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TUMBAGA MALLORQUINA
TUMBAGA MALLORQUINA
Published: 2013/06/03
Channel: Xisco Clapes
Compras de Joyería,  pero no se como limpiarla!!   (tumbaga)
Compras de Joyería, pero no se como limpiarla!! (tumbaga)
Published: 2016/06/27
Channel: Sentirte Femenina
Myanmar Lethwei - Tway Ma Shaung ( Myanmar )  vs Mike Ganado Tumbaga ( Philippines )
Myanmar Lethwei - Tway Ma Shaung ( Myanmar ) vs Mike Ganado Tumbaga ( Philippines )
Published: 2017/05/03
Channel: STRIKING ARTS
Tumbaga mallorquina, de Xisco Clapés
Tumbaga mallorquina, de Xisco Clapés
Published: 2015/01/25
Channel: Gina garcías
Tumbaga Treasure w #TheHistoryHeretic
Tumbaga Treasure w #TheHistoryHeretic
Published: 2017/07/01
Channel: The History Heretic #JovanHuttonPulitzer
Tumbaga(2003)
Tumbaga(2003)
Published: 2013/03/06
Channel: JM
Gargantilla de Tumbaga
Gargantilla de Tumbaga
Published: 2016/09/12
Channel: Mardelasancha
Tumbaga Treasures
Tumbaga Treasures
Published: 2013/06/23
Channel: TreasureForceCommander Commander
Opera Batak - Siboru Tumbaga
Opera Batak - Siboru Tumbaga
Published: 2016/06/10
Channel: Batak Keren
Shety Simamora - Andung ni Si boru Tumbaga
Shety Simamora - Andung ni Si boru Tumbaga
Published: 2014/04/14
Channel: xamve sam
Yodchanchai Nakornloung Promotion - Edwin Tumbaga
Yodchanchai Nakornloung Promotion - Edwin Tumbaga
Published: 2012/05/12
Channel: YeahJustLikeChuckie
Lina Pandiangan - Si Boru Tumbaga
Lina Pandiangan - Si Boru Tumbaga
Published: 2007/02/09
Channel: budi zorro
Dayang Dayang Vol 2 Tumbaga Brothers
Dayang Dayang Vol 2 Tumbaga Brothers
Published: 2017/02/09
Channel: Jeffrey Tabbada
Violence - "Perfect Atmosphere" (Tumbaga Sessions 2016)
Violence - "Perfect Atmosphere" (Tumbaga Sessions 2016)
Published: 2016/09/12
Channel: VIOLENCE
Steven Tumbaga - This is amazing grace
Steven Tumbaga - This is amazing grace
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: Res Fuentes
Finca Hotel Tumbaga
Finca Hotel Tumbaga
Published: 2014/03/28
Channel: Adriana Fernández Franco
Sendero de Finca Hotel Tumbaga
Sendero de Finca Hotel Tumbaga
Published: 2014/11/09
Channel: Adriana Fernández Franco
Tumbaga Son Ovejas Gaita
Tumbaga Son Ovejas Gaita
Published: 2014/10/16
Channel: Arturo Amaya Cabrera
La TUMBAGA - Virus
La TUMBAGA - Virus
Published: 2010/07/09
Channel: Pick The Band
La Tumbaga - Coartada - Festival Internacional Altavoz 2012
La Tumbaga - Coartada - Festival Internacional Altavoz 2012
Published: 2013/11/20
Channel: Altavoz Fest
FILM BATAK 2016 BORU TUMBAGA SEDIH BANGET
FILM BATAK 2016 BORU TUMBAGA SEDIH BANGET
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: Batak Topss
IDE TUMBAGA
IDE TUMBAGA
Published: 2015/04/07
Channel: BOTANICA OMO OBATALA
Sentidos - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae
Sentidos - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae
Published: 2012/12/11
Channel: cApullosoCR92
Motovaca | Mototaxi  - Tumbaga Festival 2014
Motovaca | Mototaxi - Tumbaga Festival 2014
Published: 2015/07/23
Channel: Tumbaga Festival
I.R.A.  PUNK en Monteria - Tumbaga Fest
I.R.A. PUNK en Monteria - Tumbaga Fest
Published: 2016/01/14
Channel: David Viola
ORIGEN DE PALABRAS - TUMBAGA, LA LLAVE DEL MUNDO
ORIGEN DE PALABRAS - TUMBAGA, LA LLAVE DEL MUNDO
Published: 2016/09/26
Channel: La voz Silenciosa Tv
kahit isang saglit by cedric tumbaga
kahit isang saglit by cedric tumbaga
Published: 2008/12/14
Channel: 1974johnt
Siagian HPS Musik II   04  Si Boru Tumbaga
Siagian HPS Musik II 04 Si Boru Tumbaga
Published: 2012/11/09
Channel: Hayat Siagian
Sabia Actitud  - Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
Sabia Actitud - Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
Published: 2014/07/01
Channel: Tumbaga Festival
Tumbaga Son. Ovejas (Sucre).  Gaita: El Bendito
Tumbaga Son. Ovejas (Sucre). Gaita: El Bendito
Published: 2012/10/25
Channel: Nando Muñoz
Tips tumbaga aplicacion
Tips tumbaga aplicacion
Published: 2015/01/23
Channel: Bren Cuautle
7 Ventanas(LIVE) Tumbaga 2015 - IndianSommer BAND
7 Ventanas(LIVE) Tumbaga 2015 - IndianSommer BAND
Published: 2015/08/15
Channel: IndianSommer Music
Final  de cubabla - 12 tumbaga
Final de cubabla - 12 tumbaga
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: 12 Tumbaga
"MARIPOSA"  - SONORAMA BAND- VERSIÓN EN VIVO TUMBAGA 2015
"MARIPOSA" - SONORAMA BAND- VERSIÓN EN VIVO TUMBAGA 2015
Published: 2015/09/04
Channel: German Mauricio Marquez Ruiz
Tumbaga Festival 2015 monteria
Tumbaga Festival 2015 monteria
Published: 2015/08/10
Channel: SuperMegaman17
Aaron Melgarejo Vs. Mike Tumbaga
Aaron Melgarejo Vs. Mike Tumbaga
Published: 2009/06/25
Channel: hbogames
Como hacer argollas de alpaca, tumbaga , latón, cobre etc.
Como hacer argollas de alpaca, tumbaga , latón, cobre etc.
Published: 2016/08/07
Channel: Fermin Ramirez
Epidemia Inc | Fuimos Los dos - Tumbaga Festival 2014
Epidemia Inc | Fuimos Los dos - Tumbaga Festival 2014
Published: 2015/07/11
Channel: Tumbaga Festival
Radio Matuna - Muntu [Tumbaga Fest 2013 Montería]
Radio Matuna - Muntu [Tumbaga Fest 2013 Montería]
Published: 2013/12/18
Channel: Astrofeína
Koyi K Utho - Tumbaga Fest Monteria 2015
Koyi K Utho - Tumbaga Fest Monteria 2015
Published: 2015/08/12
Channel: Thom Nasseri
Colectro invita al Tumbaga Festival 2014, Montería
Colectro invita al Tumbaga Festival 2014, Montería
Published: 2014/07/10
Channel: colectro
Fabricación de cadena de Tumbaga Modelo Ancla
Fabricación de cadena de Tumbaga Modelo Ancla
Published: 2014/11/18
Channel: Cadenas del Altiplano, S.A. de C.V.
Suramerica, tumbaga fest 2013 monteria cordoba.
Suramerica, tumbaga fest 2013 monteria cordoba.
Published: 2013/07/28
Channel: cristian arias
UHP AMBASSADRESS (VAGELYN TUMBAGA) MMK
UHP AMBASSADRESS (VAGELYN TUMBAGA) MMK
Published: 2017/05/03
Channel: Roldan Agustin
Mon Tumbaga Live Stream
Mon Tumbaga Live Stream
Published: 2017/06/11
Channel: Mon Tumbaga
Tres Pedazos - Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
Tres Pedazos - Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
Published: 2014/06/29
Channel: Tumbaga Festival
tumbaga I sariaya quezon quarry
tumbaga I sariaya quezon quarry
Published: 2012/01/12
Channel: jockeypogi
Definición de tumbaga
Definición de tumbaga
Published: 2012/09/22
Channel: Dixio
Fabricación de Alambre de Tumbaga
Fabricación de Alambre de Tumbaga
Published: 2014/11/19
Channel: Cadenas del Altiplano, S.A. de C.V.
Tumbaga
Tumbaga
Published: 2015/05/23
Channel: Benjamin Asmed Martinez Quintero
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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A tumbaga pectoral girdle of the Quimbaya culture; 300–1600 AD

Tumbaga is the name for a non-specific alloy of gold and copper given by Spanish Conquistadors to metals composed of these elements found in widespread use in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica and South America.

Composition and properties[edit]

Tumbaga is an alloy composed mostly of gold and copper. It has a significantly lower melting point than gold or copper alone. It is harder than copper, but maintains malleability after being pounded.

Tumbaga can be treated with a simple acid, like citric acid, to dissolve copper off the surface. What remains is a shiny layer of nearly pure gold on top of a harder, more durable copper-gold alloy sheet. This process is referred to as depletion gilding.

Use and function[edit]

Tumbaga was widely used by the pre-Columbian cultures of Central America to make religious objects. Like most gold alloys, tumbaga was versatile and could be cast, drawn, hammered, gilded, soldered, welded, plated, hardened, annealed, polished, engraved, embossed, and inlaid.

The proportion of gold to copper in artifacts varies widely; items have been found with as much as 97% gold while others instead contain 97% copper. Some tumbaga has also been found to be composed of metals besides gold and copper, up to 18% of the total mass of the tumbaga.

Tumbaga objects were often made using a combination of the lost wax technique and depletion gilding. An alloy of varying proportions of copper, silver, and gold (typically in a percentage ratio of 80:15:5) was cast. After removal it was burned, turning surface copper into copper oxide, which was then mechanically removed[clarification needed] The object was then placed in an oxidizing solution likely composed of sodium chloride (salt) and ferric sulfate. This dissolved the silver from the surface leaving only gold. When viewed through a microscope voids appear where the copper and silver had been.

The "Tumbaga" Wreck[edit]

In 1992, approximately 200 silver "tumbaga" bars were recovered in wreckage off Grand Bahama Island. They were composed of mainly silver, copper, and gold plundered by the Spaniards during the conquests of Cortés and hastily melted into bars of tumbaga for transport across the Atlantic. Such bars were typically melted back into their constituent metals in Spain.[1]

Modern uses[edit]

The use of a nanoetched tumbaga alloy was suggested as a way to increase capacity on Li-ion batteries. This would have confined copper (needed for active material binding) to small islands and thereby limited dendrite formation. Unlike most Li-ion batteries, the cells made using this technology can be discharged below 2V safely and even down to 0V; however they need an extensive induction reconditioning process using central field coils to restore full capacity. An additional modification suggested by the classified US patent was to use a highly unstable viologen-based liquid electrolyte (similar to electrochromics) to optimize long term storage at zero C 39% SOC and extended cycle life to 1000+ charges.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The"Tumbaga" Saga: Treasure of the Conquistadors 1st ed. 2010

External links[edit]

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