Map of the Jütgelt Gün's hoshuu (banner) of the Altai Uriankhai
in western Mongolia.
Tuvans or Tagnu Uriankhai
Uriankhai, Wulianghai (Chinese: 乌梁海; pinyin: Wūliánghǎi), or Wuliangha (Chinese: 兀良哈; pinyin: Wùliánghā) is a term applied to several neighboring ethnic groups. The name is mentioned several times in the Secret History of the Mongols.
In the beginning of the Liao Dynasty (907-1125), the Uriankhai were located in China's Liaoning province. But during the course of the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), they started moving further north and west.
In the 13th century (Yuan Dynasty) Rashid-al-Din Hamadani described the Forest Uriyangkhai as extremely isolated Siberian forest people living in birchbark tents and hunting on skis. Despite the similarity in name to the famous Uriyankhan clan of the Mongols, Rashid states that they had no connection. During the Ming Dynasty, the Jurchens were known among the Chinese as "forest people" (using the Jurchen word, Woji), and this connotation later transferred to the Chinese rendering of Uriankhai, Wulianghai.
By the early 17th century the term Uriankhai was a general Mongolian term for all the dispersed bands to the north-west, whether Samoyed, Turkic, or Mongolian in origin. In 1757 the Qing Dynasty organized its far northern frontier into a series of Uriankhai banners: the Khovsgol Nuur Uriyangkhai, Tagnu Uriankhai, Kemchik, Salchak, and Tozhu (all Tuvans) and Altan-nuur Uriyangkhai. Tuvans in Mongolia are called Monchoogo Uriankhai (cf. Tuvan Monchak < Kazakh monshak "necklace") by Mongolians. Another group of Uriankhai in Mongolia (in Bayan-Ölgii and Khovd aimags) are called Altai Uriankhai. These were apparently attached to the Oirats. A third group of Mongolian Uriankhai were one of the 6 tumens of Dayan Khan in Eastern Mongolia. These last two Uriankhai groups are said to be descendants of the Uriankhan tribe from which came Jelme and his more famous cousin Subutai.
A variation of the name, Uraŋxai, was an old name for the Sakha. Russian Pavel Nebolsin documented the Urankhu clan of Volga Kalmyks in the 1850s. The existence of the Uriankhai was documented by the Koreans, who called them Orangkae (오랑캐, "savages"), especially in context of their attacks against the Sinitic realm in the 14th and 15th centuries.
- ^ National Census 2010
- ^ Mongolian term; also rendered "Uriyangkhai", "Urianhai", or "Uryangkhai"
- ^ a b c Crossley, Pamela Kyle (December 1985). "An Introduction to the Qing Foundation Myth". Late Imperial China 6 (2): 13–24.
- ^ C.P.Atwood-Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, p.9
- ^ C.P.Atwood-Encyclopedia of Mongolia, p.9
- ^ POPPE, Nicholas (1969). "Review of Menges "The Turkic Languages and Peoples"". Central Asiatic Journal 12 (4): 330.
- ^ Mänchen-Helfen, Otto (1992) . Journey to Tuva. Los Angeles: Ethnographic Press University of Southern California. p. 180. ISBN 1-878986-04-X.