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The Top 10 Most Successful Third Party/Independent Presidential Candidates
The Top 10 Most Successful Third Party/Independent Presidential Candidates
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Second Independent Presidential Debate 2016
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Is there room for an independent presidential candidate?
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Independent 2016 candidate McMullin talks Syria, US intel
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Channel: The Young Turks
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Channel: cleveland.com
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Channel: NewCatholicGeneration2
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Independent presidential candidate challenges the establishment – FishTank
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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United States third party and independent presidential candidates, 2016
United States
← 2012
2020 →

This article contains lists of official and potential third party and independent candidates associated with the 2016 United States presidential election.

"Third party" is a term commonly used in the United States in reference to political parties other than the two major parties, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. An independent candidate is one who runs for office with no formal party affiliation.

Ballot access in states holding 270 or more electoral votes represents a majority of the 538 electoral votes in the Electoral College. The number of electoral votes for which a party or independent candidate has secured ballot access may increase as those parties or candidates complete their petitions, and filings for ballot access, until September 2016 when the last petition deadlines occur.[1]

According to the Green Papers website, 31 people were on the ballot in at least one state, while 192, including those who were on ballots in some states, obtained recognition as official "write-in" candidates.[2]

Contents

Summary[edit]

2016 U.S. Presidential Election Results
for candidates that got at least 1000 votes or were on at least one state ballot
State Hillary Clinton Donald Trump Gary Johnson Jill Stein Evan McMullin Darrell Castle Bernie Sanders Gloria
La Riva
Rocky
De La Fuente
Richard Duncan Dan Vacek Alyson Kennedy Mike Smith Chris Keniston Mike Maturen Lynn Kahn James Hedges Tom Hoefling Monica Moorehead Peter Skewes L. Kotlikoff Rocky Giordani Emidio Soltysik Scott Copeland Kyle Kopitike Joseph Maldonado Rod Silva Kadijah Jacob Ryan Scott Jerry White Bradford Lyttle Frank Atwood undisclosed
write-ins
Source
Democratic Republican Libertarian Green Constitution Socialism
and Liberation
Reform Legal Marijuana Now Socialist Workers Veterans American Solidarity Prohibition America's Workers World American Independent American Socialist Constitution Idaho Nutrition Revolu-
tionary
Socialist Equality US Pacifist Approval Voting
Alabama 729,547 1,318,255 44,467 9,391 21,712 [3]
Alaska 116,454 163,387 18,725 5,735 3,866 1,240 9,201 [4]
Arizona 1,161,167 1,252,401 106,327 34,345 [5]
Arkansas 380,494 684,872 13,255 9,473 4,613 3,390 4,709 [6]
California 8,753,788 4,483,810 478,500 278,657 39,596 79,341 66,101 1,316 84 [7]
Colorado 1,338,870 1,202,484 144,121 38,437 28,917 11,699 531 1,255 452 1,819 5,028 862 185 710 392 271 1,096 872 751 749 382 337 [8]
Connecticut 897,572 673,215 48,676 22,841 2,108 147 41 12 12 31 4 23 4 [9]
Delaware 221,608 175,162 14,045 5,868 [10]
Florida 4,504,975 4,617,886 207,043 64,399 16,475 9,108 25 74 [11]
Georgia 1,877,963 2,089,104 125,306 7,674 13,017 1,110 53 151 70 34 284 [12]
Hawaii 266,891 128,847 15,954 12,737 4,508 [13]
Idaho 189,765 409,055 28,331 8,496 46,476 4,403 1,373 2,356 [14]
Illinois 3,090,729 2,146,015 209,596 76,802 11,655 1,138 175 82 20 [15]
Indiana 1,033,126 1,557,286 133,993 7,841 1,413 21 25 269 49 57 [16]
Iowa 653,669 800,983 59,186 11,479 12,366 5,355 323 451 2,246 2,247 17,746 [17]
Kansas 427,005 671,018 55,406 23,506 6,520 646 7 3 6 214 2 3 45 [18]
Kentucky 628,854 1,202,971 53,752 13,913 22,780 438 1,128 2 9 22 155 39 8 2 4 [19]
Louisiana 780,154 1,178,638 37,978 14,031 8,547 3,129 446 480 1,881 1,581 1,048 749 370 [20]
Maine 357,735 335,593 38,105 14,251 1,887 333 16 [21]
Maryland 1,677,928 943,169 79,605 35,945 9,630 566 48 14 18 13 504 18 5 42 73 6 12 11 33,263 [22]
Massachusetts 1,995,196 1,090,893 138,018 47,661 2,719 15 28 50,488 [23]
Michigan 2,268,839 2,279,543 172,136 51,463 8,177 16,139 517 95 30 87 2,209 [24]
Minnesota 1,367,716 1,322,951 112,972 36,985 53,076 9,456 12 1,431 1 11,291 1,672 3 31 244 28 17 15 [25]
Mississippi 485,131 700,714 14,435 3,731 3,987 644 715 [26]
Missouri 1,071,068 1,594,511 97,359 25,419 7,071 13,092 6 48 87 [27]
Montana 177,709 279,240 28,037 7,970 2,297 296 1,570 1 10 7 1 [28]
Nebraska 273,185 485,372 37,577 8,337 [29]
Nevada 539,260 512,058 37,384 5,268 2,552 [30]
New Hampshire 348,526 345,790 30,777 6,496 1,064 4,493 678 2,411 [31]
New Jersey 2,148,278 1,601,933 72,477 37,772 6,161 1,682 1,838 2,156 1,749 [32]
New Mexico 385,234 319,666 74,541 9,879 5,825 1,514 1,184 475 [33]
New York 4,665,740 3,078,946 174,951 106,995 9,326 801 147 30 84 409 72 127 65 34 47,602 [34]
North Carolina 2,189,316 2,362,631 130,126 12,105 47,386 [35]
North Dakota 93,758 216,794 21,434 3,780 1,833 364 6,397 [36]
Ohio 2,394,164 2,841,005 174,498 46,271 12,574 1,887 24,235 62 114 552 268 19 90 18 [37]
Oklahoma 420,375 949,136 83,481 [38]
Oregon 1,002,106 782,403 94,231 50,002 72,594 [39]
Pennsylvania 2,926,441 2,970,733 146,715 49,941 21,572 [40]
Rhode Island 252,525 180,543 14,746 6,220 773 52 3,497 8 671 6 34 7 9,439 [41][42]
South Carolina 855,373 1,155,389 49,204 13,034 21,016 5,765 3,246 [43]
South Dakota 117,442 227,701 20,845 4,059 [44]
Tennessee 870,695 1,522,925 70,397 15,993 11,991 1,584 4,075 2,877 7,276 132 20 [45]
Texas 3,877,868 4,685,047 283,492 71,558 42,366 4,261 1,401 932 122 1,037 72 [46]
Utah 310,674 515,211 39,608 9,438 243,685 8,032 872 521 544 2,732 [47]
Vermont 178,573 95,369 10,078 6,758 629 63 18,218 327 1,063 1 19 3,959 [48]
Virginia 1,981,473 1,769,443 118,274 27,638 54,054 31,870 [49]
Washington 1,539,287 1,063,835 134,096 46,872 14,565 2,779 3,583 [50]
Washington, D.C. 282,830 12,723 4,906 4,258 6,551 [51]
West Virginia 188,794 489,371 23,004 8,075 3,807 [52]
Wisconsin 1,382,536 1,405,284 106,674 31,072 11,855 12,162 1,502 67 284 80 1,770 15 33 4 22,764 [53]
Wyoming 55,973 174,419 13,287 2,515 2,042 709 6,904 [54]
TOTAL 65,734,379 63,065,730 4,442,131 1,444,059 691,997 198,217 105,549 73,636 33,085 24,306 13,537 11,741 9,255 7,233 6,662 5,729 5,617 4,689 4,314 3,250 3,128 2,732 2,698 2,356 1,096 932 751 749 749 469 382 337 390,571
PLACE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 28 30 31 32

Candidates[edit]

Gary Johnson, Libertarian Party[edit]

Ballot access: The Libertarian ticket was on all 51 ballots.[55]

Name Prior positions State Nominated Vice presidential nominee
Gary Johnson June 2016.jpg
Gary Johnson
(Campaign)
Governor of New Mexico, 1995–2003
Libertarian Party presidential nominee, 2012
 New Mexico May 29, 2016[56] Bill Weld campaign portrait.jpg
William Weld of Massachusetts
Other parties National Total National percentage highest single state total highest single state percentage
Independence Party
of New York
4,489,233 3.3% 402,452 (3.4%)
California
74,031 (8.3%)
New Mexico

Nationally, Johnson captured 5 percent or more of the vote in eight states: New Mexico, North Dakota, Alaska, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Maine.

Poll Standings[edit]

All major polling outfits have included Johnson in their published results. His highest total was 13% in a CNN/ORC poll taken in July. Since then he has generally been in the upper single digits, breaking 10% as recently as October 10 in a Politico/Morning Consult poll.

His greatest statewide percentage was in his home state of New Mexico, where he reached the mid-twenties in September, and has since fallen back into the teens. He has been in the teens in several other state polls, most recently in a WBUR/MassINC poll taken in New Hampshire on November 1.

Party nomination contest[edit]

There were six primaries, Gary Johnson received 22,642 votes while none of the others received as much as 4 thousand.

Libertarian National Convention Presidential vote, 2016 [57]
Candidate First Ballot Percentage Second Ballot Percentage
Gary Johnson 458 49.5% 518 55.8%
Austin Petersen 197 21.3% 203 21.9%
John McAfee 131 14.2% 131 14.1%
Darryl Perry 63 6.8% 52 5.6%
Marc Allan Feldman 58 6.3% 18 1.9%
Kevin McCormick 9 1.0% 1 (write-in) 0.1%
None of the above 5 0.5% 2 0.2%
Ron Paul (Write-in) 1 0.1%
Vermin Supreme (Write-in) 1 0.1%
Heidi Zemen (Write-in) 1 0.1%
Derrick Grayson (Write-in) 1 0.1% 1 0.1%
Michael Shannon (Write-in) 1 0.1%
Rhett Smith (Write-in) 1 0.1%
Totals 928 100%

Jill Stein, Green Party[edit]

Ballot access (Write-in included): 47 states + DC

Name Prior positions State Nominated Vice presidential nominee
Jill Stein by Gage Skidmore.jpg
Jill Stein
(Campaign)
Lexington Town Meeting member (2005–2011)
Green Party presidential nominee, 2012
 Massachusetts August 6, 2016 Ajamu-Baraka.jpg
Ajamu Baraka of Washington, D.C.
National Total National percentage highest single state total highest single state percentage notes
1,457,222 1.1% 278,657 (1.9%)
California
12,737 (3.0%)
Hawaii
This is the first fourth-place finisher to breach the one million mark since 1948

Poll standings[edit]

All major polling outfits have included Stein in their published results. Her highest total was 6% in McClatchy/Marist poll taken early August. Since then her highest total was 4% in a CBS/New York Times poll taken in late October. She generally stands at 2 or 3%.

In statewide polling she has gotten as high as 7% in an Emmerson college poll from Vermont in September.

Party nomination contest[edit]

Five additional candidates sought the Green Party nomination.[58][59][60]

Green National Convention Presidential Roll call vote, 2016[61]
Candidate First Ballot Percentage
Jill Stein 233.5 81.6%
William Kreml 18.25 6.4%
Sedinam Curry 14.5 5.1%
Darryl Cherney 8.5 3.0%
Kent Mesplay 7.5 2.6%
Elijah Manley 3.25 1.1%
No candidate 0.5 0.2%
Totals 286 100%
Turnout 286 71.1%

Evan McMullin, Better for America Group and others[edit]

The anti-Donald Trump Better for America PAC recruited Even McMullin as a candidate for president. He is on the ballot in 11 states and has write-in access for many more.

Name Prior positions State Announced candidacy Vice presidential candidate Notes
Evan McMullin 2016-10-21 headshot.jpg
Evan McMullin
(Campaign)
Chief Policy Director for the House Republican Conference, 2015–2016
CIA agent, 2001–2011
 Utah August 8, 2016[62] Mindy Finn at CAP (cropped).jpg
Mindy Finn
of the District of Columbia[63]
See also: Better for America
A (as Independence Party of Minnesota nominee)
Nathan Johnson, a resident of San Diego, appears as McMullin's running mate on numerous state ballots.[64][65]
Other parties National Total National percentage highest single state total highest single state percentage
Independence party
of South Carolina
Independence party
of Minnesota
731,709 [66] 0.4% 233,266 (21.4%)
(Utah)
233,266 (21.4%)
(Utah)
Aside from his large total in Utah, the ticket came in third in Idaho, and fourth in seven of the nine other states where it was on the ballot.

Darrell Castle, Constitution Party[edit]

Electoral votes: 207 (Scott Copeland has access to 4 electoral votes in Idaho, where Castle is on the ballot as an independent[67])

Write-in included: 406

Ballot access: Alaska, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Louisiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming.[68][69][70][71]
Write-in access: Alabama, Arizona, Delaware, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Montana, New Hampshire, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia.[69]

Name Prior positions State Nominated Vice presidential nominee
DCastle08.jpg
Darrell Castle
Attorney,
Constitution Party vice presidential nominee, 2008
 Tennessee April 16, 2016[72][73] Scott N. Bradley of Utah
Other parties National Total National percentage highest single state total highest single state percentage
Taxpayer's Party
Michigan
203,069 0.1% 21,010 (0.4%)
Pennsylvania
3,311 (1.2%)
Alaska

Poll standings[edit]

Castle has not been featured in any national polls. However he was listed in a few in Utah in August and September, where he got as much as 2%, and in Nevada, where he got 1%.

Nomination contest[edit]

The 2016 Presidential Nominating Convention was held in Salt Lake City, Utah on April 13–16.[74]

Constitution Party National Convention presidential vote, 2016[75][76]
Candidate Votes Percentage Notes
Darrell Castle 184 54.2% received 181,741 votes (0.1%) in the general election
Scott Copeland (Texas)[77] 103.5 30.5% On the ballot in Idaho as the Constitution Party's presidential nominee,[78]
Tom Hoefling[79] 19 5.6%
Sought 2016 American Independent Party presidential nomination

American Independent Party presidential nominee, 2012

America's Party presidential nominee, 2012, 2016
Daniel Cummings (Wyoming)[80] 9 2.7%
J.R. Myers (Alaska) 9 2.7% Sought 2016 American Independent Party presidential nomination, on the ballot in Idaho as the Constitution Party's vice-presidential nominee,[81]
Don Grundmann (California)[82] 6 1.8% Sought 2008 and 2012 Constitution Party presidential nomination
John Diamond (Pennsylvania)[83] 5 1.5%
Jeremy Friedbaum (Utah)[84] 4 1.2%
Totals 339.5 100.0%

Gloria La Riva, multiple parties[edit]

Electoral votes: 80 (Gloria LaRiva has a combined 135 electoral votes via the Party for Socialism and Liberation, the Peace and Freedom Party, and the Liberty Union Party)

Ballot access: California, Colorado, Florida, Louisiana, New Jersey, New Mexico, Vermont, Washington[85][86]

Name Prior positions State Nominated Vice presidential nominee Notes
Gloria La Riva at Trump inauguration protest SF Jan 20 2017.jpg
Gloria La Riva
Newspaper printer and activist
Peace and Freedom Party presidential nominee, 2016,
Party for Socialism and Liberation presidential nominee, 2008
Workers World Party presidential nominee, 1992
 New Mexico July 2015[87] Eugene Puryear (20243720420) (cropped).jpg
Eugene Puryear
of Washington, D.C.[87]|Dennis Banks (8673602267) (cropped).jpg
Dennis Banks of Minnesota (in CA only)[88]
State parties National Total National percentage Peace and Freedom Total other party total
Party for Socialism and Liberation
Peace and Freedom
(California)
Liberty Union
(Vermont).
74,405 0.1% 53,133 7,857

Party for Socialism and Liberation[edit]

La Riva is on the ballot in numerous states under this banner and as an independent.

Liberty Union Party (Vermont)[edit]

La Riva won the primary in Vermont and thus was awarded the ballot line there.

La Riva participated in the Free and Equal presidential debate.

Peace and Freedom Party[edit]

La Riva won the primary in California and thus was awarded the ballot line at the state convention. Jill Stein, who was on the Green party primary ballot was removed from the PF one.

California Peace and Freedom presidential primary, June 7, 2016[90]
Candidate Votes Percentage Con. Vote
Gloria Estela La Riva 2,232 49% 56
Monica Moorehead 1,369 30% 12
Lynn Sandra Kahn 963 21% 1
Jill Stein (disqualified) 0% 9
Total 4,564 100% 78

Rocky De La Fuente, American Delta and Reform Parties, plus others[edit]

Electoral votes: 147 (De La Fuente has access to a combined 147 electoral votes as an Independent, via The American Delta Party and via The Reform Party)[91][92]

Write-In included: 346 Electors[91][92]

Anticipated Write-In Included: 404 Electors

Ballot access:

Under the ballot label "Reform Party" Florida

Under the ballot label "American Delta Party":[93] Colorado,[94] Iowa,[95] Louisiana,[96] Minnesota,[97] Mississippi,[98] New Jersey,[99] New Mexico.[100]

As an independent: Alaska,[101] Idaho,[102] Kentucky,[103] Montana,[104] Nevada,[105] New Hampshire,[106] North Dakota,[107] Rhode Island[108] Tennessee,[109] Utah,[102] Vermont,[110] Wisconsin,[111] Wyoming.[112]

Write-In:[113] Alabama, Arizona, California, Delaware, District of Columbia, Indiana, Maryland, Nebraska, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Virginia, Kansas, West Virginia, Washington. Total 199 Electors

Anticipated Write-In:[113] Connecticut, Missouri, South Dakota

No Ballot Access 2016: Georgia, Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, North Carolina, South Carolina.

Name Prior positions State Announced candidacy Vice presidential nominee Notes
Roque De La Fuente (cropped).jpg
Rocky De La Fuente
Businessman  Florida July 19, 2016[114] Michael Steinberg (cropped).jpg
Michael Steinberg of Florida

Received 67,457 votes in the Democratic presidential primary
Ran for the Democratic United States Senate nomination in Florida, 2016
State parties National Total National percentage highest single state total highest single state percentage
American Delta
Reform
33,136 0% 9,101 (0.1%)
Florida
1,063 (0.3%)
Vermont

Poll Standings[edit]

In August and September, Suffolk University did polling listing De la Fuente in Nevada. He got only 1%.

American Delta party nomination[edit]

The American Delta Party is an organization specifically created to support De La Fuente's independent candidacy.

Reform party nomination[edit]

The Reform Party recognized the following other candidates as seeking its presidential nomination[115] The vote totals nominating De La Fuente were never released.

Name Notes
Ed Chlapowski[115] Owner/manager at Opportunity Resolution
Kenneth Cross[115] Semi-retired engineer and businessman
Reform Party vice-presidential nominee, 2012
Lynn Kahn[115] Doctor of clinical psychology
Sought 2016 Peace and Freedom Party presidential nomination.
Will appear on Arkansas and Iowa ballot.
Darcy Richardson[115] Historian and writer
2012 Democratic Party presidential hopeful.
received 41,730 in the primary[116]

Richard Duncan, Independent[edit]

Name State Vice presidential nominee national vote total ballot access.
Richard Duncan Ohio Ricky Johnson 24,308
(0%)
18
(173) Ohio[117]

(Alabama, Alaska, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia)

Bernie Sanders[edit]

Sanders campaigning for Hillary Clinton at Nashua Community College in October 2016.

Several grassroots campaigns to elect Bernie Sanders President as a write-in candidate were established on social media in the run-up to the United States presidential election. Though Sanders continued to campaign for Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton, supporters pointed to alleged DNC bias in the Democratic Party's presidential primaries against Sanders, and Clinton's email scandal, and continued to support him.[118] Both Clinton and Donald Trump would have had to win less than the required 270 electoral college votes for Sanders to have denied either candidate the presidency, and for the election to be passed to the House of Representatives - thus the initial write-in campaign around Vermont, offering only 3 college votes, was unsuccessful.[119] The campaign expanded to include all 12 eligible states (one of which listed Sanders as an official write-in candidate), and relied on states such as California, with a high electoral college vote count and large support for Sanders, to be successful in denying both Trump and Clinton.[120] He has received over 100 thousand popular votes and one electoral vote. Two other electoral votes were disallowed.

What is notable here is that he came in third in Vermont,[121] coming ahead of both Gary Johnson and Jill Stein and taking 5.7% of the vote (18,183 tallied), something that has never happened before in a fall Presidential election.

Dan Vacek, Legal Marijuana Now Party[edit]

Ballot access: Iowa, Minnesota

Name Prior positions State Nominated Vice presidential nominee National Popular vote
Dan Vacek at Rice Street Parade 2016.jpg
Dan Vacek
Financial Assistance Caseworker,
Ramsey County, Minnesota
 Minnesota July 25, 2016[122] Mark Elworth of Nebraska 13,538 (0%)

Alyson Kennedy, Socialist Workers Party[edit]

Name Prior positions State Nominated Vice presidential nominee National vote total Ballot access
Alyson Kennedy Labor Organizer and Activist
Socialist Workers Party vice presidential nominee 2008
 Illinois [123] February 12, 2016[124] Osborne Hart of Pennsylvania[125] 12,467 (0%) Colorado, Louisiana, Minnesota, New Jersey, Tennessee, Utah, Washington[126]

Chris Keniston, Veterans Party of America[edit]

Electoral votes: 15

Ballot access: Colorado, Mississippi[127]

Name Prior positions State Nominated Vice presidential nominee Popular vote

Chris Keniston

Reliability Engineer  Texas Deacon Taylor of Florida 7,251 (0%)

Mike Maturen, American Solidarity Party[edit]

Electoral votes: 9

Write-In included: 332

Ballot access: Colorado[129]

Write-In: Alabama,[130] Alaska,[131] California,[132] Georgia,[133] Idaho,[134] Iowa,[130] Kansas, Kentucky,[135] Maryland,[136] Michigan,[137] Minnesota,[138] Nebraska,[139] New Hampshire,[130] New Jersey,[130] New York,[140] North Dakota,[141] Ohio,[142] Oregon,[143] Pennsylvania,[130] Rhode Island,[130] Texas,[144] Vermont,[130] Virginia,[145] Washington,[146] Wisconsin[147]

Name Prior positions State Nominated Vice presidential nominee National Total
Mike Maturen Sales professional  Michigan July 9, 2016 Juan Muñoz 6,776 (0%)

James Hedges, Prohibition Party[edit]

Electoral votes: 21

Ballot access: Arkansas, Colorado, Mississippi[148]

Name Prior positions State Announced candidacy Nominated Vice presidential nominee
Jimhedges.jpg
James Hedges
Tax Assessor, Thompson Township, Fulton County, Pennsylvania (2002–2007)
American Independent Party presidential candidate, 2016
Prohibition Party presidential candidate, 2012
 Pennsylvania July 2015[149] July 31, 2015[149] Bill Bayes of Mississippi
State parties National Total National percentage highest single state total highest single state percentage
5,617 0%

Poll standings: In order to see if support for Jill Stein and Gary Johnson was genuine, Falrleigh Dickinson University conducted a poll substituting Hedges and Monica Moorhead of the Workers'World Party, for Johnson and Stein. Hedges received 4%.[150]

Tom Hoefling, America's Party[edit]

Electoral votes: 44

Ballot access: Arkansas, Colorado, Florida

Name Prior positions State Announced candidacy Vice presidential nominee national total
Tom Hoefling Political activist
American Independent Party and Constitution Party
presidential candidate, 2016
American Independent Party and America's Party
presidential nominee, 2012
 Iowa January 2016[151] Steve Schulin
of South Carolina
4,856

Monica Moorehead, Workers World Party[edit]

Electoral votes: 30

Ballot access: New Jersey, Utah, Wisconsin[152][153]
(Texas)[154]

Name Prior positions State Nominated Vice presidential nominee National Total National percentage
Monica Moorehead Perennial candidate and activist  New Jersey November 8, 2015[155] Lamont Lilly[155] 4,319 0%

Poll standings: In order to see if support for Jill Stein and Gary Johnson was genuine, Falrleigh Dickinson University conducted a poll substituting Moorhead and Jim Hedges of the Prohibition Party, for Johnson and Stein. Ms. Moorehead received 3%, the same amount Stein did.[150]

Peter Skewes, American Party (South Carolina)[edit]

Electoral votes: 9

Ballot access: South Carolina

Name Prior positions State Announced candidacy Vice presidential nominee national total
Peter Skewes Professor,
Clemson University
 South Carolina May 15, 2016[156] Michael Lacy 3,246

Laurence Kotlikoff, Independent[edit]

Name Prior positions State Announced candidacy Vice presidential candidate Ballot access total popular vote (percentage)
Kotlikoff.jpg
Laurence Kotlikoff
Economics professor at Boston University  Massachusetts Edward E. Leamer of California * On ballot: Colorado, Louisiana[157]
3,603 (0%)

Rocky Giordani, Independent American Party[edit]

Electoral votes: 18

Ballot access: New Mexico, Oregon, Utah[179]

Name Prior positions State Nominated Vice presidential nominee national total
Rocky Giordani Author  Utah November 7, 2015[180] Farley Anderson 2,752

Emidio "Mimi" Soltysik, Socialist Party USA[edit]

Electoral votes: 25

Ballot access: Colorado, Michigan[181]

Name Prior positions State Nominated Vice presidential nominee
Mimi Soltysik (cropped).jpg
Mimi Soltysik
Former National Co-Chair,
Socialist Party USA
 California October 17, 2015[182] Angela Walker (cropped).jpg
Angela Walker of Wisconsin
Other parties National Total National percentage
Natural Law Party
(Michigan)[183]
2,705 0%

He also received 1,086 votes in Guam's presidential "beauty contest."

Rod Silva, Nutrition Party[edit]

Electoral votes: 9

Ballot access: Colorado[184]

Name Prior positions State Nominated Vice presidential nominee popular vote
Rod Silva Restaurateur  New Jersey October 20, 2015[185] Richard Silva 751 (0%)

Jerry White, Socialist Equality Party[edit]

Electoral votes: 8

Ballot access: Louisiana[186]

Name Prior positions State Nominated Vice presidential nominee Total popular vote:
Jerry White addresses a meeting.jpg
Jerry White
Labor editor,
World Socialist Web Site
Socialist Equality Party presidential
nominee, 1996, 2008, and 2012
 Michigan April 22, 2016[187] Niles Niemuth of Wisconsin
(Constitutionally ineligible – under age 35)[188]
485 nationwide.

Other candidate considerations[edit]

American Independent and other fusion tickets[edit]

Several states, most notably New York, permit fusion tickets. A fusion ticket is when a candidate or candidates are permitted more than one ballot line by being nominated by one or more third parties and permitting the votes on all lines to be added together for a single state total.

The Clinton/Kaine ticket is on the ballot in New York on the Women's Equality and Working Families Party lines, while the Trump/Pence ticket is on the Conservative party there as well as the American Independent Party in California.

Conservative party nomination in New York[edit]

The state committee nominated Donald Trump by voice vote.

Total popular vote: 271,961 (3.8%)

Working Families party nomination in New York[edit]

Initially, the Working Families Party had endorsed Bernie Sanders for president, but when he conceded defeat at the Democratic convention and endorsed Hillary Clinton, the party had a mail in primary where Clinton defeated Jill Stein and "no endorsement" with 68% of the vote, preferring fusion rather than "asking voters to cast a vote that is at best meaningless and at worst destructive of progressive possibility."[189]

Total popular vote: 130,245 (1.8%)

Woman's Equality party nomination in New York[edit]

A faction of the party's executive committee nominated Dr. Lynn Sandra Kahn, while another nominated Hillary Clinton. The New York State board of elections decided the former Secretary of State would get the ballot line.[190][191]

Total popular vote: 32,307 (0.5%)

American Independent Party nomination in California[edit]

The state committee ignored the primary and designated Trump as its nominee.[192]

California did not record a separate ballot total for the AIP.

Party nomination contest

Below are the results of the California Primary ballot, which was rendered superfluous when the state committee decided to select Donald Trump.[193]

California American Independent presidential primary, June 7, 2016[194]
Candidate Votes Percentage
Alan Spears 7,348 19%
Arthur Harris 6,510 17%
Robert Ornelas 6,411 17%
J.R. Myers 4,898 13%
Wiley Drake 4,828 13%
James Hedges 3,989 11%
Thomas Hoefling 3,917 10%
Total 37,901 100%

No ballot access[edit]

According to the Federal Election Commission almost 2,000 People, both real and fictional, have been registered as presidential candidates.[195]

Among the more notable ones are:

Name Prior positions State Announced candidacy
Zoltan Istvan, Presidential Candidate.jpg
Zoltan Istvan
Futurist, writer, transhumanist philosopher  California October 2014[196][197][198] Founder of the proposed Transhumanist Party, Had write-in access in New York where he received 65 votes and Florida, where he received 19, for a total of 84 votes.[199]
Dan Bilzerian Professional poker player  California June 2015[200] Withdrew in December 2015 and endorsed Donald Trump.[201]
Ken Fields Headshot.jpg
Ken Fields
Entrepreneur, environmental advocate  New York November 2015[202][203] campaign last heard of in August.[204]
Pastor Terry Jones before the March.jpg
Terry Jones
Pastor for Dove World Outreach Center  Florida July 2013[205][206]
Merlin Miller.JPG
Merlin Miller
Filmmaker  Tennessee July 2015[207]
Joe Schriner Painter  Ohio October 2014[208]
Guy Schwartz Musician  Texas
Ron White01.jpg
Ron White
Comedian and actor November 2015[210] His candidacy was a gimmick to help promote his comedy tour[211][212]
Robby Wells (cropped).PNG

Robby Wells

Former Savannah State University head football coach  North Carolina December 2012 (original filing)[213]

March 2016[214]

He made no attempt to get on any ballot.

Write-in Candidates[edit]

A minimum of 1,022,439 (0.8%) voters[215] cast write in ballots, what is believed to be a record. Many were for registered candidates who were on the ballot in one or more states, others for candidates who were registered but were on no ballots and others were for fictional or perceptibly humorous figures, like of Mickey Mouse or Buffy the Vampire Slayer. The vast majority of these will never be counted or recorded as individuals but as "Others" or "Scattered." Many states disallow write-up candidacy[216]

Non-notable candidates[edit]

The following candidates had no on-ballot access but were official write-in candidates in at least one state.[217]

Alabama, Iowa, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont are not listed below as those states do not require filing as a write-in candidate.

  • Fox, Cherunda Lynn – 25 states
  • Schoenke, Marshall Roy – 20 states
  • Buchanan, Robert Lewis – 16 states
  • Hartnell, Benjamin – 16 states
  • Valdivia, Anthony Joseph – 12 states
  • Basiago, Andrew Daniel – 9 states
  • Schriner, Joseph Charles – 9 states
  • Wysinger, Demetra Jefferson – 9 states
  • Perry, Darryl W. – 8 states
  • Vogel-Walcutt, Jennifer J. – 8 states
  • Boring, Paij Jean – 7 states
  • Jacquemotte, Alan – 7 states
  • Reid, Janet L. – 7 states
  • Ball, Dennis Andrew – 6 states
  • Librace, David – 6 states
  • Limbaugh, David – 6 states
  • Olkowski, Michael S. – 6 states
  • Cubbler, Scott Ralston – 5 states
  • Flippin, Ameer Xenos – 5 states
  • Jennings, Gerald John – 5 states
  • Moreau, Kevin Michael – 5 states
  • Morris, Laio Chantelle – 5 states
  • Sterling, Shawna Joy – 5 states
  • Williams, Charles Mitchell – 5 states
  • Bowhall, William Ernest – 4 states
  • Puskar, Michael Brandon – 4 states
  • Roberts, Matthew – 4 states
  • Steinacker, Delano Aimes – 4 states
  • Whitaker, Barbara Joan – 4 states
  • Bartlett, Henry Lovell – 3 states
  • Brown, Kennedy King – 3 states
  • Brown, Theodis, Sr. – 3 states
  • Carter, Willie Felix – 3 states
  • Collins, Loren – 3 states
  • Jackson, Denny Carroll – 3 states
  • Li, Johnson Immanuel Yuquimpo – 3 states
  • Locke, Star – 3 states
  • Robertson, Platt Allen – 3 states
  • Smith, Duff Cooper – 3 states
  • Tittle, Sheila Telles – 3 states
  • Vakil, Kora Roberta Katz – 3 states
  • Bolar, Shelia Mariah – 2 states
  • Breivogel, JoAnn – 2 states
  • Burton, Jamin – 2 states
  • Byrne, David C. – 2 states
  • Carlisle, Martin Christopher – 2 states
  • Cavazos, Cynthia T. – 2 states
  • Edgell, Richard Baxter – 2 states
  • Gyurko, Zoltan Istvan – 2 states
  • Lee, Jonathan – 2 states
  • Paracha, Emaad Muhammad – 2 states
  • Roberts, Clifton Lee – 2 states
  • Smith, William Roger – 2 states
  • Sood, Ajay – 2 states
  • Strickland, Gloria Dawn – 2 states
  • Thomson, Douglas W. – 2 states
  • Wallace, William Leonard – 2 states
  • Zerilli, Charles R. – 2 states
  • Adams, Paul – 1 state
  • Allen, Stephen L. – 1 state
  • Aranja, Arantxa – 1 state
  • Asherie, Neer R. – 1 state
  • Baird, Dustin Alan – 1 state
  • Bell, James Jerome – 1 state
  • Bickelmeyer, Michael – 1 state
  • Blickley, Mark – 1 state
  • Blumenthal, Paul E. – 1 state
  • Botero, Juan B. – 1 state
  • Boyles, Michael David – 1 state
  • Boynton, Philip D. – 1 state
  • Brown, Dana E. – 1 state
  • Brown, Ray C. – 1 state
  • Brumfield, Author C. – 1 state
  • Canns, Gary S. – 1 state
  • Clark, Roy Allen – 1 state
  • Cohen, Ariel – 1 state
  • Connolly, William J. – 1 state
  • Cooper, Jeffrey A. – 1 state
  • Corsetti, Michael – 1 state
  • Cummings, Darryl – 1 state
  • Deame, Kevin – 1 state
  • Dean, Charlie – 1 state
  • Denz, Vickie Lynn – 1 state
  • Edalgo, James Edward – 1 state
  • Elgar, Betsy Pauline – 1 state
  • Elliott, Claire Elisabeth – 1 state
  • Ellis, Craig – 1 state
  • Evans, Ronald – 1 state
  • Feegbeh, William B. – 1 state
  • Floyd, Theo R. – 1 state
  • Fried, Jason – 1 state
  • Gates, Jacqueline – 1 state
  • Gerhard, Eric – 1 state
  • Glentz, Joseph – 1 state
  • Griffith, William Richard – 1 state
  • Harper, Mark J. – 1 state
  • Helgerson, Timothy – 1 state
  • Hess, William Anthony – 1 state
  • Heupel, RaeDeen Rose – 1 state
  • Holbeck, Alec – 1 state
  • Hrenak, James – 1 state
  • Huffman, Lonny Paul – 1 state
  • In-Albon, Mitchell – 1 state
  • Indiana, Tara – 1 state
  • Ingbar, Michael Frederick – 1 state
  • Jaynes, Bruce E. – 1 state
  • Jobe, James Walter – 1 state
  • Johnson Pendleton, Cathy – 1 state
  • Keita, Mohammed – 1 state
  • Kelly, Melissa L. – 1 state
  • Kern, Jacob S. – 1 state
  • Kirschner, Barry – 1 state
  • Klojzy, Jeffrey John – 1 state
  • Kobin, Asher J. – 1 state
  • Kokes, Troy Morgan – 1 state
  • Koplitz, Roger – 1 state
  • Lacy, Chris – 1 state
  • Lash, Ken – 1 state
  • Levinson, Michael Stephen – 1 state
  • Limbaush, Charles David – 1 state
  • Ling, William Martin – 1 state
  • Lohmiller, Bruce – 1 state
  • Lowe, Donald Eugene – 1 state
  • Luesing, Richard Turner – 1 state
  • Lynch, Darin – 1 state
  • Mackler, Jeffrey – 1 state
  • Mallapadi, Srinivasa K. – 1 state
  • Malloy, Steven P. – 1 state
  • Martin, Daniel Stevens – 1 state
  • Maus, William Joseph – 1 state
  • McCarthy, Stephen John – 1 state
  • McCathy, Stephen – 1 state
  • McKee, Kevin P. – 1 state
  • Meluch, Timothy B. – 1 state
  • Miller, Scott Erwin – 1 state
  • Monson, Dori Thomas – 1 state
  • Morrow, Robert – 1 state
  • MsMere, Reverend – 1 state
  • Muffoletto, Daniel – 1 state
  • Muhammad, Ricky – 1 state
  • Mullis, Ric – 1 state
  • Mutford, Jason – 1 state
  • Nieman, Thomas J. – 1 state
  • None of these candidates – 1 state
  • Orwick, Aaron Idean – 1 state
  • Parks, Stephen Paul – 1 state
  • Payeur, Micah – 1 state
  • Perry, Brian Anthony – 1 state
  • Perry, David – 1 state
  • Perry, David – 1 state
  • Ramos, Luis Alberto – 1 state
  • Regenold, Ricky J. – 1 state
  • Rice, Robert D. – 1 state
  • Schafer, Paul – 1 state
  • Schmidt, Joseph – 1 state
  • Schumacher, Derrick – 1 state
  • Seeberg, Phillip – 1 state
  • Semon, Adam Lee – 1 state
  • Sidner, Arthur E. – 1 state
  • Snell, Keith Richard – 1 state
  • Soldjah, Sistah – 1 state
  • Stack, David G. – 1 state
  • Steffes, Dale – 1 state
  • Sterner, Corey – 1 state
  • Stevens, Timothy Allen – 1 state
  • Stout, Matthew Water – 1 state
  • Stroh, Josiah R. – 1 state
  • Struck, James T. – 1 state
  • Symonette, Maurice – 1 state
  • Tabor, Samuel Lewis – 1 state
  • Taysom, Nicola Jo – 1 state
  • Terry, Doug – 1 state
  • Thomas, Mary E. – 1 state
  • Tyree, Roy Wayne – 1 state
  • Urbach, Marc – 1 state
  • Vann, Mary A. – 1 state
  • Welsh, Esther – 1 state
  • Wettschreck, Kirk – 1 state
  • Wharton, Jeffrey Ryan – 1 state
  • Williams, Victor – 1 state
  • Wilson, Sandra – 1 state
  • Wolff, Robert M. – 1 state
  • Wu, Jeffrey Anthony – 1 state
  • Zutler, Daniel Paul – 1 state

Previously speculated[edit]

The following individuals have been the focus of presidential speculation as an independent candidate in multiple media reports during the 2016 election cycle, but such speculation has ostensibly ceased for a period of three months or longer.

Withdrew[edit]

Declined[edit]

Individuals listed in this section have been the focus of media speculation as being possible 2016 presidential candidates but have unequivocally ruled out an independent presidential bid in 2016.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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