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TUMBAGA MALLORQUINA
TUMBAGA MALLORQUINA
Published: 2013/06/03
Channel: Xisco Clapes
Tumbaga festival 2017 Montería - Córdoba.
Tumbaga festival 2017 Montería - Córdoba.
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: Leña Brava
FILM BATAK 2016 BORU TUMBAGA SEDIH BANGET
FILM BATAK 2016 BORU TUMBAGA SEDIH BANGET
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: Batak Topss
Compras de Joyería,  pero no se como limpiarla!!   (tumbaga)
Compras de Joyería, pero no se como limpiarla!! (tumbaga)
Published: 2016/06/27
Channel: Sentirte Femenina
EVI SINAGA   SIBORU TUMBAGA
EVI SINAGA SIBORU TUMBAGA
Published: 2015/08/25
Channel: felix addon Situmorang
Shety Simamora - Andung ni Si boru Tumbaga
Shety Simamora - Andung ni Si boru Tumbaga
Published: 2014/04/16
Channel: shetysmora
Tumbaga Treasures
Tumbaga Treasures
Published: 2013/06/23
Channel: TreasureForceCommander Commander
Opera Batak - Siboru Tumbaga
Opera Batak - Siboru Tumbaga
Published: 2016/06/10
Channel: Batak Keren
Lina Pandiangan - Si Boru Tumbaga
Lina Pandiangan - Si Boru Tumbaga
Published: 2007/02/09
Channel: budi zorro
Gargantilla de Tumbaga
Gargantilla de Tumbaga
Published: 2016/09/12
Channel: Mardelasancha
having you near me cover by joselito tumbaga
having you near me cover by joselito tumbaga
Published: 2017/02/08
Channel: Joselito Tumbaga
7 Ventanas(LIVE) Tumbaga 2015 - IndianSommer BAND
7 Ventanas(LIVE) Tumbaga 2015 - IndianSommer BAND
Published: 2015/08/15
Channel: IndianSommer Music
Shety Simamora - Andung ni Si boru Tumbaga
Shety Simamora - Andung ni Si boru Tumbaga
Published: 2014/04/14
Channel: xamve sam
Violence - "Perfect Atmosphere" (Tumbaga Sessions 2016)
Violence - "Perfect Atmosphere" (Tumbaga Sessions 2016)
Published: 2016/09/12
Channel: VIOLENCE
Myanmar Lethwei - Tway Ma Shaung ( Myanmar )  vs Mike Ganado Tumbaga ( Philippines )
Myanmar Lethwei - Tway Ma Shaung ( Myanmar ) vs Mike Ganado Tumbaga ( Philippines )
Published: 2017/05/03
Channel: STRIKING ARTS
La Tumbaga - Coartada - Festival Internacional Altavoz 2012
La Tumbaga - Coartada - Festival Internacional Altavoz 2012
Published: 2013/11/20
Channel: Altavoz Fest
Steven Tumbaga - This is amazing grace
Steven Tumbaga - This is amazing grace
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: Res Fuentes
ORIGEN DE PALABRAS - TUMBAGA, LA LLAVE DEL MUNDO
ORIGEN DE PALABRAS - TUMBAGA, LA LLAVE DEL MUNDO
Published: 2016/09/26
Channel: La voz Silenciosa Tv
Plato Ginting - Si Boru Tumbaga ( Theme Song Opera Batak Si Boru Tumbaga )
Plato Ginting - Si Boru Tumbaga ( Theme Song Opera Batak Si Boru Tumbaga )
Published: 2013/04/19
Channel: julius ginting
OPERA BATAK - SIBORU TUMBAGA
OPERA BATAK - SIBORU TUMBAGA
Published: 2017/04/15
Channel: Yetty Aritonang
Finca Hotel Tumbaga
Finca Hotel Tumbaga
Published: 2014/03/28
Channel: Adriana Fernández Franco
Tumbaga Son Ovejas Gaita
Tumbaga Son Ovejas Gaita
Published: 2014/10/16
Channel: Arturo Amaya Cabrera
Hasapi Batak Toba.Andungni siboru tumbaga
Hasapi Batak Toba.Andungni siboru tumbaga
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: Hotmida Nadeak
Tumbaga mallorquina, de Xisco Clapés
Tumbaga mallorquina, de Xisco Clapés
Published: 2015/01/25
Channel: Gina garcías
Como hacer argollas de alpaca, tumbaga , latón, cobre etc.
Como hacer argollas de alpaca, tumbaga , latón, cobre etc.
Published: 2016/08/07
Channel: Fermin Ramirez
Suramerica, tumbaga fest 2013 monteria cordoba.
Suramerica, tumbaga fest 2013 monteria cordoba.
Published: 2013/07/28
Channel: cristian arias
La TUMBAGA - Virus
La TUMBAGA - Virus
Published: 2010/07/09
Channel: Pick The Band
Colección de Fotos - Grupo 12 Tumbaga
Colección de Fotos - Grupo 12 Tumbaga
Published: 2015/07/17
Channel: Okami JP
Si Boru Tumbaga
Si Boru Tumbaga
Published: 2016/03/03
Channel: Franky Sinaga
tumbaga festival Dani ShowYT FT Guillo full , TiguerTor
tumbaga festival Dani ShowYT FT Guillo full , TiguerTor
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: Dani ShowYT
Lamtio Voice - Si Boru Tumbaga - Opera Lagu Batak
Lamtio Voice - Si Boru Tumbaga - Opera Lagu Batak
Published: 2013/03/16
Channel: Voice Sumatera
Tumbaga Son. Ovejas (Sucre).  Gaita: El Bendito
Tumbaga Son. Ovejas (Sucre). Gaita: El Bendito
Published: 2012/10/25
Channel: Nando Muñoz
Tumbaga Festival 2017
Tumbaga Festival 2017
Published: 2017/08/08
Channel: SuperMegaman17
Andung Ni Siboru Tumbaga
Andung Ni Siboru Tumbaga
Published: 2009/03/23
Channel: Monang Naipospos
Laminación de Tumbaga
Laminación de Tumbaga
Published: 2014/08/13
Channel: Cadenas del Altiplano, S.A. de C.V.
Statue - Mark John Magpantay & Elliza Mae Tumbaga (cover)
Statue - Mark John Magpantay & Elliza Mae Tumbaga (cover)
Published: 2014/01/27
Channel: MJMofficial22
TUMBAGA CACIQUE
TUMBAGA CACIQUE
Published: 2015/02/14
Channel: Gorka Ispizua
Como limpiar joyas de tumbaga, oro, plata, cobre, alpaca, piuter, latón, níquel, diamantes
Como limpiar joyas de tumbaga, oro, plata, cobre, alpaca, piuter, latón, níquel, diamantes
Published: 2012/03/07
Channel: Miguel Diaz
IDE TUMBAGA
IDE TUMBAGA
Published: 2015/04/07
Channel: BOTANICA OMO OBATALA
"MARIPOSA"  - SONORAMA BAND- VERSIÓN EN VIVO TUMBAGA 2015
"MARIPOSA" - SONORAMA BAND- VERSIÓN EN VIVO TUMBAGA 2015
Published: 2015/09/04
Channel: German Mauricio Marquez Ruiz
Koyi K Utho - Tumbaga Fest Monteria 2015
Koyi K Utho - Tumbaga Fest Monteria 2015
Published: 2015/08/12
Channel: Thom Nasseri
Michael Tumbaga 2015-2016 Wrestling Highlights
Michael Tumbaga 2015-2016 Wrestling Highlights
Published: 2016/03/13
Channel: MIKEYT1299
Sabia Actitud - Compartiendo el Dolor @ Tumbaga Festival 2013
Sabia Actitud - Compartiendo el Dolor @ Tumbaga Festival 2013
Published: 2013/08/01
Channel: Sabia Actitud
Fabricación de Alambre de Tumbaga
Fabricación de Alambre de Tumbaga
Published: 2014/11/19
Channel: Cadenas del Altiplano, S.A. de C.V.
Waira Reggae Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
Waira Reggae Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
Published: 2014/07/01
Channel: Tumbaga Festival
Sentidos - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae
Sentidos - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae
Published: 2012/12/11
Channel: cApullosoCR92
Boru tumbaga
Boru tumbaga
Published: 2013/06/19
Channel: Juliana Silaban
La Tumbaga   Quien Es Quien
La Tumbaga Quien Es Quien
Published: 2013/11/22
Channel: juan jose horta soto
I.R.A.  PUNK en Monteria - Tumbaga Fest
I.R.A. PUNK en Monteria - Tumbaga Fest
Published: 2016/01/14
Channel: David Viola
fiesta at tumbaga 2
fiesta at tumbaga 2
Published: 2012/09/25
Channel: ALEXIS sanchez
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A tumbaga pectoral girdle of the Quimbaya culture; 300–1600 AD

Tumbaga is the name for a non-specific alloy of gold and copper given by Spanish Conquistadors to metals composed of these elements found in widespread use in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica and South America.

Composition and properties[edit]

Tumbaga is an alloy composed mostly of gold and copper. It has a significantly lower melting point than gold or copper alone. It is harder than copper, but maintains malleability after being pounded.

Tumbaga can be treated with a simple acid, like citric acid, to dissolve copper off the surface. What remains is a shiny layer of nearly pure gold on top of a harder, more durable copper-gold alloy sheet. This process is referred to as depletion gilding.

Use and function[edit]

Tumbaga was widely used by the pre-Columbian cultures of Central America to make religious objects. Like most gold alloys, tumbaga was versatile and could be cast, drawn, hammered, gilded, soldered, welded, plated, hardened, annealed, polished, engraved, embossed, and inlaid.

The proportion of gold to copper in artifacts varies widely; items have been found with as much as 97% gold while others instead contain 97% copper. Some tumbaga has also been found to be composed of metals besides gold and copper, up to 18% of the total mass of the tumbaga.

Tumbaga objects were often made using a combination of the lost wax technique and depletion gilding. An alloy of varying proportions of copper, silver, and gold (typically in a percentage ratio of 80:15:5) was cast. After removal it was burned, turning surface copper into copper oxide, which was then mechanically removed[clarification needed] The object was then placed in an oxidizing solution likely composed of sodium chloride (salt) and ferric sulfate. This dissolved the silver from the surface leaving only gold. When viewed through a microscope voids appear where the copper and silver had been.

The "Tumbaga" Wreck[edit]

In 1992, approximately 200 silver "tumbaga" bars were recovered in wreckage off Grand Bahama Island. They were composed of mainly silver, copper, and gold plundered by the Spaniards during the conquests of Cortés and hastily melted into bars of tumbaga for transport across the Atlantic. Such bars were typically melted back into their constituent metals in Spain.[1]

Modern uses[edit]

The use of a nanoetched tumbaga alloy was suggested as a way to increase capacity on Li-ion batteries. This would have confined copper (needed for active material binding) to small islands and thereby limited dendrite formation. Unlike most Li-ion batteries, the cells made using this technology can be discharged below 2V safely and even down to 0V; however they need an extensive induction reconditioning process using central field coils to restore full capacity. An additional modification suggested by the classified US patent was to use a highly unstable viologen-based liquid electrolyte (similar to electrochromics) to optimize long term storage at zero C 39% SOC and extended cycle life to 1000+ charges.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The"Tumbaga" Saga: Treasure of the Conquistadors 1st ed. 2010

External links[edit]

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