Intel Atom logo
|Max. CPU clock rate||600 MHz to 2.13 GHz|
|FSB speeds||400 MHz to 667 MHz|
|List of Intel CPU microarchitectures|
|P6 (Pentium Pro)||14|
|P6 (Pentium 3)||10|
|NetBurst (Cedar Mill)||31|
Bonnell is a CPU microarchitecture used by Intel Atom processors which can execute up to two instructions per cycle. Like many other x86 microprocessors, it translates x86-instructions (CISC instructions) into simpler internal operations (sometimes referred to as micro-ops, i.e., effectively RISC style instructions) prior to execution. The majority of instructions produce one micro-op when translated, with around 4% of instructions used in typical programs producing multiple micro-ops. The number of instructions that produce more than one micro-op is significantly fewer than the P6 and NetBurst microarchitectures. In the Bonnell microarchitecture, internal micro-ops can contain both a memory load and a memory store in connection with an ALU operation, thus being more similar to the x86 level and more powerful than the micro-ops used in previous designs. This enables relatively good performance with only two integer ALUs, and without any instruction reordering, speculative execution, or register renaming. The Bonnell microarchitecture therefore represents a partial revival of the principles used in earlier Intel designs such as P5 and the i486, with the sole purpose of enhancing the performance per watt ratio. However, Hyper-Threading is implemented in an easy (i.e., low power) way to employ the whole pipeline efficiently by avoiding the typical single thread dependencies.
On 2 March 2008, Intel announced a new single-core Atom Z5xx series processor (code-named Silverthorne) to be used in ultra-mobile PCs/mobile Internet devices (MIDs) which will supersede Stealey (A100 and A110). The processor is a 47 million transistor, 25 mm2, sub-3 W IA processor which allows ~2500 chips to fit on a single 300 mm diameter wafer, allowing for extremely economical production.
An Atom Z500 processor's dual-thread performance is equivalent to its predecessor Stealey, but should outperform it on applications that can use simultaneous multithreading and SSE3. They run from 0.8 to 2.0 GHz and have between 0.65 and 2.4 W TDP rating respectively that can dip down to 0.01 W when idle. It features a 2-issue simultaneous multithreading, 16 stage in-order pipeline with 32 kiB instruction L1 and 24 kiB data L1 caches, integer and floating point execution units, x86 front end, a 512 KB L2 cache and data transferred at 533 MHz on the front-side bus. The design is manufactured in 9M 45 nm high-k metal-gate CMOS and housed in a 441-ball µFCBGA package.
On 2 March 2008, Intel announced lower-power variants of the Diamondville CPU named Atom N2xx. It was intended for use in nettops, and the Classmate PC netbook. Like their predecessors, these are single-core CPUs with Hyper-Threading.
On 22 September 2008, Intel announced a new dual-core processor (unofficially code-named Dual Diamondville) branded Atom 330, to be used in desktop computers. It runs at 1.6 GHz and has a FSB running at 533 MHz. The processor has an 8 W TDP rating. Its dual core consists of two Diamondville dies on a single substrate. Atom 330 supports 64 bit instructions.
Although the Atom processor itself is relatively low power for an x86 microprocessor, many chipsets commonly used with it dissipate significantly more power. For example, while the N270 CPU commonly used in netbooks through mid-2010 has a net maximum TDP of 2.5 W, an Intel Atom platform that uses the 945GSE Express chipset has a specified maximum TDP of 11.8 W, with the processor using a relatively small portion of the total power consumed. Individual figures are 2.5 W for the N270 processor, 6 W for the 945GSE chipset and 3.3 W for the 82801GBM I/O controller. Intel also provides a US15W System Controller Hub based chipset with a combined TDP of less than 5 W together with the Atom processor Z5xx (Silverthorne) series, to be used in ultra-mobile PCs/Mobile Internet Devices (MIDs), though some manufacturers have released premium ultra thin system running on these line of CPU (e.g. Sony VAIO X).
Initially, all Atom motherboards on the consumer market featured the Intel 945GC chipset, which uses 22 watts alone. As of early 2009, only a few manufacturers are offering lower power 945GSE-based motherboards to end users, paired with the Atom N270 or N280 CPU, while Sony VAIO pioneers the use of the low power US15W chipset with Z5xx series processors.
On 21 December 2009, Intel announced the N450, D510 and D410 with integrated graphics. Total kit power goes from 11.8 W to 7 W with the new processor and chipset, a 40% improvement. Intel GMA 3150, a 45 nm shrink of the GMA X3100 with no HD capabilities, is included as the on-die GPU. Netbooks using this new processor released on 11 January 2010. The major new feature includes longer battery life, with 6 cell systems reporting 10 or more hours of battery life.
This generation of the Atom was codenamed "Pineview" which is used in the "Pine Trail" platform. Intel's Pine Trail-M platform utilizes an Atom processor (codenamed Pineview-M) and Platform Controller Hub (codenamed Tiger Point). The graphics and memory controller have moved into the processor, which is paired with the Tiger Point PCH. This creates a more power efficient 2-chip platform rather than the 3-chip one used with previous-generation Atom chipsets.
The new Atom N4xx chips became available on 11 January 2010. It is used in netbook/nettop systems, and features an integrated single-channel DDR2 memory controller and an integrated graphics core. It features hyper-threading and is still manufactured on a 45 nm process. The new design uses half the power of the older "Menlow" platform. This reduced overall power consumption and size makes the platform more desirable for use in smartphones and other mobile internet devices.
The D4xx and D5xx series support the x86-64 bit instruction set and DDR2-800. It is rated for embedded use. The series has an integrated graphics processor built directly into the CPU to help improve performance. The models are targeted at nettops and low end desktops. They do not support speedstep.
The Atom D510 processor features dual core running at 1.66 GHz, with 1 MB of L2 cache. The Atom D410 processor features a single core running at 1.66 GHz, with 512 KB of L2 cache. Power requirements are rated at 13 watts for the D510 and 10 watts for the D410.
Tunnel Creek is an embedded Atom processor.
The Lincroft SoC (Z6xx) with the Whitney Point chipset is included in the Oak Trail platform. Oak Trail is an Intel Atom platform based on Moorestown. Moorestown and Oak Trail platform are implemented with SoC code-named Lincroft but two distinct input/output Platform Controller Hub(I/O-PCH) for each, respectively code-named Langwell and Whitney Point which includes a PCI bus that enables Oak Trail platform running Microsoft Windows or Google Chrome OS but not only Mobile(Handheld) operating system. Oak Trail was presented on 11 April 2011 and will be released in May 2011.[dated info] The Z670 processor, part of the "Oak Trail" platform, delivers improved video playback, faster Internet browsing and longer battery life, "without sacrificing performance" according to Intel. "Oak Trail" includes support for 1080p video decode, as well as HDMI. The platform also has improvements in power-efficient performance and allows applications to run on various operating systems, including Google Android, MeeGo and Windows.
Stellarton is a Tunnel Creek CPU with an Altera Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA).
Sodaville is a consumer electronics Atom processor.
The 32 nm shrink of Bonnell is called Saltwell.
Intel released their third-generation "Cedar Trail" platform (consisting of a range of Cedarview Atom processors and the NM10 southbridge chip) based on 32 nm process technology in the fourth quarter of 2011. Intel stated that featured improvements in graphics capabilities including support for 1080p video, additional display options including HDMI and DisplayPort, and enhancements in power consumption are to enable fanless designs with longer battery life.
The Cedar Trail platform includes two new CPUs, 32 nm-based Cedarview Atom N2800 (1.86 GHz) and N2600 (1.6 GHz), priced at US$47 and US$42, which replace the previous generation Pineview Atom N4xx and N5xx processors. The CPUs also feature an integrated GPU that supports DirectX 9.
In addition to the netbook platform, Intel's new Cedarview Atom CPUs, D2700 (US$52) and D3200 (US$62), for nettops were released 25 September 2011.
In early March 2012 the Cedarview Atom N2800 based Intel DN2800MT motherboard started to become available. This mini-ITX motherboard stands out due to the use of a netbook Atom, which allows it to reach idle power consumption as low as 7.1 Watts.
In December of 2012, Intel launched the 64-bit Centerton family of Atom CPUs, designed specifically for use in servers. Centerton, which is based on the 32 nm Saltwell architecture, adds features previously unavailable in Atom processors such as Intel VT virtualization technology and support for ECC memory.
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