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1
TUMBAGA MALLORQUINA
TUMBAGA MALLORQUINA
::2013/06/03::
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2
La Montaña - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae (Letra en la descripción)
La Montaña - Tumbaga Ska&Reggae (Letra en la descripción)
::2013/02/01::
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3
Pentas Opera Batak | Siboru Tumbaga
Pentas Opera Batak | Siboru Tumbaga
::2015/01/14::
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4
TUMBAGA FESTIVAL 2013 MONTERÍA - CÓRDOBA.
TUMBAGA FESTIVAL 2013 MONTERÍA - CÓRDOBA.
::2013/12/27::
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5
Lina Pandiangan - Si Boru Tumbaga
Lina Pandiangan - Si Boru Tumbaga
::2007/02/09::
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6
Lamtio Voice - Si Boru Tumbaga (Opera Batak)
Lamtio Voice - Si Boru Tumbaga (Opera Batak)
::2013/03/16::
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7
Tumbaga mallorquina, de Xisco Clapés
Tumbaga mallorquina, de Xisco Clapés
::2015/01/25::
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8
La TUMBAGA - Virus
La TUMBAGA - Virus
::2010/07/09::
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9
Shety Simamora - Andung ni Si boru Tumbaga
Shety Simamora - Andung ni Si boru Tumbaga
::2014/04/14::
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10
La Tumbaga - Coartada - Festival Internacional Altavoz 2012
La Tumbaga - Coartada - Festival Internacional Altavoz 2012
::2013/11/20::
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11
LA TUMBAGA ALTA VOZ 2012 -Audio en vivo-
LA TUMBAGA ALTA VOZ 2012 -Audio en vivo-
::2012/10/16::
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12
Plato Ginting - Si Boru Tumbaga ( Theme Song Opera Batak Si Boru Tumbaga )
Plato Ginting - Si Boru Tumbaga ( Theme Song Opera Batak Si Boru Tumbaga )
::2013/04/19::
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13
Mc Guerrero y  Dj FyahStyle -  Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
Mc Guerrero y Dj FyahStyle - Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
::2014/06/30::
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14
Long Distance Nga Ayat - Vhen Bautista & Laila Tumbaga
Long Distance Nga Ayat - Vhen Bautista & Laila Tumbaga
::2008/08/11::
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15
ROTUA FEBRIANI, Drama Tari dengan judul Siboru Tumbaga
ROTUA FEBRIANI, Drama Tari dengan judul Siboru Tumbaga
::2013/06/09::
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16
WBC Night of Champions - Ekapol Singwancha (Thai) vs. Mike Tumbaga (Phil), 28 May 2013 @HKCEC
WBC Night of Champions - Ekapol Singwancha (Thai) vs. Mike Tumbaga (Phil), 28 May 2013 @HKCEC
::2013/07/09::
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17
Pentas Opera Batak | Siboru Tumbaga - Part 5
Pentas Opera Batak | Siboru Tumbaga - Part 5
::2015/01/19::
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18
Sugat Ni Ayat - Vhen Bautista & Laila Tumbaga
Sugat Ni Ayat - Vhen Bautista & Laila Tumbaga
::2008/08/11::
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19
Pentas Opera Batak | Siboru Tumbaga - Part 1
Pentas Opera Batak | Siboru Tumbaga - Part 1
::2015/01/19::
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20
Izoíl - Tumbaga
Izoíl - Tumbaga
::2012/12/11::
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21
La Tumbaga - Ni Un Paso Atrás (Manizales Grita Rock 2010) - FactorMostaza.com
La Tumbaga - Ni Un Paso Atrás (Manizales Grita Rock 2010) - FactorMostaza.com
::2010/08/16::
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22
Jose Ocampo vs. Mike Tumbaga
Jose Ocampo vs. Mike Tumbaga
::2013/01/17::
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23
Boru tumbaga
Boru tumbaga
::2013/06/19::
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24
TUMBAGA SON. PANTALEON.. FESTIGAITAS 2012. OVEJAS SUCRE
TUMBAGA SON. PANTALEON.. FESTIGAITAS 2012. OVEJAS SUCRE
::2012/10/16::
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25
My video...SARIFA TUMBAGA
My video...SARIFA TUMBAGA
::2014/06/23::
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26
TUMBAGA SON-LAS FUNCIONES DE MI PUEBLO
TUMBAGA SON-LAS FUNCIONES DE MI PUEBLO
::2014/10/15::
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27
Yodchanchai Nakornloung Promotion - Edwin Tumbaga
Yodchanchai Nakornloung Promotion - Edwin Tumbaga
::2012/05/12::
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28
Andung Ni Siboru Tumbaga
Andung Ni Siboru Tumbaga
::2009/03/23::
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29
Teaser Tumbaga Festival 2013
Teaser Tumbaga Festival 2013
::2013/12/22::
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30
Tumbaga Primera Ronda Aficionado
Tumbaga Primera Ronda Aficionado
::2014/08/21::
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31
Instrumen Batak   Malam Uning Uningan   Si Boru Tumbaga
Instrumen Batak Malam Uning Uningan Si Boru Tumbaga
::2013/11/30::
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32
Tumbaga Primera Ronda Aficionado
Tumbaga Primera Ronda Aficionado
::2014/08/21::
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33
Statue - Mark John Magpantay & Elliza Mae Tumbaga (cover)
Statue - Mark John Magpantay & Elliza Mae Tumbaga (cover)
::2014/01/27::
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34
Tumbaga Son. Ovejas (Sucre).  Gaita: El Bendito
Tumbaga Son. Ovejas (Sucre). Gaita: El Bendito
::2012/10/25::
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35
Como limpiar joyas de tumbaga, oro, plata, cobre, alpaca, piuter, latón, níquel, diamantes
Como limpiar joyas de tumbaga, oro, plata, cobre, alpaca, piuter, latón, níquel, diamantes
::2012/03/07::
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36
Erika Marie Grau Tumbaga.. Magna Cum Laude Speech.. So proud of you..
Erika Marie Grau Tumbaga.. Magna Cum Laude Speech.. So proud of you..
::2012/07/07::
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37
NIX - Promo (Tumbaga Festival 2014 Monteria)
NIX - Promo (Tumbaga Festival 2014 Monteria)
::2014/07/11::
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38
let it go guitar cover by judd tumbaga
let it go guitar cover by judd tumbaga
::2015/02/22::
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39
Lina Pandiangan Si Boru Tumbaga Lagu Batak
Lina Pandiangan Si Boru Tumbaga Lagu Batak
::2014/09/21::
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40
1BRO VIDEO PRESENTATION BY MS. RACHELLE TUMBAGA
1BRO VIDEO PRESENTATION BY MS. RACHELLE TUMBAGA
::2014/03/19::
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41
Evi Sinaga | Siboru Tumbaga - Opera Lagu Batak
Evi Sinaga | Siboru Tumbaga - Opera Lagu Batak
::2015/03/10::
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42
Tumbaga Festival 2014
Tumbaga Festival 2014
::2014/09/06::
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43
Tumbaga Treasures
Tumbaga Treasures
::2013/06/23::
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44
Waira Reggae Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
Waira Reggae Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
::2014/07/01::
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45
Radio Matuna - Real [Tumbaga Fest 2013 Montería]
Radio Matuna - Real [Tumbaga Fest 2013 Montería]
::2013/12/18::
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46
Ako si RJ (feat. Tot0y FX & Jheem) - Keisuke
Ako si RJ (feat. Tot0y FX & Jheem) - Keisuke
::2014/08/14::
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47
Colectro invita al Tumbaga Festival 2014, Montería
Colectro invita al Tumbaga Festival 2014, Montería
::2014/07/10::
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48
Dayang-Dayang Medley (Ilocano Non-Stop Novelty) By: Renier Catayna
Dayang-Dayang Medley (Ilocano Non-Stop Novelty) By: Renier Catayna
::2013/01/20::
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49
Tubara Reggae - Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
Tubara Reggae - Tumbaga Festival 2013 Montería
::2014/07/01::
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50
Pentas Opera Batak | Siboru Tumbaga - Part 4
Pentas Opera Batak | Siboru Tumbaga - Part 4
::2015/01/19::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A pectoral of tumbaga, of the Quimbaya culture; 300–1600 AD.

Tumbaga was the name given by Spaniards to a non-specific alloy of gold and copper which they found in widespread use in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica and South America.

Composition and properties[edit]

Tumbaga is an alloy composed mostly of gold and copper. It has a significantly lower melting point than gold or copper alone. It is harder than copper, but maintains malleability after being pounded.

Tumbaga can be treated with a simple acid, like citric acid, to dissolve copper off the surface. What remains is a shiny layer of nearly pure gold on top of a harder, more durable copper-gold alloy sheet. This process is referred to as depletion gilding.

Use and function[edit]

Tumbaga was widely used by the pre-Columbian cultures of Central America to make religious objects. Like most gold alloys, tumbaga was versatile and could be cast, drawn, hammered, gilded, soldered, welded, plated, hardened, annealed, polished, engraved, embossed, and inlaid.

The proportion of gold to copper in artifacts varies widely; items have been found with as much as 97% gold while others instead contain 97% copper. Some tumbaga has also been found to be composed of metals besides gold and copper, up to 18% of the total mass of the tumbaga.

Tumbaga objects were often made using the lost wax technique and the alloy used was a mixture of copper (80%), silver (15%), and gold (5%). The indicated concentrations varied from object to object. Once the object was taken out of the cast, it was burned and as a consequence, copper from the surface of the object was oxidized to copper oxide and was then removed mechanically. The object was then placed in an oxidizing solution containing, it is believed, sodium chloride (salt), and ferric sulfate. This process removed through oxidation the silver from the surface of the object leaving only gold. When looking through a microscope, one may clearly see the empty spots from where the original elements copper and silver were removed.

The "Tumbaga" Wreck[edit]

In 1992, approximately 200 silver "tumbaga" bars were recovered in wreckage off Grand Bahama Island. They were composed of mainly silver, copper, and gold plundered by the Spaniards during the conquests of Cortés and hastily melted into bars of tumbaga for transport across the Atlantic. Because all the metals that reached Europe were melted back into their constituent metals in Spain, the bars found in the shipwreck are the only known bars of this type that remain.[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The"Tumbaga" Saga: Treasure of the Conquistadors 1st ed. 2010

External links[edit]

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