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Federal Employees: "Government Workers" 1959 AFL-CIO, "Americans At Work" Series
Federal Employees: "Government Workers" 1959 AFL-CIO, "Americans At Work" Series
Published: 2013/06/25
Channel: Jeff Quitney
General Schedule (US civil service pay scale)
General Schedule (US civil service pay scale)
Published: 2014/08/05
Channel: Audiopedia
Federal Civil Service Challenge On Recruitment.
Federal Civil Service Challenge On Recruitment.
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: NTA News
JobTestPrep
JobTestPrep's Civil Service Exam Preperation
Published: 2015/04/19
Channel: JobTestPrep.com
Civil Service Exam Study Guide Audiobook - Part 1
Civil Service Exam Study Guide Audiobook - Part 1
Published: 2013/03/31
Channel: Emeka F.O
Our Cities Must Fight 1951 United States Federal Civil Defense Administration
Our Cities Must Fight 1951 United States Federal Civil Defense Administration
Published: 2013/01/02
Channel: Jeff Quitney
General Schedule (US civil service pay scale)
General Schedule (US civil service pay scale)
Published: 2014/05/12
Channel: encyclopediacc
You
You're Fired! Civil Service Set for Massive Reforms Under President Trump
Published: 2016/12/07
Channel: The Daily Sheeple
Trump to Reform Civil Service
Trump to Reform Civil Service
Published: 2017/01/09
Channel: The Daily Sheeple
The 3 Things Every Federal Employee Should Do in 2016
The 3 Things Every Federal Employee Should Do in 2016
Published: 2016/01/16
Channel: Fed Retirement Planning
U.S. Diplomatic Security Service (documentary)
U.S. Diplomatic Security Service (documentary)
Published: 2014/09/26
Channel: MAHARBAL5022
Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act
Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act
Published: 2015/11/03
Channel: Audiopedia
Federal Employees Show Up, No Pay
Federal Employees Show Up, No Pay
Published: 2013/10/04
Channel: NewsWatch 12
Survival Under Atomic Attack  - 1951 American Civil Defense Educational Film - WDTVLIVE42
Survival Under Atomic Attack - 1951 American Civil Defense Educational Film - WDTVLIVE42
Published: 2012/01/22
Channel: wdtvlive42 - Archive Footage
Donald Trump, Federal Employees, and the Thrift Savings Plan
Donald Trump, Federal Employees, and the Thrift Savings Plan
Published: 2016/11/22
Channel: Fed Retirement Planning
Federal Employees... They work for U.S.
Federal Employees... They work for U.S.
Published: 2014/08/14
Channel: NTEU67
PublicEmployeeSalaries.com California Federal Employee Salary look up tool.
PublicEmployeeSalaries.com California Federal Employee Salary look up tool.
Published: 2016/11/24
Channel: PublicEmployeeSalaries.com
What Federal  Employees Can Expect  Under Donald Trump
What Federal Employees Can Expect Under Donald Trump
Published: 2017/01/24
Channel: Morris E. Fischer, LLC
Federal Employees: They Work For U.S.
Federal Employees: They Work For U.S.
Published: 2008/07/21
Channel: NTEU1750
Hoyer Floor Remarks on Federal Employees
Hoyer Floor Remarks on Federal Employees
Published: 2017/01/24
Channel: LeaderHoyer
Benefits of a Federal Employee
Benefits of a Federal Employee
Published: 2011/09/21
Channel: VeteransVocations
Federal Employee Defense Services, Inc
Federal Employee Defense Services, Inc
Published: 2012/08/24
Channel: FEDSProtection
Bureaucracy Basics: Crash Course Government and Politics #15
Bureaucracy Basics: Crash Course Government and Politics #15
Published: 2015/05/09
Channel: CrashCourse
Federal workers return to jobs with uncertain future
Federal workers return to jobs with uncertain future
Published: 2013/03/04
Channel: ABC7 WJLA
Federal employees fly 1st class
Federal employees fly 1st class
Published: 2008/04/24
Channel: gzfraud
Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey - Myth One: My Opinion Doesn
Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey - Myth One: My Opinion Doesn't Matter
Published: 2017/06/14
Channel: USOPM
How to Survive a Nuclear War - 2012 Apocalypse - U.S. Federal Civil Defense Administration
How to Survive a Nuclear War - 2012 Apocalypse - U.S. Federal Civil Defense Administration
Published: 2012/06/27
Channel: Bright Enlightenment
US government remains deadlocked with million federal employees not paid
US government remains deadlocked with million federal employees not paid
Published: 2013/10/03
Channel: eNCA
Helpful federal employee 2
Helpful federal employee 2
Published: 2017/05/24
Channel: Mona Bryant-Shanklin
Federal Employee PSAs
Federal Employee PSAs
Published: 2015/02/10
Channel: Public Media Productions
What does Trumps reorganization order mean for federal employees?
What does Trumps reorganization order mean for federal employees?
Published: 2017/04/12
Channel: Federal Times
The Basics of Equal Employment Opportunity for Federal Employees Steeles Quick Guides for Federal Em
The Basics of Equal Employment Opportunity for Federal Employees Steeles Quick Guides for Federal Em
Published: 2016/11/21
Channel: Lauren Neville
Federal Employees First Alliance
Federal Employees First Alliance
Published: 2015/11/02
Channel: Federal Employees First Alliance
CSIS on the Federal employee data breach
CSIS on the Federal employee data breach
Published: 2015/06/06
Channel: Creative Solutions Investigative Services
Federal Employees: What to Do When You Get Hurt at Work
Federal Employees: What to Do When You Get Hurt at Work
Published: 2017/02/21
Channel: Injured Federal Workers Advocate Association
Federal Employee Beneficiary Forms
Federal Employee Beneficiary Forms
Published: 2015/09/16
Channel: Thomas Raetz
Zodrow federal employee
Zodrow federal employee
Published: 2012/09/24
Channel: Joel Sellnau
Helpful federal employee 1
Helpful federal employee 1
Published: 2017/05/24
Channel: Mona Bryant-Shanklin
What is the "Bridge" Payment for Federal Employees? - #FedRetirementWeekly Ep. 3
What is the "Bridge" Payment for Federal Employees? - #FedRetirementWeekly Ep. 3
Published: 2016/03/21
Channel: Fed Retirement Planning
The Federal Employees Health Benefit Program: Is It a Good Value for Federal Employees?
The Federal Employees Health Benefit Program: Is It a Good Value for Federal Employees?
Published: 2013/04/16
Channel: oversightandreform
Chinese Hackers Steal Millions of Federal Employee Records
Chinese Hackers Steal Millions of Federal Employee Records
Published: 2015/06/22
Channel: KraZedSexPoodle
The Government Shutdown - What Should A Federal Employee Do?
The Government Shutdown - What Should A Federal Employee Do?
Published: 2013/10/02
Channel: Carlton Riddick
Inspiring Change: FEVS 2016
Inspiring Change: FEVS 2016
Published: 2016/06/01
Channel: USOPM
Atomic Attack: "Let
Atomic Attack: "Let's Face It" circa 1954 Federal Civil Defense Administration
Published: 2016/06/01
Channel: Jeff Quitney
Overview of Federal Employees Insurance Benefits
Overview of Federal Employees Insurance Benefits
Published: 2015/04/12
Channel: USOPM
Stephen Zelcer helps federal employees
Stephen Zelcer helps federal employees
Published: 2015/01/23
Channel: Stephen Zelcer
A Call to Arms: Benefits for Deployed Federal Employees Part 1
A Call to Arms: Benefits for Deployed Federal Employees Part 1
Published: 2009/09/16
Channel: oversightandreform
Federal Employees Stuck
Federal Employees Stuck
Published: 2008/09/10
Channel: rcoope
Report the Administration says China is behind Federal Employee Security Breach
Report the Administration says China is behind Federal Employee Security Breach
Published: 2015/06/06
Channel: Hayes Thomas
Rep. Rob Wittman talks government accountability and federal employees with WJLA Washington
Rep. Rob Wittman talks government accountability and federal employees with WJLA Washington
Published: 2015/09/30
Channel: Rob Wittman
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Remarks by FDR in 1944 at Union Station, thanking government workers for helping win the war

The United States federal civil service is the civilian workforce (i.e., non-elected and non-military, public sector employees) of the United States federal government's departments and agencies. The federal civil service was established in 1871 (5 U.S.C. § 2101).[1] U.S. state and local government entities often have competitive civil service systems that are modeled on the national system, in varying degrees.

According to the Office of Personnel Management, as of December 2011, there were approximately 2.79 million civil servants employed by the U.S. government.[2][3][4] This includes employees in the departments and agencies run by any of the three branches government (the executive branch, legislative branch, and judicial branch), such as over 600,000 employees in the U.S. Postal Service.

The majority of civil service positions are classified as competitive service, meaning employees are selected based on merit after a competitive hiring process for positions that are open to all applicants. The Senior Executive Service (SES) is the classification for non-competitive, senior leadership positions filled by career employees or political appointments (e.g., Cabinet members, ambassadors, etc.). Excepted service positions (also known as unclassified service) are non-competitive jobs in certain federal agencies with security and intelligence functions (e.g., the CIA, FBI, State Department, etc.) that are authorized to create their own hiring policies and are not subject to most appointment, pay, and classification laws.[5]

In the early 19th century, positions in the federal government were held at the pleasure of the president—a person could be fired at any time. The spoils system meant that jobs were used to support the American political parties, though this was gradually changed by the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act of 1883 and subsequent laws. By 1909, almost two-thirds of the U.S. federal workforce was appointed based on merit, that is, qualifications measured by tests. Certain senior civil service positions, including some heads of diplomatic missions and executive agencies, are filled by political appointees. Under the Hatch Act of 1939, civil servants are not allowed to engage in political activities while performing their duties.[6]

History[edit]

Federal agencies[edit]

Employees in the civil services work under one of the independent agencies or one of the 15 executive departments.

In addition to departments, there are a number of staff organizations grouped into the Executive Office of the President. These include the White House staff, the National Security Council, the Office of Management and Budget, the Council of Economic Advisers, the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, the Office of National Drug Control Policy and the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

There are also independent agencies such as the United States Postal Service, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). In addition, there are government-owned corporations such as the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) and the National Railroad Passenger Corporation.[7]

As of January 2009, the Federal Government, excluding the Postal Service and soldiers, employed about 2 million civilian workers. The Federal Government is the nation's single largest employer. Although most federal agencies are based in the Washington, D.C. region, only about 16% (or about 288,000) of the federal government workforce is employed in this region.[8]

There were 456 federal agencies in 2009.[9]

Pay systems[edit]

The pay system of the United States government civil service has evolved into a complex set of pay systems that include principally the General Schedule (GS) for white-collar employees, Federal Wage System (FWS) for blue-collar employees, Senior Executive System (SES) for Executive-level employees, Foreign Service Schedule (FS) for members of the Foreign Service and more than twelve alternate pay systems that are referred to as alternate or experimental pay systems such as the first experimental system China Lake Demonstration Project. The current system began as the Classification Act of 1923[10] and was refined into law with the Classification Act of 1949. These acts that provide the foundation of the current system have been amended through executive orders and through published amendments in the Federal Register that sets for approved changes in the regulatory structure of the federal pay system. The common goal among all pay systems is to achieve the goal of paying equitable salaries to all involved workers regardless of system, group or classification. This is referred to as pay equity or ("equal pay for equal work"). Select careers in high demand may be subject to a special rate table,[11] which can pay above the standard GS tables. These careers include certain engineering disciplines and patent examiners.[12][13]

The General Schedule (GS) includes white collar workers at levels 1 through 15, most professional, technical, administrative, and clerical positions in the federal civil service. The Federal Wage System or Wage Grade (WG) schedule includes most federal blue-collar workers. As of September 2004, 71% of federal civilian employees were paid under the GS; the remaining 29% were paid under other systems such as the Federal Wage System for federal blue-collar civilian employees, the Senior Executive Service/Senior Level and the Executive Schedule for high-ranking federal employees, and the pay schedules for the United States Postal Service and the Foreign Service. In addition, some federal agencies—such as the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, the Federal Reserve System, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation—have their own unique pay schedules.

All federal employees in the GS system receive a base pay that is adjusted for locality. Locality pay varies, but is at least 10% of base salary in all parts of the United States. The following salary ranges represent the lowest and highest possible amounts a person can earn, without earning over-time pay or receiving a merit-based bonus. Actual salary ranges differ (for instance a GS-9, step 1 in rural Arkansas may start at $46,625 versus $55,015 in San Jose, California), but all salaries lie within the parameters of the following ranges (effective January, 2012):[14]

Pay grade GS-1 GS-2 GS-3 GS-4 GS-5 GS-6 GS-7 GS-8 GS-9 GS-10 GS-11 GS-12 GS-13 GS-14 GS-15
Lowest step (1) $ 17,803 $ 20,017 $ 21,840 $ 24,518 $ 27,531 $ 30,577 $ 33,979 $ 37,631 $ 41,563 $ 45,771 $ 50,287 $ 60,274 $ 71,674 $ 84,697 $ 99,628
Highest step (10) $ 22,269 $ 25,191 $ 28,392 $ 31,871 $ 35,657 $ 39,748 $ 44,176 $ 48,917 $ 54,028 $ 59,505 $ 65,371 $ 78,355 $93,175 $110,104 $129,517
Source: U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 2012.[15]

Nineteen percent of federal employees earned salaries of $100,000 or more in 2009. The average federal worker's pay was $71,208 compared with $40,331 in the private sector, although under Office of Management and Budget Circular A-76, most menial or lower paying jobs have been outsourced to private contractors.[16] In 2010, there were 82,034 workers, 3.9% of the federal workforce, making more than $150,000 annually, compared to 7,240 in 2005.[17] GS salaries are capped by law so that they do not exceed the salary for Executive Schedule IV positions.[18] The increase in civil servants making more than $150,000 resulted mainly from an increase in Executive Schedule salary approved during the Administration of George W. Bush, which raised the salary cap for senior GS employees slightly above the $150,000 threshold.[19]

Basic pay rates for Senior Executive Service (i.e. non-Presidentially appointed civil servants above GS-15) will range from $119,554 to $179,700 in 2012.

Employment by agency[edit]

Federal Government executive branch civilian employment,
except U.S. Postal Service, fiscal year 2016[20]
(Employment in thousands)
United States,
U.S. territories,
and foreign countries
Washington, D.C. United States,
U.S. territories,
and foreign countries
Washington, D.C.
Combined Total 2,096 173
Executive departments 1,923 132 Independent agencies 173 41
Defense, total 738 16.5 Social Security Administration 64 0.2
Army 251 2 NASA 17 1
Navy 207 12 Environmental Protection Agency 16 4
Air Force 169 0.5 Securities and Exchange Commission 5 3
Other defense 80 2 General Services Administration 12 4
Veterans Affairs 373 8 Small Business Administration 4 0.8
Homeland Security 192 24 Office of Personnel Management 5 2
Treasury 92 9
Justice 117
Agriculture 97 7 Executive departments (cont.)
Interior 71 4
Health/Human Services (HHS) 87 4 Energy 15 5
Transportation 55 8 State 13 10
Commerce 46 3 Housing/Urban Dev (HUD) 8 3
Labor 16 5 Education 4 3
SOURCE: U.S. Office of Personnel Management

US Civil Service Commission[edit]

Public support in the United States for civil service reform strengthened following the assassination of President James Garfield.[21] The United States Civil Service Commission was created by the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, which was passed into law on January 16, 1883. The commission was created to administer the civil service of the United States federal government. The law required federal government employees to be selected through competitive exams and basis of merit;[21] it also prevented elected officials and political appointees from firing civil servants, removing civil servants from the influences of political patronage and partisan behavior.[21][22] However, the law did not apply to state and municipal governments.

Effective January 1, 1978, the commission was renamed the Office of Personnel Management under the provisions of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1978 (43 F.R. 36037, 92 Stat. 3783) and the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978.

The United States Civil service exams have since been abolished for many positions, since statistics show that they do not accurately allow hiring of minorities according to the affirmative action guidelines.[23]

Civil Service Reform Act of 1978[edit]

This act abolished the United States Civil Service Commission and created the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM), the Federal Labor Relations Authority (FLRA) and the U.S. Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB). OPM primarily provides management guidance to the various agencies of the executive branch and issues regulations that control federal human resources. FLRA oversees the rights of federal employees to form collective bargaining units (unions) and to engage in collective bargaining with agencies. MSPB conducts studies of the federal civil service and mainly hears the appeals of federal employees who are disciplined or otherwise separated from their positions. This act was an effort to replace incompetent officials. [24][25]

Civil servants in literature[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Federal Civil Service". DOI University, National Business Center, U.S. Department of the Interior (Revised 11/10/98). Archived from the original on 2009-10-18. Retrieved 2009-08-31. 
  2. ^ "Total Government Employment Since 1962". Opm.gov. Retrieved 2013-02-05. 
  3. ^ O'Keefe, Ed. "Federal Eye – How many federal workers are there?". Voices.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2013-02-05. 
  4. ^ "December 2011". Opm.gov. 2012-01-01. Retrieved 2013-02-05. 
  5. ^ "Help Center: Entering Federal Service". USAJOBS. United States Office of Personnel Management. Retrieved January 25, 2017. 
  6. ^ "Political Activity (Hatch Act)". Osc.gov. Retrieved 2011-05-25. 
  7. ^ "Circular NO. A–11 PT. 7 Planning, Budgeting, Acquisition, and Management of Capital Assets" (PDF). OMB Circular No. A–11 (2008). Executive Office of the President Office of Management and Budget. June 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-28. 
  8. ^ "Federal Government, Excluding the Postal Service". US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2008-03-12. Retrieved 2008-07-28. , Section: Employment. Note: Because data on employment in certain agencies cannot be released to the public for national security reasons, this total does not include employment for the Central Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, and National Imagery and Mapping Agency.
  9. ^ http://www.centerforsmallgovernment.com/small-government-news/agencies-of-the-federal-government
  10. ^ Pub. Law no. 516, Ch. 265, 42 Stat. 1488 (March 4, 1923).
  11. ^ "U.S. Office of Personnel Management". 
  12. ^ http://nasajobs.nasa.gov/benefits/pay.htm
  13. ^ "Federal pay and the General Schedule (GS)". 
  14. ^ "Office of Personnel Management, Salary Tables, 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-06-13. 
  15. ^ "Salary Table No. 2012-GS". Office of Personnel Management. 2012. 
  16. ^ Cauchon, Dennis (11 December 2009). "Richest of federal workers get richer". Melbourne, Florida: Florida Today. pp. 1A. 
  17. ^ Cauchon, Dennis (10 November 2010). "More fed workers' pay tops $150K". Melbourne, Florida: Florida Today. pp. 4A. 
  18. ^ "Congressional Research Service Report for Congress: The Executive Schedule IV Pay Cap on General Schedule Compensation" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-12-22. 
  19. ^ "January 2009 Pay Adjustments". United States Office of Personnel Management. 18 December 2008. Retrieved 2011-12-22. 
  20. ^ "FedScope Federal Human Resources Data". U.S. Office of Personnel Management. Retrieved 2017-02-07. 
  21. ^ a b c Digital History, Steven Mintz. "Digital History". Digitalhistory.uh.edu. Retrieved 2011-05-25. 
  22. ^ Creating America: A History of the United States, Rand McNally, p. 238 (2003).
  23. ^ E. Chemerinsky, "Making Sense of the Affirmative Action Debate", (1996)
  24. ^ Ingraham, Patricia W.; Donald P. Moynihan (2000). The Future of Merit. p. 103. 
  25. ^ Roberge, Ellen (2011). SNAFU, A Hysterical Memoir About Why the Government Doesn't Work. Orlando, FL: Createspace/BureauRat Publishing. p. 119. ISBN 978-0615610290. 
  26. ^ "The Press: Soap Operas Come to Print". TIME. August 8, 1977. Retrieved February 27, 2010. 
  27. ^ http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9B07E7DE1431E233A25756C0A9659C946096D6CF

External links[edit]

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