La Montaña - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae (Letra en la descripción)

Channel: cApullosoCR92   |   2013/02/01
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La Montaña - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae (Letra en la descripción)
La Montaña - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae (Letra en la descripción)
::2013/02/01::
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Como limpiar joyas de tumbaga, oro, plata, cobre, alpaca, piuter, latón, níquel, diamantes
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Instrumen Batak   Malam Uning Uningan   Si Boru Tumbaga
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Si Boru Tumbaga Lina Panjaitan Dongan Batak
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La Tumbaga - Coartada - Festival Internacional Altavoz 2012
La Tumbaga - Coartada - Festival Internacional Altavoz 2012
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Tumbaga - Orlando Cachaito Lopez
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TUMBAGA MALLORQUINA
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Sugat Ni Ayat - Vhen Bautista & Laila Tumbaga
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TUMBAGA SON. EL PONDO. Festigaitas 2012
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Trailer Tumbaga Festival 2103 Montería-Colombia.
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::2013/11/14::
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Suramerica, tumbaga fest 2013 monteria cordoba.
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::2013/07/28::
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magkabilang mundo.cover by Jesther Tumbaga
magkabilang mundo.cover by Jesther Tumbaga
::2014/02/14::
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Yodchanchai Nakornloung Promotion - Edwin Tumbaga
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::2012/05/12::
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Long Distance Nga Ayat - Vhen Bautista Laila Tumbaga
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::2011/10/14::
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SONGON BORU TUMBAGA, MARYANI SIMBOLON
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::2011/01/18::
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FREESTYLE HARANA TO RACHELLE ANN TUMBAGA -RUSSEL
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Sabia Actitud - Compartiendo el Dolor @Tumbaga Fest Montería 2013
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::2013/08/01::
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La Tumbaga - Audiciones 2010 VIVA! Festival
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La Agüita - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae
La Agüita - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae
::2013/02/01::
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Siagian HPS Musik II   04  Si Boru Tumbaga
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TUMBAGA SON. PANTALEON.. FESTIGAITAS 2012. OVEJAS SUCRE
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Tumbaga(2003)
Tumbaga(2003)
::2013/03/06::
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La Tumbaga - Ni Un Paso Atrás (Manizales Grita Rock 2010) - FactorMostaza.com
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::2010/08/17::
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Wrecking ball - Mark John Magpantay & Elliza Mae Tumbaga (cover)
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::2014/01/06::
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Boru tumbaga
Boru tumbaga
::2013/06/18::
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Como Limpiar joyas de oro, plata, cobre, alpaca, piuter, níquel, tumbaga, etc.
Como Limpiar joyas de oro, plata, cobre, alpaca, piuter, níquel, tumbaga, etc.
::2012/03/07::
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Tumbaga- Grinch Stole Christmas
Tumbaga- Grinch Stole Christmas
::2013/12/13::
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Izoíl - Tumbaga
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Radio Matuna - Muntu [Tumbaga Fest 2013 Montería]
Radio Matuna - Muntu [Tumbaga Fest 2013 Montería]
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Izoil - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae
Izoil - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae
::2013/02/01::
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La TUMBAGA Delirios
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Chuck Gacuma and Jonalyn Viray - Ikaw Lamang - Tumbaga & De Guzman Wedding
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::2013/09/29::
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Boru tumbaga
Boru tumbaga
::2013/06/19::
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Russel (Rachelle Ann Tumbaga)
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::2012/01/12::
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Internet Love Song (piano cover) by Christine Tumbaga
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::2011/12/28::
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La TUMBAGA on their practice place
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leavin jetplane iRENE VIOLETE TUMBAGA
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::2011/10/20::
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WBC Night of Champions - Ekapol Singwancha (Thai) vs. Mike Tumbaga (Phil), 28 May 2013 @HKCEC
WBC Night of Champions - Ekapol Singwancha (Thai) vs. Mike Tumbaga (Phil), 28 May 2013 @HKCEC
::2013/07/09::
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el pondo... tumbaga son, Ovejas Sucre... 2012. ♫
el pondo... tumbaga son, Ovejas Sucre... 2012. ♫
::2012/09/09::
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DA MOVES (feat. Aaron Tumbaga)
DA MOVES (feat. Aaron Tumbaga)
::2013/09/12::
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Entrevista a la banda pereirana La Tumbaga en Calarca - Quindio - Área 53
Entrevista a la banda pereirana La Tumbaga en Calarca - Quindio - Área 53
::2008/08/07::
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Sherriesse Tumbaga - Falling in Love
Sherriesse Tumbaga - Falling in Love
::2013/07/27::
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Teaser Tumbaga Festival 2013
Teaser Tumbaga Festival 2013
::2013/12/22::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A pectoral of tumbaga, of the Quimbaya culture; 300–1600 AD.

Tumbaga was the name given by Spaniards to a non-specific alloy of gold and copper which they found in widespread use in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica and South America.

Composition and properties[edit]

Tumbaga is an alloy composed mostly of gold and copper. It has a significantly lower melting point than gold or copper alone. It is harder than copper, but maintains malleability after being pounded.

Tumbaga can be treated with a simple acid, like citric acid, to dissolve copper off the surface. What remains is a shiny layer of nearly pure gold on top of a harder, more durable copper-gold alloy sheet. This process is referred to as depletion gilding.

Use and function[edit]

Tumbaga was widely used by the pre-Columbian cultures of Central America to make religious objects. Like most gold alloys, tumbaga was versatile and could be cast, drawn, hammered, gilded, soldered, welded, plated, hardened, annealed, polished, engraved, embossed, and inlaid.

The proportion of gold to copper in artifacts varies widely; items have been found with as much as 97% gold while others instead contain 97% copper. Some tumbaga has also been found to be composed of metals besides gold and copper, up to 18% of the total mass of the tumbaga.

Tumbaga objects were often made using the lost wax technique and the alloy used was a mixture of copper (80%), silver (15%), and gold (5%). The indicated concentrations varied from object to object. Once the object was taken out of the cast, it was burned and as a consequence, copper from the surface of the object was oxidized to copper oxide and was then removed mechanically. The object was then placed in an oxidizing solution containing, it is believed, sodium chloride (salt), and ferric sulfate. This process removed through oxidation the silver from the surface of the object leaving only gold. When looking through a microscope, one may clearly see the empty spots from where the original elements copper and silver were removed.

The "Tumbaga" Wreck[edit]

In 1992, approximately 200 silver "tumbaga" bars were recovered in wreckage off Grand Bahama Island. They were composed of mainly silver, copper, and gold plundered by the Spaniards during the conquests of Cortés and hastily melted into bars of tumbaga for transport across the Atlantic. Because all the metals that reached Europe were melted back into their constituent metals in Spain, the bars found in the shipwreck are the only known bars of this type that remain.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The"Tumbaga" Saga: Treasure of the Conquistadors 1st ed. 2010

External links[edit]

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