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Umbilical hernia Repair new approach
Umbilical hernia Repair new approach
Published: 2012/03/08
Channel: Jonathan Daniels
Umbilical Hernia Symptoms and Treatment
Umbilical Hernia Symptoms and Treatment
Published: 2014/07/21
Channel: Howard County General Hospital
Umbilical Hernia Repair at California Hernia Specialists
Umbilical Hernia Repair at California Hernia Specialists
Published: 2014/02/20
Channel: California Hernia Specialists: Specialty Care for Hernia Repair
Umbilical Hernia - repair using mesh
Umbilical Hernia - repair using mesh
Published: 2015/03/29
Channel: Online Medical – Website Design & Development for Healthcare Professionals
umbilical hernia - with fat herniation
umbilical hernia - with fat herniation
Published: 2013/02/17
Channel: DrER.tv
What is an Umbilical Hernia
What is an Umbilical Hernia
Published: 2016/02/18
Channel: FitnessFashionista
My Umbilical Hernia Repair Surgery and Recovery
My Umbilical Hernia Repair Surgery and Recovery
Published: 2016/11/05
Channel: Sean Symons
3 Signs You May have an Umbilical Hernia
3 Signs You May have an Umbilical Hernia
Published: 2016/07/26
Channel: Mary Paulina
umbilical hernia exam - version 2 (edited audio)
umbilical hernia exam - version 2 (edited audio)
Published: 2013/02/09
Channel: DrER.tv
Laparoscopic Repair of Umbilical Hernia HD Video
Laparoscopic Repair of Umbilical Hernia HD Video
Published: 2014/09/29
Channel: DR RK Mishra
Umbilical Hernia Repair Surgery Pt 1
Umbilical Hernia Repair Surgery Pt 1
Published: 2016/07/14
Channel: Bobby Sox
Belly Button Hernia
Belly Button Hernia
Published: 2016/06/11
Channel: Family Pediatrics
Laparascopic Incisional or Umbilical Hernia Surgery Patient Information in English
Laparascopic Incisional or Umbilical Hernia Surgery Patient Information in English
Published: 2016/10/25
Channel: Dr Chirag Thakkar
Umbilical Hernia Symptoms and Surgical Repair, Dr. Hadley Wesson
Umbilical Hernia Symptoms and Surgical Repair, Dr. Hadley Wesson
Published: 2015/11/24
Channel: Howard County General Hospital
Umbilical hernia repair surgery Day2-3 update
Umbilical hernia repair surgery Day2-3 update
Published: 2016/07/14
Channel: Bobby Sox
How to Cure an Abdominal Hernia | Cure a Umbilical Hernia Naturally | Weight loss
How to Cure an Abdominal Hernia | Cure a Umbilical Hernia Naturally | Weight loss
Published: 2017/04/01
Channel: Healthy Primix
UCMC ClearMesh Composite - Umbilical Hernia Repair
UCMC ClearMesh Composite - Umbilical Hernia Repair
Published: 2014/11/08
Channel: DIPROMED SRL
Umbilical hernia repair (local anaesthesia)
Umbilical hernia repair (local anaesthesia)
Published: 2016/11/13
Channel: BSAWS Belgian Section for Abdominal Wall Surgery
Umbilical Hernia Repair (Day 2 Recovery)
Umbilical Hernia Repair (Day 2 Recovery)
Published: 2014/09/13
Channel: Corey LaGray
Umbilical Hernias in Adults
Umbilical Hernias in Adults
Published: 2016/11/16
Channel: Lee Health Marketing
Umbilical Hernia | Radiology | TheNP
Umbilical Hernia | Radiology | TheNP
Published: 2016/08/13
Channel: TheNP
How to Cure Hernia Without Surgery - Hernia Treatment Natural without surgery-Best Hernia Exercises
How to Cure Hernia Without Surgery - Hernia Treatment Natural without surgery-Best Hernia Exercises
Published: 2017/04/13
Channel: HEALTH & WELLNESS
My top tips for dealing with umbilical hernia surgery
My top tips for dealing with umbilical hernia surgery
Published: 2015/04/12
Channel: Chris Hamilton
3 Yoga Pose for Umbilical Hernia
3 Yoga Pose for Umbilical Hernia
Published: 2017/10/03
Channel: A to Z Cure
Hernia of the umbilical cord
Hernia of the umbilical cord
Published: 2017/05/05
Channel: Maher AL Zaiem
Umbilical Hernia in Cirrhosis
Umbilical Hernia in Cirrhosis
Published: 2014/05/01
Channel: Dr. Joe Galati
Hernia repair surgery- umbilical hernia
Hernia repair surgery- umbilical hernia
Published: 2013/05/20
Channel: Carolina Surgical
7 Natural Cures For Umbilical Hernia
7 Natural Cures For Umbilical Hernia
Published: 2014/08/02
Channel: Find Home Remedy
How to get in and out of bed after an umbilical hernia open mesh repair. Video 5
How to get in and out of bed after an umbilical hernia open mesh repair. Video 5
Published: 2015/04/04
Channel: Chris Hamilton
open umbilical hernia repair
open umbilical hernia repair
Published: 2016/03/12
Channel: Michigan Hernia Surgery
Signs and Symptoms of Hernia
Signs and Symptoms of Hernia
Published: 2017/01/15
Channel: Signs And Symptoms
Training With An Umbilical Hernia At XtremeLiving
Training With An Umbilical Hernia At XtremeLiving
Published: 2016/03/02
Channel: David Whitaker
How To Operate - Paraumbilical And Umbilical Hernia Repair
How To Operate - Paraumbilical And Umbilical Hernia Repair
Published: 2016/10/13
Channel: Libros Universitarios
Umbilical hernia  repair… hours after surgery
Umbilical hernia repair… hours after surgery
Published: 2016/10/29
Channel: Sean Symons
How to Cure Hernia Naturally Without Surgery in Men and Women
How to Cure Hernia Naturally Without Surgery in Men and Women
Published: 2015/12/28
Channel: HD MAX TV
Umbilical Hernia Surgery | Vlog |2017
Umbilical Hernia Surgery | Vlog |2017
Published: 2017/09/05
Channel: Terlyn Parks
PREPERITONEAL MESH HERNIOPLASTY FOR UMBILICAL HERNIA
PREPERITONEAL MESH HERNIOPLASTY FOR UMBILICAL HERNIA
Published: 2011/02/14
Channel: Herniatoday
umbilical hernia test
umbilical hernia test
Published: 2012/09/24
Channel: kalashhd200
Umbilical Hernia: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment
Umbilical Hernia: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment
Published: 2015/11/10
Channel: Hernia Center of Southern California
How to deal with Diastasis Recti and an umbilical hernia while pregnant
How to deal with Diastasis Recti and an umbilical hernia while pregnant
Published: 2016/04/27
Channel: FitnessFashionista
Two week checkup after umbilical hernia open mesh surgery
Two week checkup after umbilical hernia open mesh surgery
Published: 2015/04/16
Channel: Chris Hamilton
Hindi Language: Laparascopic Incisional or Umbilical Hernia Surgery Patient Information
Hindi Language: Laparascopic Incisional or Umbilical Hernia Surgery Patient Information
Published: 2016/12/27
Channel: Dr Chirag Thakkar
Kinesio Taping Umbilical Hernia and Diastasis Recti during Pregnancy
Kinesio Taping Umbilical Hernia and Diastasis Recti during Pregnancy
Published: 2017/03/31
Channel: Strength Therapy
Umbilical Hernia
Umbilical Hernia
Published: 2014/11/05
Channel: Manish Bhalla
Know what is Umbilical Hernia and how it can be treated? (Hindi)
Know what is Umbilical Hernia and how it can be treated? (Hindi)
Published: 2017/05/12
Channel: LetsMD
Cómo Curar una Hernia Umbilical
Cómo Curar una Hernia Umbilical
Published: 2014/05/10
Channel: Pedro Carrillo
My Umbilical Hernia & Diastasis Recti
My Umbilical Hernia & Diastasis Recti
Published: 2012/06/27
Channel: JesssFam
Laparoscopic Umbilical Hernia Repair with Mesh
Laparoscopic Umbilical Hernia Repair with Mesh
Published: 2016/04/29
Channel: Dr.Abdul.Kader Weiss
Umbilical hernia  -  Mayo
Umbilical hernia - Mayo's repair
Published: 2017/05/11
Channel: Sukumar Maiti
After Umbilical Hernia Repair Surgery
After Umbilical Hernia Repair Surgery
Published: 2012/04/13
Channel: TX2LA
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Umbilical hernia
Children with umbilical hernias, Sierra Leone (West Africa), 1967.jpg
Children with umbilical hernias, Sierra Leone (West Africa), 1967.
Classification and external resources
Specialty gastroenterology
ICD-10 K42
ICD-9-CM 551-553
DiseasesDB 23647
MedlinePlus 000987
MeSH D006554

An umbilical hernia is a health condition where the abdominal wall behind the navel is damaged. It may cause the navel to bulge outwards—the bulge consisting of abdominal fat from the greater omentum or occasionally parts of the small intestine. The bulge can often be pressed back through the hole in the abdominal wall, and may "pop out" when coughing or otherwise acting to increase intra-abdominal pressure. Treatment is surgical, and surgery may be performed for cosmetic as well as health-related reasons.

Signs and symptoms[edit]

A hernia is present at the site of the umbilicus (commonly called a navel or belly button) in newborns; although sometimes quite large, these hernias tend to resolve without any treatment by around the age of 2–3 years.[1][citation needed] Obstruction and strangulation of the hernia is rare because the underlying defect in the abdominal wall is larger than in an inguinal hernia of the newborn. The size of the base of the herniated tissue is inversely correlated with risk of strangulation (i.e., a narrow base is more likely to strangulate).

Babies are prone to this malformation because of the process during fetal development by which the abdominal organs form outside the abdominal cavity, later returning into it through an opening which will become the umbilicus.

Hernias may be asymptomatic and present only as a bulge of the umbilicus. Symptoms may develop when the contracting abdominal wall causes pressure on the hernia contents. This results in abdominal pain or discomfort. These symptoms may be worsened by the patient lifting or straining.

Causes[edit]

In more severe cases of umbilical hernias, the small intestine can poke out through the opening. This can very rarely cause ischemia and necrosis of the intestine and is potentially life-threatening. The bulge is often caused by fat or parts of the greater omentum.

The causes of umbilical hernia are congenital and acquired malformation, but an apparent third cause is really a cause of a different type, a paraumbilical hernia.

Congenital[edit]

Congenital umbilical hernia is a congenital malformation of the navel (umbilicus). Among adults, it is three times more common in women than in men; among children, the ratio is roughly equal.[2] It is also found to be more common in children of African descent.[3][4][5]

Acquired[edit]

An acquired umbilical hernia directly results from increased intra-abdominal pressure caused by obesity, heavy lifting, a long history of coughing, or multiple pregnancies.[6][7]

Paraumbilical[edit]

Importantly, an umbilical hernia must be distinguished from a paraumbilical hernia, which occurs in adults and involves a defect in the midline near to the umbilicus, and from omphalocele.[citation needed]

Diagnosis[edit]

Navels with the umbilical tip protruding past the umbilical skin ("outies") are often mistaken for umbilical hernias, which are a completely different shape. Treatment for cosmetic purposes is not necessary, unless there are health concerns such as incarceration.[clarification needed] Incarceration refers to the inability to reduce the hernia back into the abdominal cavity. Prolonged incarceration can lead to tissue ischemia (strangulation) and shock when untreated.

Umbilical hernias are rare. With a study involving Africans, 92% of children had protrusions, 49% of adults, and 90% of pregnant women. However, a much smaller amount actually suffered from hernias: only 23% of children, 8% of adults, and 15% of pregnant women.[3]

When the orifice is small (< 1 or 2 cm), 90% close within 3 years (some sources state 85% of all umbilical hernias, regardless of size), and if these hernias are asymptomatic, reducible, and don't enlarge, no surgery is needed (and in other cases it must be considered).

Treatment[edit]

In some communities mothers routinely push the small bulge back in and tape a coin over the palpable hernia hole until closure occurs. This practice is not medically recommended as there is a small risk of trapping a loop of bowel under part of the coin resulting in a small area of ischemic bowel. This "fix" does not help and germs may accumulate under the tape, causing infection. The use of bandages or other articles to continuously reduce the hernia is not evidence-based.

An umbilical hernia can be fixed in two different ways. The surgeon can opt to stitch the walls of the abdominal or he/she can place mesh over the opening and stitch it to the abdominal walls. The latter is of a stronger hold and is commonly used for larger defects in the abdominal wall. Most surgeons will not repair the hernia until 5–6 years after the baby is born. Most umbilical hernias in infants and children close spontaneously and rarely have complications of gastrointestinal-content incarcerations.[9]

How far the projection of the swelling extends from the surface of the abdomen (the belly) varies from child to child. In some, it may be just a small protrusion; in others it may be a large rounded swelling that bulges out when the baby cries. It may hardly be visible when the child is quiet and or sleeping.

Normally, the abdominal muscles converge and fuse at the umbilicus during the formation stage, however, in some cases, there remains a gap where the muscles do not close and through this gap the inner intestines come up and bulge under the skin, giving rise to an umbilical hernia. The bulge and its contents can easily be pushed back and reduced into the abdominal cavity.[citation needed]

In contrast to an inguinal hernia, the complication incidence is very low, and in addition, the gap in the muscles usually closes with time and the hernia disappears on its own. The treatment of this condition is essentially conservative: observation allowing the child to grow up and see if it disappears. Operation and closure of the defect is required only if the hernia persists after the age of 3 years or if the child has an episode of complication during the period of observation like irreducibility, intestinal obstruction, abdominal distension with vomiting, or red shiny painful skin over the swelling. Surgery is always done under anesthesia. The defect in the muscles is defined and the edges of the muscles are brought together with sutures to close the defect. In general, the child needs to stay in the hospital for 2 days and the healing is complete within 8 days.[citation needed]

At times, there may be a fleshy red swelling seen in the hollow of the umbilicus that persists after the cord has fallen off. It may bleed on touch, or may stain the clothes that come in contact with it. This needs to be shown to a pediatric surgeon. This is most likely to be an umbilical polyp and the therapy is to tie it at the base with a stitch so that it falls off and there is no bleeding. Alternatively, it may be an umbilical granuloma that responds well to local application of dry salt or silver nitrate but may take a few weeks to heal and dry.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lissauer, Tom; Clayden, Graham (2007). Illustrated Textbook of Paediatrics (3rd ed.). Edinburgh: Mosby Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7234-3397-2. 
  2. ^ Abdominal Hernias at eMedicine
  3. ^ a b Meier, Donald E.; OlaOlorun, David A.; Omodele, Rachael A.; Nkor, Sunday K.; Tarpley, John L. (2001). "Incidence of Umbilical Hernia in African Children: Redefinition of 'Normal' and Reevaluation of Indications for Repair". World Journal of Surgery. 25 (5): 645–8. doi:10.1007/s002680020072. PMID 11369993. 
  4. ^ Arca, MD, Marjorie J. (November 2016). "APSA - Umbilical Conditions" (Website). APSA - Family and Parent Resources. Oakbrook Terrace, Illinois, USA: American Pediatric Surgical Association. Retrieved November 5, 2017. 
  5. ^ MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Umbilical hernia repair
  6. ^ Mayo Clinic staff. "Umbilical hernia: Causes - MayoClinic.com". Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  7. ^ "Hernia: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". 2014-10-25. Retrieved 2016-07-15. 
  8. ^ a b c "UOTW #44 - Ultrasound of the Week". Ultrasound of the Week. 18 April 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2017. 
  9. ^ Papagrigoriadis, S.; Browse, D. J.; Howard, E. R. (1998). "Incarceration of umbilical hernias in children: a rare but important complication". Pediatric Surgery International. 14 (3): 231–2. doi:10.1007/s003830050497. PMID 9880759. 
  10. ^ "Child with Umbilical Swellings/Hernia". Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-10. 

External links[edit]

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