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TUMBAGA MALLORQUINA
TUMBAGA MALLORQUINA
Published: 2013/06/03
Channel: Xisco Clapes
Tumbaga festival 2017 Montería - Córdoba.
Tumbaga festival 2017 Montería - Córdoba.
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: Leña Brava
FILM BATAK 2016 BORU TUMBAGA SEDIH BANGET
FILM BATAK 2016 BORU TUMBAGA SEDIH BANGET
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: Batak Topss
Tumbaga Treasures
Tumbaga Treasures
Published: 2013/06/23
Channel: TreasureForceCommander Commander
ORIGEN DE PALABRAS - TUMBAGA, LA LLAVE DEL MUNDO
ORIGEN DE PALABRAS - TUMBAGA, LA LLAVE DEL MUNDO
Published: 2016/09/26
Channel: La voz Silenciosa Tv
Compras de Joyería,  pero no se como limpiarla!!   (tumbaga)
Compras de Joyería, pero no se como limpiarla!! (tumbaga)
Published: 2016/06/27
Channel: Sentirte Femenina
OPERA BATAK - SIBORU TUMBAGA
OPERA BATAK - SIBORU TUMBAGA
Published: 2017/04/15
Channel: Yetty Aritonang
Laminación de Tumbaga
Laminación de Tumbaga
Published: 2014/08/13
Channel: Cadenas del Altiplano, S.A. de C.V.
Evi Sinaga - Siboru Tumbaga
Evi Sinaga - Siboru Tumbaga
Published: 2016/10/26
Channel: Solup Literal
Tumbaga mallorquina, de Xisco Clapés
Tumbaga mallorquina, de Xisco Clapés
Published: 2015/01/25
Channel: Gina garcías
Fabricación de Alambre de Tumbaga
Fabricación de Alambre de Tumbaga
Published: 2014/11/19
Channel: Cadenas del Altiplano, S.A. de C.V.
Tips tumbaga aplicacion
Tips tumbaga aplicacion
Published: 2015/01/23
Channel: Bren Cuautle
IDE TUMBAGA
IDE TUMBAGA
Published: 2015/04/07
Channel: BOTANICA OMO OBATALA
Arete de Filigrana en Tumbaga
Arete de Filigrana en Tumbaga
Published: 2017/11/12
Channel: Olga Renteria
Violence - "Perfect Atmosphere" (Tumbaga Sessions 2016)
Violence - "Perfect Atmosphere" (Tumbaga Sessions 2016)
Published: 2016/09/12
Channel: VIOLENCE
Gargantilla de Tumbaga
Gargantilla de Tumbaga
Published: 2016/09/12
Channel: Mardelasancha
Lina Pandiangan - Si Boru Tumbaga
Lina Pandiangan - Si Boru Tumbaga
Published: 2007/02/09
Channel: budi zorro
Como limpiar joyas de tumbaga, oro, plata, cobre, alpaca, piuter, latón, níquel, diamantes
Como limpiar joyas de tumbaga, oro, plata, cobre, alpaca, piuter, latón, níquel, diamantes
Published: 2012/03/07
Channel: Miguel Diaz
fiesta at tumbaga 2
fiesta at tumbaga 2
Published: 2012/09/25
Channel: ALEXIS sanchez
Ruego y Castigo (En Vivo) - Tumbaga Fest 2013
Ruego y Castigo (En Vivo) - Tumbaga Fest 2013
Published: 2013/08/02
Channel: ADN: Amigo De Nadie
Yodchanchai Nakornloung Promotion - Edwin Tumbaga
Yodchanchai Nakornloung Promotion - Edwin Tumbaga
Published: 2012/05/12
Channel: YeahJustLikeChuckie
La Tumbaga   Quien Es Quien
La Tumbaga Quien Es Quien
Published: 2013/11/22
Channel: juan jose horta soto
Steven Tumbaga - This is amazing grace
Steven Tumbaga - This is amazing grace
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: Res Fuentes
Tumbaga Festival 2017
Tumbaga Festival 2017
Published: 2017/08/08
Channel: SuperMegaman17
Plato Ginting - Si Boru Tumbaga ( Theme Song Opera Batak Si Boru Tumbaga )
Plato Ginting - Si Boru Tumbaga ( Theme Song Opera Batak Si Boru Tumbaga )
Published: 2013/04/19
Channel: julius ginting
Violence en vivo tumbaga 2017
Violence en vivo tumbaga 2017
Published: 2017/08/30
Channel: alejandro restrepo
Darlac - Vivo Tumbaga 2017
Darlac - Vivo Tumbaga 2017
Published: 2017/09/10
Channel: Darlac
"MARIPOSA"  - SONORAMA BAND- VERSIÓN EN VIVO TUMBAGA 2015
"MARIPOSA" - SONORAMA BAND- VERSIÓN EN VIVO TUMBAGA 2015
Published: 2015/09/04
Channel: German Mauricio Marquez Ruiz
I.R.A.  PUNK en Monteria - Tumbaga Fest
I.R.A. PUNK en Monteria - Tumbaga Fest
Published: 2016/01/14
Channel: David Viola
La TUMBAGA - Virus
La TUMBAGA - Virus
Published: 2010/07/09
Channel: Pick The Band
Shety Simamora - Andung ni Si boru Tumbaga
Shety Simamora - Andung ni Si boru Tumbaga
Published: 2014/04/14
Channel: xamve sam
tumbaga festival Dani ShowYT FT Guillo full , TiguerTor
tumbaga festival Dani ShowYT FT Guillo full , TiguerTor
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: Dani ShowYT
Suramerica, tumbaga fest 2013 monteria cordoba.
Suramerica, tumbaga fest 2013 monteria cordoba.
Published: 2013/07/28
Channel: cristian arias
Andung Batak - Siboru Tumbaga
Andung Batak - Siboru Tumbaga
Published: 2009/03/23
Channel: Monang Naipospos
Si Boru Tumbaga
Si Boru Tumbaga
Published: 2016/03/03
Channel: Franky Sinaga
TUMBAGA FAMILY - Jesus People Wedding Presentation (Art and Ge Wedding - Jul 16)
TUMBAGA FAMILY - Jesus People Wedding Presentation (Art and Ge Wedding - Jul 16)
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: VICTORY CHAPEL CHRISTIAN CENTER - CEBU
Lamtio Voice - Si Boru Tumbaga - Opera Lagu Batak
Lamtio Voice - Si Boru Tumbaga - Opera Lagu Batak
Published: 2013/03/16
Channel: Voice Sumatera
Finca Hotel Tumbaga
Finca Hotel Tumbaga
Published: 2014/03/28
Channel: Adriana Fernández Franco
Julie Ann & Ivan Tumbaga
Julie Ann & Ivan Tumbaga's Wedding
Published: 2017/03/06
Channel: Ivan Tumbaga
Epidemia Inc | Fuimos Los dos - Tumbaga Festival 2014
Epidemia Inc | Fuimos Los dos - Tumbaga Festival 2014
Published: 2015/07/11
Channel: Tumbaga Festival
TUMBAGA CACIQUE
TUMBAGA CACIQUE
Published: 2015/02/14
Channel: Gorka Ispizua
SI BORU TUMBAGA Part 1
SI BORU TUMBAGA Part 1
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: Raja kesatria Nainggolan
having you near me cover by joselito tumbaga
having you near me cover by joselito tumbaga
Published: 2017/02/08
Channel: Joselito Tumbaga
SI BORU TUMBAGA Part 2
SI BORU TUMBAGA Part 2
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: Raja kesatria Nainggolan
Koyi K Utho - Tumbaga Festival
Koyi K Utho - Tumbaga Festival
Published: 2015/08/09
Channel: Ramses_altern
Evidencia - Dia mejor - Tumbaga Festival 2015
Evidencia - Dia mejor - Tumbaga Festival 2015
Published: 2015/08/18
Channel: Evidencia Band
Plato Ginting Si Boru Tumbaga
Plato Ginting Si Boru Tumbaga
Published: 2014/11/19
Channel: putra sinukaban
La Montaña - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae (Letra en la descripción)
La Montaña - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae (Letra en la descripción)
Published: 2013/02/01
Channel: cApullosoCR92
Fabricación de Cadena de Tumbaga Modelo Torzal
Fabricación de Cadena de Tumbaga Modelo Torzal
Published: 2015/08/29
Channel: Cadenas del Altiplano, S.A. de C.V.
Entrevista a la banda pereirana La Tumbaga en Calarca - Quindio - Área 53
Entrevista a la banda pereirana La Tumbaga en Calarca - Quindio - Área 53
Published: 2008/08/07
Channel: Canal Telecafé
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A tumbaga pectoral girdle of the Quimbaya culture; 300–1600 AD

Tumbaga is the name for a non-specific alloy of gold and copper given by Spanish Conquistadors to metals composed of these elements found in widespread use in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica and South America.

The term is believed to be a borrowing from Malay tembaga, meaning "copper" or "brass", which in turn is from Prakrit.

Composition and properties[edit]

Tumbaga is an alloy composed mostly of gold and copper. It has a significantly lower melting point than gold or copper alone. It is harder than copper, but maintains malleability after being pounded.

Tumbaga can be treated with a simple acid, like citric acid, to dissolve copper off the surface. What remains is a shiny layer of nearly pure gold on top of a harder, more durable copper-gold alloy sheet. This process is referred to as depletion gilding.

Use and function[edit]

Tumbaga was widely used by the pre-Columbian cultures of Central America to make religious objects. Like most gold alloys, tumbaga was versatile and could be cast, drawn, hammered, gilded, soldered, welded, plated, hardened, annealed, polished, engraved, embossed, and inlaid.

The proportion of gold to copper in artifacts varies widely; items have been found with as much as 97% gold while others instead contain 97% copper. Some tumbaga has also been found to be composed of metals besides gold and copper, up to 18% of the total mass of the tumbaga.

Tumbaga objects were often made using a combination of the lost wax technique and depletion gilding. An alloy of varying proportions of copper, silver, and gold (typically in a percentage ratio of 80:15:5) was cast. After removal it was burned, turning surface copper into copper oxide, which was then mechanically removed[clarification needed] The object was then placed in an oxidizing solution likely composed of sodium chloride (salt) and ferric sulfate. This dissolved the silver from the surface leaving only gold. When viewed through a microscope voids appear where the copper and silver had been.

The "Tumbaga" Wreck[edit]

In 1992, approximately 200 silver "tumbaga" bars were recovered in wreckage off Grand Bahama Island. They were composed of mainly silver, copper, and gold plundered by the Spaniards during the conquests of Cortés and hastily melted into bars of tumbaga for transport across the Atlantic. Such bars were typically melted back into their constituent metals in Spain.[1]

Modern uses[edit]

The use of a nanoetched tumbaga alloy was suggested as a way to increase capacity on Li-ion batteries. This would have confined copper (needed for active material binding) to small islands and thereby limited dendrite formation. Unlike most Li-ion batteries, the cells made using this technology can be discharged below 2V safely and even down to 0V; however they need an extensive induction reconditioning process using central field coils to restore full capacity. An additional modification suggested by the classified US patent was to use a highly unstable viologen-based liquid electrolyte (similar to electrochromics) to optimize long term storage at zero C 39% SOC and extended cycle life to 1000+ charges.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The"Tumbaga" Saga: Treasure of the Conquistadors 1st ed. 2010

External links[edit]

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