Play Video
1
How Gyroscopic Turn & Slip Indicator Works
How Gyroscopic Turn & Slip Indicator Works
::2012/02/23::
Play Video
2
Turn Coordinator
Turn Coordinator
::2013/05/16::
Play Video
3
Why a Turn and Slip indicator doesn
Why a Turn and Slip indicator doesn't indicate Roll
::2013/07/25::
Play Video
4
Turn and Slip Indicator explained
Turn and Slip Indicator explained
::2013/04/07::
Play Video
5
Gyroscopic Turn & Slip Indicator
Gyroscopic Turn & Slip Indicator
::2011/12/25::
Play Video
6
Aviation Safety
Aviation Safety's Slip/Skid Lesson
::2010/03/09::
Play Video
7
Gyroscopic Instruments - U.S. Navy Aviation Training Film (1960)
Gyroscopic Instruments - U.S. Navy Aviation Training Film (1960)
::2012/11/29::
Play Video
8
Gyroscopes in the Cockpit
Gyroscopes in the Cockpit
::2010/11/17::
Play Video
9
Turn-and-Slip Indicator
Turn-and-Slip Indicator
::2009/03/31::
Play Video
10
CD V-700 With Turn And Bank Indicator
CD V-700 With Turn And Bank Indicator
::2008/09/14::
Play Video
11
Turn and Bank Indicator
Turn and Bank Indicator
::2013/02/12::
Play Video
12
Indicator, Turn & Slip, 4 Minute Turn, Aircraft one each
Indicator, Turn & Slip, 4 Minute Turn, Aircraft one each
::2011/03/25::
Play Video
13
CD V-718 With Turn And Bank Indicator
CD V-718 With Turn And Bank Indicator
::2008/09/14::
Play Video
14
Seabrace old turn bank indicator
Seabrace old turn bank indicator
::2013/04/21::
Play Video
15
Turn Coordinator / Skid Slip Indicator / 2 Minute Turn
Turn Coordinator / Skid Slip Indicator / 2 Minute Turn
::2007/09/09::
Play Video
16
RC Allen Attitude Indicator
RC Allen Attitude Indicator
::2014/02/14::
Play Video
17
demo-2.avi
demo-2.avi
::2009/11/20::
Play Video
18
Belite Aircraft Instruments, Belite Airspeed Indicator, VSI, AOA, turn and bank, G meter.
Belite Aircraft Instruments, Belite Airspeed Indicator, VSI, AOA, turn and bank, G meter.
::2013/07/13::
Play Video
19
Turn Coordinator
Turn Coordinator
::2014/01/10::
Play Video
20
wind indicator.wmv
wind indicator.wmv
::2011/06/18::
Play Video
21
VDC and Slip Light indicator Solid
VDC and Slip Light indicator Solid
::2012/10/16::
Play Video
22
Bank Indicator
Bank Indicator
::2011/04/19::
Play Video
23
Slipping turn to final in the Piper Clipper
Slipping turn to final in the Piper Clipper
::2010/08/21::
Play Video
24
Tumbling Attitude Indicator/Directional Gyro (Spin Induced)
Tumbling Attitude Indicator/Directional Gyro (Spin Induced)
::2012/07/18::
Play Video
25
Turn indicator for pc (First Test )
Turn indicator for pc (First Test )
::2012/03/04::
Play Video
26
Attitude indicator RCA26AK-1
Attitude indicator RCA26AK-1
::2012/01/28::
Play Video
27
24. Su-25: Introduction (Part 1)
24. Su-25: Introduction (Part 1)
::2011/03/30::
Play Video
28
Purdue Flight: 13NOV13 Sideslip and Wing Vorticies
Purdue Flight: 13NOV13 Sideslip and Wing Vorticies
::2014/02/17::
Play Video
29
Bell & Ross BR01-92 Turn Coordinator at Oster
Bell & Ross BR01-92 Turn Coordinator at Oster
::2013/03/05::
Play Video
30
Forces of Flight
Forces of Flight
::2014/03/11::
Play Video
31
2. Taxi and Takeoff (LockOn Flaming Cliffs 2.0)
2. Taxi and Takeoff (LockOn Flaming Cliffs 2.0)
::2010/04/20::
Play Video
32
Artificial horizon topple/gimbal locked
Artificial horizon topple/gimbal locked
::2013/05/28::
Play Video
33
Santa Barbara Flying (short field takeoff/slip landing)
Santa Barbara Flying (short field takeoff/slip landing)
::2011/02/28::
Play Video
34
Our Enemy The Japanese: U.S. Navy Training Film (1943)
Our Enemy The Japanese: U.S. Navy Training Film (1943)
::2014/04/13::
Play Video
35
His right indicator doesn
His right indicator doesn't work
::2014/02/07::
Play Video
36
Airspeed Indicator Simulation
Airspeed Indicator Simulation
::2011/09/30::
Play Video
37
Attitude-indicator-nov2010
Attitude-indicator-nov2010
::2010/11/26::
Play Video
38
PPL Ground School: Attitude Indicator
PPL Ground School: Attitude Indicator
::2013/03/03::
Play Video
39
Death of a Turn Coordinator
Death of a Turn Coordinator
::2012/10/31::
Play Video
40
Stalls from Skidding and Slipping Turns
Stalls from Skidding and Slipping Turns
::2014/01/30::
Play Video
41
freestyle artificial horizon gyro
freestyle artificial horizon gyro
::2011/09/15::
Play Video
42
Lots of Stirling engines
Lots of Stirling engines
::2012/10/29::
Play Video
43
Stewart shreds Seymour
Stewart shreds Seymour
::2011/01/20::
Play Video
44
Pitot Static Instruments
Pitot Static Instruments
::2010/04/02::
Play Video
45
ITV Left Turn Indicator trigger
ITV Left Turn Indicator trigger
::2010/01/07::
Play Video
46
Alex side slip pivot drills Kirkwood Mar 8
Alex side slip pivot drills Kirkwood Mar 8
::2014/03/10::
Play Video
47
Turn Indicator
Turn Indicator
::2014/03/25::
Play Video
48
Side Slip into the sunset
Side Slip into the sunset
::2014/02/12::
Play Video
49
IL-2 Sturmovik: Cliffs of Dover fps test in London - Custom Graphic Settings in release version
IL-2 Sturmovik: Cliffs of Dover fps test in London - Custom Graphic Settings in release version
::2011/04/06::
Play Video
50
First Gyroscope assembled and spun up
First Gyroscope assembled and spun up
::2013/10/11::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Turn and balance indicator)
Jump to: navigation, search
Illustration of the face of a turn-and-slip indicator

In aviation, the turn and slip indicator (T/S) and the turn coordinator (TC) variant are essentially two aircraft flight instruments in one device. One indicates the rate of turn, or the rate of change in the aircraft's heading, the other part indicates whether the aircraft is in coordinated flight, showing the slip or skid of the turn. The slip indicator is actually an inclinometer that at rest displays the angle of the aircraft's lateral axis with respect to horizontal, and in motion displays this angle as modified by the acceleration of the aircraft.[1]

Name[edit]

The turn and slip indicator can be referred to as the turn and bank indicator, although the instrument does not respond directly to bank angle. Neither does the turn coordinator, but it does respond to roll rate, which enables it to respond more quickly to the start of a turn.[2]

Operation[edit]

Graphic of a turn and slip indicator and a turn coordinator

Turn indicator[edit]

The turn indicator is a gyroscopic instrument that works on the principle of precession. The gyro is mounted in a gimbal. The gyro's rotational axis is in-line with the lateral (pitch) axis of the aircraft, while the gimbal has limited freedom around the longitudinal (roll) axis of the aircraft.

As the aircraft yaws, a torque force is applied to the gyro around the vertical axis, due to aircraft yaw, which causes gyro precession around the roll axis. The gyro spins on an axis that is 90 degrees relative to the direction of the applied yaw torque force. The gyro and gimbal rotate (around the roll axis) with limited freedom against a calibrated spring. The torque force against the spring reaches an equilibrium and the angle that the gimbal and gyro become positioned is directly connected to the display needle, thereby indicating the rate of turn.[3] In the turn coordinator, the gyro is canted 30 degrees from the horizontal so it's responsive to roll as well as yaw.

The display contains hash marks for the pilot's reference during a turn. When the needle is lined up with a hash mark, the aircraft is performing a "standard rate turn" which is defined as three degrees per second, known in some countries as "rate one." This translates to two minutes per 360 degrees of turn (a complete circle). Indicators are marked as to their sensitivity,[4] with "2 min turn" for those whose hash marks correspond to a standard rate or two minute turn, and "4 min turn" for those, used in faster aircraft, that show a half standard rate or four minute turn. The supersonic Concorde jet aircraft and many military jets are examples of aircraft that use 4 min. turn indicators. The hash marks are sometimes called "dog houses," because of their distinct shape on various makes of turn indicators. Under instrument flight rules, using these figures allows a pilot to perform timed turns in order to conform with the required air traffic patterns. For a change of heading of 90 degrees, a turn lasting 30 seconds would be required to perform a standard rate or "rate one" turn.

Inclinometer[edit]

Coordinated flight indication is obtained by using an inclinometer, which is recognized as the "ball in a tube." An inclinometer contains a ball sealed inside a curved glass tube, which also contains a liquid to act as a damping medium. The original form of the indicator is in effect a spirit level with the tube curved in the opposite direction and a bubble replacing the ball.[5] In some early aircraft the indicator was merely a pendulum with a dashpot for damping. The ball gives an indication of whether the aircraft is slipping, skidding or in balanced flight. The ball's movement is caused by the force of gravity and the aircraft's centripetal acceleration. When the ball is centered in the middle of the tube, the aircraft is said to be in coordinated flight. If the ball is on the inside (wing down side) of a turn, the aircraft is slipping. And finally, when the ball is on the outside (wing up side) of the turn, the aircraft is skidding.

A simple alternative to the balance indicator is a yaw string, which allows the pilot to simply view the string's movements as rudimentary indication of aircraft balance.

Turn coordinator[edit]

Image showing the face of a turn coordinator during a standard rate coordinated right turn.

The turn coordinator (TC) is a further development of the turn and slip indicator with the major difference being the display and the axis upon which the gimbal is mounted. The display is that of a miniature airplane as seen from behind. This looks similar to that of an attitude indicator. "NO PITCH INFORMATION" is usually written on the instrument to avoid confusion regarding the aircraft's pitch, which can be obtained from the artificial horizon instrument.

In contrast to the T/S, the TC's gimbal is pitched up 30 degrees from the lateral axis. This causes the instrument to respond to roll as well as yaw. This allows the instrument to display a change more quickly as it will react to the change in roll before the aircraft has even begun to yaw. Although this instrument reacts to changes in the aircraft's roll, it does not display the roll attitude.

The turn coordinator may be used as a performance instrument when the attitude indicator has failed. This is called "partial panel" operations. It can be unnecessarily difficult or even impossible if the pilot does not understand that the instrument is showing roll rates as well as turn rates. The usefulness is also impaired if the internal dashpot is worn out. In the latter case, the instrument is underdamped and in turbulence will indicate large full-scale deflections to the left and right, all of which are actually roll rate responses. In this condition it may not be possible for the pilot to maintain control of the aircraft in partial-panel operations in instrument meteorological conditions. For this and other reasons, many highly experienced pilots prefer the "older" turn and bank indicator design.

Practical Implications[edit]

Skidding. The corrective action is to press the "left" pedal adequately.

Slipping and skidding within a turn is sometimes referred to as a sloppy turn, due to the perceptive discomfort it can cause to the pilot and passengers. When the aircraft is in a balanced turn (ball is centered), passengers experience gravity directly in line with their seat (force perpendicular to seat). With a well balanced turn, passengers may not even realize the aircraft is turning unless they are viewing objects outside the aircraft. While aircraft slipping and skidding are often undesired in a usual turn that maintains altitude, slipping of the aircraft can be used for practical purposes. Intentionally putting an aircraft into a slip is used as a forward slip and a sideslip. These slips are performed by applying opposite inputs of the aileron and rudder controls. A forward slip allows a pilot to quickly drop altitude without gaining unnecessary speed, while a sideslip is one method utilized to perform a crosswind landing.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License

Mashpedia enables any individual or company to promote their own Youtube-hosted videos or Youtube Channels, offering a simple and effective plan to get them in front of our engaged audience.

Want to learn more? Please contact us at: hello@mashpedia.com

Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014