/06/09::
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21
Teaser Tumbaga Festival 2013
Teaser Tumbaga Festival 2013
::2013/12/22::
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22
Sabia Actitud - Compartiendo el Dolor @Tumbaga Fest Montería 2013
Sabia Actitud - Compartiendo el Dolor @Tumbaga Fest Montería 2013
::2013/08/01::
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23
Sabia Actitud  - Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
Sabia Actitud - Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
::2014/07/01::
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24
el pondo... tumbaga son, Ovejas Sucre... 2012. ♫
el pondo... tumbaga son, Ovejas Sucre... 2012. ♫
::2012/09/09::
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25
Jose Ocampo vs. Mike Tumbaga
Jose Ocampo vs. Mike Tumbaga
::2013/01/16::
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26
Como limpiar joyas de tumbaga, oro, plata, cobre, alpaca, piuter, latón, níquel, diamantes
Como limpiar joyas de tumbaga, oro, plata, cobre, alpaca, piuter, latón, níquel, diamantes
::2012/03/06::
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27
TUMBAGA SON. EL PONDO. Festigaitas 2012
TUMBAGA SON. EL PONDO. Festigaitas 2012
::2012/10/17::
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28
Izoil - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae
Izoil - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae
::2013/02/01::
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29
Siagian HPS Musik II   04  Si Boru Tumbaga
Siagian HPS Musik II 04 Si Boru Tumbaga
::2012/11/09::
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30
NIX - Promo (Tumbaga Festival 2014 Monteria)
NIX - Promo (Tumbaga Festival 2014 Monteria)
::2014/07/11::
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31
WBC Night of Champions - Ekapol Singwancha (Thai) vs. Mike Tumbaga (Phil), 28 May 2013 @HKCEC
WBC Night of Champions - Ekapol Singwancha (Thai) vs. Mike Tumbaga (Phil), 28 May 2013 @HKCEC
::2013/07/09::
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32
Instrumen Batak   Malam Uning Uningan   Si Boru Tumbaga
Instrumen Batak Malam Uning Uningan Si Boru Tumbaga
::2013/11/29::
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33
Tumbaga Son. Ovejas (Sucre).  Gaita: El Bendito
Tumbaga Son. Ovejas (Sucre). Gaita: El Bendito
::2012/10/25::
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34
Tumbaga Festival 2014
Tumbaga Festival 2014
::2014/09/06::
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35
Tumbaga(2003)
Tumbaga(2003)
::2013/03/06::
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36
Radio Matuna - Real [Tumbaga Fest 2013 Montería]
Radio Matuna - Real [Tumbaga Fest 2013 Montería]
::2013/12/18::
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37
Tubara Reggae - Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
Tubara Reggae - Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
::2014/07/01::
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38
Colectro invita al Tumbaga Festival 2014, Montería
Colectro invita al Tumbaga Festival 2014, Montería
::2014/07/10::
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39
La Agüita - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae
La Agüita - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae
::2013/02/01::
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40
Erika Marie Grau Tumbaga.. Magna Cum Laude Speech.. So proud of you..
Erika Marie Grau Tumbaga.. Magna Cum Laude Speech.. So proud of you..
::2012/07/07::
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41
Radio Matuna - Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
Radio Matuna - Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
::2014/06/30::
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42
Radio Matuna - Muntu [Tumbaga Fest 2013 Montería]
Radio Matuna - Muntu [Tumbaga Fest 2013 Montería]
::2013/12/17::
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43
TUMBAGA SON-LAS FUNCIONES DE MI PUEBLO
TUMBAGA SON-LAS FUNCIONES DE MI PUEBLO
::2014/10/15::
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44
Tumbaga Primera Ronda Aficionado
Tumbaga Primera Ronda Aficionado
::2014/08/21::
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45
Shety Simamora - Andung ni Si boru Tumbaga
Shety Simamora - Andung ni Si boru Tumbaga
::2014/04/16::
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46
Waira Reggae Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
Waira Reggae Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
::2014/07/01::
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47
Oct 08, 2014 Dedication - Liam Angela Tumbaga
Oct 08, 2014 Dedication - Liam Angela Tumbaga
::2014/10/16::
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48
Tumbaga Ska&Reggae - La Agüita | @Parque de Escazú
Tumbaga Ska&Reggae - La Agüita | @Parque de Escazú
::2013/02/23::
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49
Ang Pagdadalaga ni Ruel tumbaga.
Ang Pagdadalaga ni Ruel tumbaga.
::2006/08/02::
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50
Paalam Kaibigan( Kenneth Tumbaga and Jonathan Caballes Tribute)
Paalam Kaibigan( Kenneth Tumbaga and Jonathan Caballes Tribute)
::2011/01/18::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A pectoral of tumbaga, of the Quimbaya culture; 300–1600 AD.

Tumbaga was the name given by Spaniards to a non-specific alloy of gold and copper which they found in widespread use in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica and South America.

Composition and properties[edit]

Tumbaga is an alloy composed mostly of gold and copper. It has a significantly lower melting point than gold or copper alone. It is harder than copper, but maintains malleability after being pounded.

Tumbaga can be treated with a simple acid, like citric acid, to dissolve copper off the surface. What remains is a shiny layer of nearly pure gold on top of a harder, more durable copper-gold alloy sheet. This process is referred to as depletion gilding.

Use and function[edit]

Tumbaga was widely used by the pre-Columbian cultures of Central America to make religious objects. Like most gold alloys, tumbaga was versatile and could be cast, drawn, hammered, gilded, soldered, welded, plated, hardened, annealed, polished, engraved, embossed, and inlaid.

The proportion of gold to copper in artifacts varies widely; items have been found with as much as 97% gold while others instead contain 97% copper. Some tumbaga has also been found to be composed of metals besides gold and copper, up to 18% of the total mass of the tumbaga.

Tumbaga objects were often made using the lost wax technique and the alloy used was a mixture of copper (80%), silver (15%), and gold (5%). The indicated concentrations varied from object to object. Once the object was taken out of the cast, it was burned and as a consequence, copper from the surface of the object was oxidized to copper oxide and was then removed mechanically. The object was then placed in an oxidizing solution containing, it is believed, sodium chloride (salt), and ferric sulfate. This process removed through oxidation the silver from the surface of the object leaving only gold. When looking through a microscope, one may clearly see the empty spots from where the original elements copper and silver were removed.

The "Tumbaga" Wreck[edit]

In 1992, approximately 200 silver "tumbaga" bars were recovered in wreckage off Grand Bahama Island. They were composed of mainly silver, copper, and gold plundered by the Spaniards during the conquests of Cortés and hastily melted into bars of tumbaga for transport across the Atlantic. Because all the metals that reached Europe were melted back into their constituent metals in Spain, the bars found in the shipwreck are the only known bars of this type that remain.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The"Tumbaga" Saga: Treasure of the Conquistadors 1st ed. 2010

External links[edit]

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