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Geometry Dash: User Level - Turn Down For What (By: Cocolon) [Hard]
Geometry Dash: User Level - Turn Down For What (By: Cocolon) [Hard]
Published: 2015/07/02
Channel: Edness
Geometry Magic: turn circles into a square
Geometry Magic: turn circles into a square
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Moving Into Geometry Flips Slides and Turns
Moving Into Geometry Flips Slides and Turns
Published: 2009/08/31
Channel: TeacherTube Math
UM VÍDEO TURN DOWN FOR WHAT | Geometry Dash
UM VÍDEO TURN DOWN FOR WHAT | Geometry Dash
Published: 2015/06/22
Channel: T3ddy
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Skateboard truck turn geometry
Published: 2015/04/23
Channel: Jacob Amrhein
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HOW TO MAKE ROTATING OBJECTS! - 2.1 Geometry Dash Editor
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: knobbelboy
3dmotive Sample Clip - Using the Line Tool to Turn Shapes into Geometry
3dmotive Sample Clip - Using the Line Tool to Turn Shapes into Geometry
Published: 2016/07/26
Channel: 3dmotiveHD
Denise Carter
Denise Carter's Smarty Bunch - GEOMETRY TRANSFORMATIONS
Published: 2010/09/10
Channel: TheSmartybunch
Transformations: Geometry Song For Elementary Students
Transformations: Geometry Song For Elementary Students
Published: 2016/02/09
Channel: Numbalumba
How to Turn a Sphere Inside Out
How to Turn a Sphere Inside Out
Published: 2007/11/15
Channel: Justin Ruckman
TURN DOWN FOR WHAT!!??!! - Geometry Dash Part 1
TURN DOWN FOR WHAT!!??!! - Geometry Dash Part 1
Published: 2015/03/15
Channel: BlastphamousHD Gaming
Rotations (Turns) Transformational Geometry Coordinate Plane Geometer
Rotations (Turns) Transformational Geometry Coordinate Plane Geometer's SketchPad
Published: 2014/03/08
Channel: saint simon
Tips film: Choose the right geometry for hard part turning - Sandvik Coromant
Tips film: Choose the right geometry for hard part turning - Sandvik Coromant
Published: 2013/02/15
Channel: Sandvik Coromant
TURN DOWN FOR WHAT| GEOMETRY DASH(REMIX)|(nivel auto)
TURN DOWN FOR WHAT| GEOMETRY DASH(REMIX)|(nivel auto)
Published: 2015/10/21
Channel: FLoPEZ ๏̯͡๏﴿
TURN DOWN FOR WHAT [Geometry dash ]
TURN DOWN FOR WHAT [Geometry dash ]
Published: 2015/07/20
Channel: Geometry Dash Lenny
Geometry Dash | Creator Tutorial #7 : How to Make Invisible Object
Geometry Dash | Creator Tutorial #7 : How to Make Invisible Object
Published: 2015/09/02
Channel: Subscribe Partition New Channel
Congruence: A turn-based game of geometry and territory.
Congruence: A turn-based game of geometry and territory.
Published: 2016/11/29
Channel: jpswensen
geometry making a turn example
geometry making a turn example
Published: 2017/05/18
Channel: TSmithECCS
Geometry Dash 360 degrees turn wave
Geometry Dash 360 degrees turn wave
Published: 2015/12/06
Channel: SenhGaming&Glitches
Geometry Dash 360 degrees turn ship
Geometry Dash 360 degrees turn ship
Published: 2015/12/06
Channel: SenhGaming&Glitches
maya monday - XGen - outputting geometry
maya monday - XGen - outputting geometry
Published: 2015/09/28
Channel: daryl obert
Outside In
Outside In
Published: 2011/04/23
Channel: ssgelm
Turn Down For What - Geometry Dash
Turn Down For What - Geometry Dash
Published: 2015/07/03
Channel: Geometry May ツ
Geometry turns 90 180 270
Geometry turns 90 180 270
Published: 2016/02/17
Channel: T Thomas
Sister
Sister's turn |geometry dash
Published: 2016/09/12
Channel: John Vang
[2.1!] How To Use NoClip (Invincibility) On Geometry Dash  (Made by mgostih)
[2.1!] How To Use NoClip (Invincibility) On Geometry Dash (Made by mgostih)
Published: 2017/01/26
Channel: Kradrice
How to Turn Things Invisible | Geometry Dash 2.1
How to Turn Things Invisible | Geometry Dash 2.1
Published: 2017/03/28
Channel: Chill Charmander
Geometry Dash Account Giveaway (RESULTS) ( Turn volume up if to quiet )
Geometry Dash Account Giveaway (RESULTS) ( Turn volume up if to quiet )
Published: 2016/08/18
Channel: Prius GD
SGB Level "SDB
SGB Level "SDB'S turn Geometry Dash
Published: 2016/10/16
Channel: Super Gaming Bros //SGB
Geometry Dash в 3D |  Run Turn Die 🔶 | Геометри Даш
Geometry Dash в 3D | Run Turn Die 🔶 | Геометри Даш
Published: 2016/06/17
Channel: Пушистый Волк :з
Understanding Cutting Tool Geometry
Understanding Cutting Tool Geometry
Published: 2015/06/10
Channel: Learn Engineering
Geometry Dash Everyone Had A Turn BUT Lucy
Geometry Dash Everyone Had A Turn BUT Lucy
Published: 2016/08/08
Channel: XipGeordie XD
I took a wrong turn to the Hallmark Channel?! - Geometry Dash World Online Levels #4
I took a wrong turn to the Hallmark Channel?! - Geometry Dash World Online Levels #4
Published: 2017/01/02
Channel: The Boss Channel
TURN DOW FOR WHAT | Geometry Dash
TURN DOW FOR WHAT | Geometry Dash
Published: 2016/06/27
Channel: lobo_GAMER BR
Geometry Dash 1# | Pure skills (Please turn on captions for full effect .3.)
Geometry Dash 1# | Pure skills (Please turn on captions for full effect .3.)
Published: 2017/02/20
Channel: ExoticX GD
I GOT THEM FREESTLYE BARS! ALSO THIS GAME MAKES ME TURN INTO INCREDIBLE HULK! [GEOMETRY DASH]
I GOT THEM FREESTLYE BARS! ALSO THIS GAME MAKES ME TURN INTO INCREDIBLE HULK! [GEOMETRY DASH]
Published: 2017/07/22
Channel: tjayerrday
Unit 5 Geometry: Lesson 9 Measuring Angles as Turns
Unit 5 Geometry: Lesson 9 Measuring Angles as Turns
Published: 2015/02/03
Channel: Ms D and Ms T KIPP
[Geometry Dash 2.0] Lost Replay- Clubin
[Geometry Dash 2.0] Lost Replay- Clubin's Turn! | Awesome, right?
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: [VS/TL] LolwutUNoob Geometry Dash
NEW INTRO!!! | Geometry Dash World | Unexpected Turn
NEW INTRO!!! | Geometry Dash World | Unexpected Turn
Published: 2016/12/27
Channel: Sykinetic
Geometry Dash (turn Volume up or use headphones)
Geometry Dash (turn Volume up or use headphones)
Published: 2017/01/02
Channel: CeramicBunnah
Houdini Quicktip: Turning Displacement Textures into Displaced Geometry (... Points)
Houdini Quicktip: Turning Displacement Textures into Displaced Geometry (... Points)
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ISAACS TURN!! | Geometry Dash Part 3
ISAACS TURN!! | Geometry Dash Part 3
Published: 2016/12/23
Channel: IDIOT GAMER
Geometry Dash 360 degree turn ufo
Geometry Dash 360 degree turn ufo
Published: 2015/12/06
Channel: SenhGaming&Glitches
Geometry Dash - TURN DOWN FOR WHAT!! by Cocolon
Geometry Dash - TURN DOWN FOR WHAT!! by Cocolon
Published: 2015/08/03
Channel: Geometry Dash Nemesi
Geometry Dash Lets build:Final Turn     ep 1
Geometry Dash Lets build:Final Turn ep 1
Published: 2016/04/25
Channel: Geometry Dash Conor
How to Turn on Percentages in Geometry Dash
How to Turn on Percentages in Geometry Dash
Published: 2017/05/07
Channel: Chimchar Chris
Más geometry dash turn down for what
Más geometry dash turn down for what
Published: 2016/10/10
Channel: Christian Maya
MERRY CHRISTMAS! Geometry Dash - Geometrical Dominator- Turn on captions to see what I
MERRY CHRISTMAS! Geometry Dash - Geometrical Dominator- Turn on captions to see what I'm saying
Published: 2015/12/25
Channel: Game64ful 826
StAmp (Lol I never turn the other way -Geometry dash #11)
StAmp (Lol I never turn the other way -Geometry dash #11)
Published: 2017/02/28
Channel: NeatGamer 398
How do you turn on music???? Geometry Dash World
How do you turn on music???? Geometry Dash World
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Turn
Unit of Plane angle
Symbol tr or pla 
Unit conversions
1 tr in ... ... is equal to ...
   radians    6.283185307179586... rad
   radians    2π rad
   degrees    360°
   gradians    400g
Counterclockwise rotations about the center point where a complete rotation is equal to 1 turn

A turn is a unit of plane angle measurement equal to 2π radians, 360 degrees or 400 gradians. A turn is also referred to as a revolution or complete rotation or full circle or cycle or rev or rot.

A turn can be subdivided in many different ways: into half turns, quarter turns, centiturns, milliturns, binary angles, points etc.

Subdivision of turns[edit]

A turn can be divided in 100 centiturns or 1000 milliturns, with each milliturn corresponding to an angle of 0.36°, which can also be written as 21′ 36″. A protractor divided in centiturns is normally called a percentage protractor.

Binary fractions of a turn are also used. Sailors have traditionally divided a turn into 32 compass points. The binary degree, also known as the binary radian (or brad), is 1256 turn.[1] The binary degree is used in computing so that an angle can be represented to the maximum possible precision in a single byte. Other measures of angle used in computing may be based on dividing one whole turn into 2n equal parts for other values of n.[2]

The notion of turn is commonly used for planar rotations. Two special rotations have acquired appellations of their own: a rotation through 180° is commonly referred to as a half-turn (π radians),[3] a rotation through 90° is referred to as a quarter-turn.

History[edit]

The word turn originates via Latin and French from the Greek word τόρνος (tórnos – a lathe).

In 1697, David Gregory used π/ρ (pi over rho) to denote the perimeter of a circle (i.e., the circumference) divided by its radius.[4][5] However, earlier in 1647, William Oughtred had used δ/π (delta over pi) for the ratio of the diameter to perimeter. The first use of the symbol π on its own with its present meaning (of perimeter divided by diameter) was in 1706 by the Welsh mathematician William Jones.[6] Euler adopted the symbol with that meaning in 1737, leading to its widespread use.

Percentage protractors have existed since 1922,[7] but the terms centiturns and milliturns were introduced much later by Sir Fred Hoyle.[8]

The German standard DIN 1315 (1974-03) proposed the unit symbol pla (from Latin: plenus angulus "full angle") for turns.[9][10] Since 2011, the HP 39gII and HP Prime support the unit symbol tr for turns. In 2016, support for turns was also added to newRPL for the HP 50g.[11]

Unit conversion[edit]

The circumference of the unit circle (whose radius is one) is 2π.

One turn is equal to 2π (≈ 6.283185307179586)[12] radians.

Conversion of common angles
Turns Radians Degrees Gradians (Gons)
0 0 0g
1/24 π/12 15° 16 2/3g
1/12 π/6 30° 33 1/3g
1/10 π/5 36° 40g
1/8 π/4 45° 50g
1/2π 1 c. 57.3° c. 63.7g
1/6 π/3 60° 66 2/3g
1/5 2π/5 72° 80g
1/4 π/2 90° 100g
1/3 2π/3 120° 133 1/3g
2/5 4π/5 144° 160g
1/2 π 180° 200g
3/4 3π/2 270° 300g
1 2π 360° 400g

Tau proposal[edit]

An arc of a circle with the same length as the radius of that circle corresponds to an angle of 1 radian. A full circle corresponds to a full turn, or approximately 6.28 radians, which are expressed here using the Greek letter tau (τ).

In 1958, Albert Eagle proposed the Greek letter tau τ as a symbol for 1/2π, selecting the new symbol because π resembles two τ symbols conjoined (ττ).[13]

In 2001, Robert Palais proposed using the number of radians in a turn as the fundamental circle constant instead of π, which amounts to the number of radians in half a turn, in order to make mathematics simpler and more intuitive. His proposal used a "pi with three legs" symbol to denote the constant ( = 2π).[14]

In 2010, Michael Hartl proposed to use tau to represent Palais' circle constant (not Eagle's): τ = 2π. He offered two reasons. First, τ is the number of radians in one turn, which allows fractions of a turn to be expressed more directly: for instance, a 3/4 turn would be represented as 3/4τ rad instead of 3/2π rad. Second, τ visually resembles π, whose association with the circle constant is unavoidable.[15] Hartl's Tau Manifesto gives many examples of formulas that are simpler if tau is used instead of pi.[16][17][18]

Examples of use[edit]

  • As an angular unit, the turn or revolution is particularly useful for large angles, such as in connection with electromagnetic coils and rotating objects. See also winding number.
  • The angular speed of rotating machinery, such as automobile engines, is commonly measured in revolutions per minute or RPM.
  • Turn is used in complex dynamics for measure of external and internal angles. The sum of external angles of a polygon equals one turn. Angle doubling map is used.
  • Pie charts illustrate proportions of a whole as fractions of a turn. Each one percent is shown as an angle of one centiturn.

Kinematics of turns[edit]

In kinematics, a turn is a rotation less than a full revolution. A turn may be represented in a mathematical model that uses expressions of complex numbers or quaternions. In the complex plane every non-zero number has a polar coordinate expression z = r cis(a) = r cos(a) + ri sin(a) where r > 0 and a is in [0, 2π). A turn of the complex plane arises from multiplying z = x + iy by an element u = ebi that lies on the unit circle:

zuz.

Frank Morley consistently referred to elements of the unit circle as turns in the book Inversive Geometry, (1933) which he coauthored with his son Frank Vigor Morley.[19]

The Latin term for turn is versor, which is a quaternion that can be visualized as an arc of a great circle. The product of two versors can be compared to a spherical triangle where two sides add to the third. For the kinematics of rotation in three dimensions, see quaternions and spatial rotation.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "ooPIC Programmer's Guide". www.oopic.com. 
  2. ^ Hargreaves, Shawn. "Angles, integers, and modulo arithmetic". blogs.msdn.com. 
  3. ^ "Half Turn, Reflection in Point". cut-the-knot.org. 
  4. ^ Beckmann, Petr (1989). A History of Pi. Barnes & Noble Publishing. 
  5. ^ Schwartzman, Steven (1994). The Words of Mathematics: An Etymological Dictionary of Mathematical Terms Used in English. The Mathematical Association of America. p. 165. 
  6. ^ "Pi through the ages". 
  7. ^ Croxton, Frederick E. (1922). "A Percentage Protractor". Journal of the American Statistical Association. 18: 108–109. doi:10.1080/01621459.1922.10502455. 
  8. ^ Hoyle, Fred (1962). Astronomy. London: Macdonald. 
  9. ^ German, Sigmar; Drath, Peter (2013-03-13) [1979]. Handbuch SI-Einheiten: Definition, Realisierung, Bewahrung und Weitergabe der SI-Einheiten, Grundlagen der Präzisionsmeßtechnik (in German) (1 ed.). Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, reprint: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3322836061. 978-3-528-08441-7, 9783322836069. Retrieved 2015-08-14. 
  10. ^ Kurzweil, Peter (2013-03-09) [1999]. Das Vieweg Einheiten-Lexikon: Formeln und Begriffe aus Physik, Chemie und Technik (in German) (1 ed.). Vieweg, reprint: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3322929205. doi:10.1007/978-3-322-92920-4. 978-3-322-92921-1. Retrieved 2015-08-14. 
  11. ^ http://www.hpmuseum.org/forum/thread-4783-post-55836.html#pid55836
  12. ^ Sequence OEISA019692
  13. ^ Eagle, Albert (1958). The Elliptic Functions as They Should Be: An Account, with Applications, of the Functions in a New Canonical Form. Cambridge, England: Galloway and Porter. 
  14. ^ Palais, Robert (2001). "Pi is Wrong" (PDF). The Mathematical Intelligencer. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag. 23 (3): 7–8. doi:10.1007/bf03026846. 
  15. ^ Hartl, Michael (2013-03-14). "The Tau Manifesto". Retrieved 2013-09-14. 
  16. ^ Aron, Jacob (2011-01-08). "Interview: Michael Hartl: It's time to kill off pi". New Scientist. 209 (2794): 23. Bibcode:2011NewSc.209...23A. doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(11)60036-5. 
  17. ^ Landau, Elizabeth (2011-03-14). "On Pi Day, is 'pi' under attack?". cnn.com. 
  18. ^ "Why Tau Trumps Pi". Scientific American. 2014-06-25. Retrieved 2015-03-20. 
  19. ^ Morley, Frank; Morley, Frank Vigor (2014) [1933]. Inversive Geometry. Boston, USA; New York, USA: Ginn and Company, reprint: Courier Corporation, Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-49339-8. 0-486-49339-3. Retrieved 2015-10-17. 

External links[edit]

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