Bajarê Urmiye شهر زیبای اورمیه Urmia City
Bajarê Urmiye شهر زیبای اورمیه Urmia City
Published: 2016/07/06
Channel: Urmiye Club
Published: 2014/08/29
Channel: zaniar br
ارومیه .Urmia
ارومیه .Urmia
Published: 2016/06/29
Channel: sina sa
Kha ramsha mahneyana go Urmia, Iran
Kha ramsha mahneyana go Urmia, Iran
Published: 2016/09/28
Ali Pormehr - Urmia / Urmiya | 2016
Ali Pormehr - Urmia / Urmiya | 2016
Published: 2016/07/14
Channel: MeyxanaGold Musiqili
Urmia 09-11-2015 South Azerbaijan- اورمیه Urmu ,Orumiyeh,urmiyeh , ارومیه , Ûrmiye , Wirmê
Urmia 09-11-2015 South Azerbaijan- اورمیه Urmu ,Orumiyeh,urmiyeh , ارومیه , Ûrmiye , Wirmê
Published: 2015/11/09
Channel: AzadUrmu- آزاد اورمو
Bajare Urmiye | Urmia City | شهر ارومیه
Bajare Urmiye | Urmia City | شهر ارومیه
Published: 2017/02/14
Channel: Urmiye Club
Published: 2016/08/01
Channel: GabeHashTV
داستان کلیسای حضرت مریم اورمیه - St. Mary
داستان کلیسای حضرت مریم اورمیه - St. Mary's Church - Urmia - Iran
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: Omeed Daveedof
Urmia (Azerbaijan,Iran) Time Lapse 2015  - Hadi saeidfar
Urmia (Azerbaijan,Iran) Time Lapse 2015 - Hadi saeidfar
Published: 2016/01/30
Channel: Elxan
Iran White mulberry picking, Urmia county برداشت توت سفيد شهرستان اورميه ايران
Iran White mulberry picking, Urmia county برداشت توت سفيد شهرستان اورميه ايران
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: Persian_boy
Armenian Urmia Society - Sheikhani
Armenian Urmia Society - Sheikhani
Published: 2014/06/15
Channel: Jane Demian
Irán Hoy - El lago de Urmia
Irán Hoy - El lago de Urmia
Published: 2012/11/02
Channel: HispanTV
Robert Bet Sayad - Urmia - Old Assyrian Song
Robert Bet Sayad - Urmia - Old Assyrian Song
Published: 2012/10/09
Channel: Zidane
Satlowe, Urmia, Iran
Satlowe, Urmia, Iran
Published: 2014/11/13
Channel: Zhanna Yukhanova
The REAL reason for drying of Lake Urmia
The REAL reason for drying of Lake Urmia
Published: 2011/10/02
Channel: 2009IranRevolution
Iran TBM making Water tunnel to Urmia salt lake ساخت تونل آب به درياچه اروميه ايران
Iran TBM making Water tunnel to Urmia salt lake ساخت تونل آب به درياچه اروميه ايران
Published: 2016/09/28
Channel: ali javid
Urmia Lake  Iran 6 34
Urmia Lake Iran 6 34
Published: 2016/12/19
Channel: Hossein Shahbaz
Iran, Japan and UN join to revive Lake Urmia
Iran, Japan and UN join to revive Lake Urmia
Published: 2017/04/10
Channel: PressTV News Videos
Urmu ,Urmia, Urmiye ☾✵Azərbaycan -Əli pormehr
Urmu ,Urmia, Urmiye ☾✵Azərbaycan -Əli pormehr
Published: 2016/07/17
Channel: AzadUrmu- آزاد اورمو
Urmiye Urmia, Maryam Dinparast - TAR
Urmiye Urmia, Maryam Dinparast - TAR
Published: 2010/01/19
Channel: Turkish Urmia
Urmia ☾✵ Urmu xalq mahnıları Ceyran amandı ceyran ,Fatma nenem ,Oyna gülüm
Urmia ☾✵ Urmu xalq mahnıları Ceyran amandı ceyran ,Fatma nenem ,Oyna gülüm
Published: 2015/12/21
Channel: AzadUrmu- آزاد اورمو
Festival “Khubba” – 2017, Urmia, Russia. Part – 15.
Festival “Khubba” – 2017, Urmia, Russia. Part – 15.
Published: 2017/05/31
Channel: Zhanna Yukhanova
Festival “Khubba”, Urmia, 2017. Part - 2.
Festival “Khubba”, Urmia, 2017. Part - 2.
Published: 2017/05/09
Channel: Zhanna Yukhanova
URMIA Announcement 2017
URMIA Announcement 2017
Published: 2016/10/21
Channel: URMIAnetwork
urmia city
urmia city
Published: 2014/03/15
Channel: Naeim Jafari
Urmia-Open Resid Xudaverdiyev Kumite
Urmia-Open Resid Xudaverdiyev Kumite
Published: 2016/08/26
Channel: Rashid Khudaverdiyev
Iran made Rice fields Tractor, Urmia county ساخت تراكتور شاليزار برنج شهرستان اروميه ايران
Iran made Rice fields Tractor, Urmia county ساخت تراكتور شاليزار برنج شهرستان اروميه ايران
Published: 2016/02/14
Channel: Persian_boy
Lady Urmia Trailer - Director, Mohammad Ehsani.
Lady Urmia Trailer - Director, Mohammad Ehsani.
Published: 2012/11/21
Channel: Kelly Desmore
band urmia
band urmia
Published: 2009/08/01
Channel: Reza Delsouzi
E.7.  Urmia to Tehran, The Capital
E.7. Urmia to Tehran, The Capital
Published: 2017/03/10
Channel: Voluptuous Vulture Productions
Mata d
Mata d'Gulpashan, Urmia - Iran
Published: 2017/03/11
save lake Urmia (Sara Koral)
save lake Urmia (Sara Koral)
Published: 2014/03/31
Channel: yorgun demokrat
Iran Air Fokker 100 Urmia to Tehran
Iran Air Fokker 100 Urmia to Tehran
Published: 2012/06/30
Channel: Mohamad Izd
Urmia iriava 2005
Urmia iriava 2005
Published: 2011/08/10
Channel: banipal
Iran Arablu-ye Bisheh village, Urmia county روستاي عربلوي بيشه شهرستان اورميه ايران
Iran Arablu-ye Bisheh village, Urmia county روستاي عربلوي بيشه شهرستان اورميه ايران
Published: 2016/06/16
Channel: Persian_boy
Urmiye Urmia, Volleyball Game  Long Live Azerbaijan of Iran
Urmiye Urmia, Volleyball Game Long Live Azerbaijan of Iran
Published: 2010/08/05
Channel: PersiaIs Iran
Urmiye Urmia - Qarabağ Şikəstəsi
Urmiye Urmia - Qarabağ Şikəstəsi
Published: 2010/01/05
Channel: Turkish Urmia
From Urmia (Iran) to Van (Turkey)
From Urmia (Iran) to Van (Turkey)
Published: 2013/10/22
Channel: Pim Van den Berg
Urmu Gölü Mahnısı - Lake Urmia (Turkish Song; Azerbaijan, Iran)
Urmu Gölü Mahnısı - Lake Urmia (Turkish Song; Azerbaijan, Iran)
Published: 2012/06/12
Channel: Turkish Urmia
Parisa Arsalani Singer Urmia- Urmu-Urmiye-Orumiyeh-پریسا ارصلانی
Parisa Arsalani Singer Urmia- Urmu-Urmiye-Orumiyeh-پریسا ارصلانی
Published: 2010/06/20
Channel: Umud Urmulu
BMW 1200 GS - Kandevan to Urmia - Iran
BMW 1200 GS - Kandevan to Urmia - Iran
Published: 2014/11/01
Channel: Xerxes Ru
Clash between Iranian police and environmental protesters in Urmia, Azerbaijan
Clash between Iranian police and environmental protesters in Urmia, Azerbaijan
Published: 2011/08/29
Channel: İnsan Haqları
Iran Fish farming in Hasanlou Dam lake, Urmia county پرورش ماهي در درياچه سد حسنلو اورميه ايران
Iran Fish farming in Hasanlou Dam lake, Urmia county پرورش ماهي در درياچه سد حسنلو اورميه ايران
Published: 2016/11/11
Channel: Persian_boy
Tpaqta d
Tpaqta d'Valodia Sarkez go mata d' Satlou, Urmia - Iran.
Published: 2015/09/23
Urmia, summer 2016, Lake urmia, vineyards, Mahabad Dam
Urmia, summer 2016, Lake urmia, vineyards, Mahabad Dam
Published: 2017/01/01
Channel: mo azar
American Girl swims in Iran-- Urmia Lake-Saltiest lake in the world- June 2014
American Girl swims in Iran-- Urmia Lake-Saltiest lake in the world- June 2014
Published: 2014/06/25
Channel: Sarah Tadayon
Ali Pormehr - Urmia | 2016 Yeni Audio
Ali Pormehr - Urmia | 2016 Yeni Audio
Published: 2016/07/14
Channel: Sadiq Rəhimli313 Official
The Flamingos Return to Lake Urmia
The Flamingos Return to Lake Urmia
Published: 2011/09/06
Channel: Guney Azerbaycan
Urmiye Aşıq Məktəbi - Urmia School of Ashiq- Hicran Havası
Urmiye Aşıq Məktəbi - Urmia School of Ashiq- Hicran Havası
Published: 2012/08/21
Channel: Umud Urmulu
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Official seal of Urmia
Nickname(s): Paris of Iran, Cradle of Water
Urmia is located in Iran
Coordinates: 37°33′19″N 45°04′21″E / 37.55528°N 45.07250°E / 37.55528; 45.07250Coordinates: 37°33′19″N 45°04′21″E / 37.55528°N 45.07250°E / 37.55528; 45.07250
Country  Iran
Region 3
Province West Azerbaijan
County Urmia
Bakhsh Central
 • Mayor Mohammad Hazratpour
 • Parliament Ghazipour, Bahadori & Ruhollah Hazratpour
Elevation 1,332 m (4,370 ft)
Population (2012[1])
 • city 680,228 & 963,738
 • Metro 1,000,000
 • Population Rank in Iran 10th
  City & County
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 • Summer (DST) IRDT (UTC+4:30)
Area code(s) 044

Urmia[nb 1] (Azerbaijani: Urmiya or Urmiyə, Persian: ارومیه‎‎ (pronounced [oɾumiˈje] (About this sound listen)[nb 2]) is the largest city in West Azerbaijan province of Iran. Urmia is situated at an altitude of 1,330 m above sea level, and is located along the Shahar Chay river (City River) on the Urmia Plain. Lake Urmia, one of the world's largest salt lakes, lies to the east of the city and the mountainous Turkish border area lies to the west.

Urmia is the 10th most populated city in Iran. At the 2012 census, its population was 667,499 with 197,749 households.[2] The city's inhabitants are predominantly Azerbaijanis, with minorities of Kurds, Armenians and Assyrians.[3][4][5][6][7] as well as Iran's official language, Persian. The city is the trading center for a fertile agricultural region where fruits (especially apples and grapes) and tobacco are grown.

The Christian history in Urmia, Iran should be noted first. It is highly, and most intricately preserved. Especially seen in the many churches, and cathedrals.

An important town by the 9th century, for centuries the city has had a diverse population which has at times included Muslims (Shias and Sunnis), Christians (Catholics, Protestants, Nestorians, and Orthodox), Jews, Bahá'ís and Sufis. Around 1900, Christians made up more than 40% of the city's population, however, most of the Christians fled in 1918[8][9][9][10] as a result of the Persian Campaign during World War I and the Armenian and Assyrian Genocides.


Richard Nelson Frye suggested Urartian origin for the name[11] while T. Burrow connected the origin of the name Urmia to Indo-Iranian urmi- "wave" and urmya- "undulating, wavy",[12] which is due to the local Assyrian folk etymology for the name which related "Mia" to Syriac meaning "water." Hence Urmia simply means 'Watertown" — a befitting name for a city situated by a lake and surrounded by rivers, would be the cradle of water.[citation needed]

As of 1921, Urmia was also called, Urumia and Urmi.[13] During the Pahlavi Dynasty (1925–1979), the city was called Rezaiyeh[nb 3] (Persian: رضائیه‎‎) after Rezā Shāh, the dynasty's founder, whose name ultimately derives from the Islamic concept of rida via the Eighth Imam in Twelver Shia Islam, Ali al-Ridha.


People of Urmia awaiting the Shah, 1911.
Urmia Fruit Market, 1911.

According to Vladimir Minorsky, there were villages in the Urmia Plain as early as 2000 BC, with their civilization under the influence of the Kingdom of Van. The excavations of the ancient ruins near Urmia led to the discovery of utensils that date to the 20th century BC. In ancient times, the west bank of Urmia Lake was called Gilzan, and in the ninth century BC an independent government ruled there, which later joined the Urartu or Mana empire; in the 8th century BC, the area was a vassal of the Asuzh government until it joined the Median Empire after its formation.

During the Safavid era, the neighboring Ottoman Turks, who were the archrivals of the Safavids,[14] made several incursions into the city and captured it on more than one occasion, but the Safavids successfully defended their control over the area. When in 1622, during the reign of Safavid king Abbas I (r. 1588–1629) Qasem Sultan Afshar was appointed governor of Mosul,[15][16] he was forced to leave his office shortly afterwards due to the outbreak of a plague.[16] He moved to the western part of Azerbaijan, and became the founder of the Afshar community of Urmia.[16] The city was the capital of the Urmia Khanate from 1747–1865. The first monarch of Iran's Qajar dynasty, Agha Muhammad Khan, was crowned in Urmia in 1795.

Due to the presence of substantial Christian minority at the end of the 19th century, Urmia was also chosen as a site of the first American Christian mission in Iran in 1835. Another mission soon became operational in nearby Tabriz as well. During World War I the population was estimated at 30,000 by Dr. Caujole, a quarter of which (7,500) were Assyrians and 1,000 were Jews.[10]

During the 19th century, the region became the center of a short lived Assyrian renaissance with many books and newspapers being published in Syriac. Urmia was also the seat of a Chaldean diocese.[17][18]

At the beginning of the First World War tens of thousands of Assyrians and Armenians from the Ottoman Empire found refuge in Urmia.[citation needed] During the war, the city changed hands several times between the Russians and the Ottoman troops and their Kurdish allies the following two years.[19] The influx of Christian refugees and their alliance with the Russians angered the Muslims who attacked the Christian quarter in February 1918, The better armed Assyrians managed however to capture the whole city following a brief battle.[19] The region descended into chaos again after the assassination of the Assyrian patriarch Shimun XXI Benyamin at the hands of Simko Shikak one month later. Turkish armies and Simko managed to finally take and plunder the city in June/July 1918.[20] Thousands of Assyrians were massacred as part of the Assyrian Genocide, others found refuge under British protection in Iraq,[20][21]



According to official census of 2012, the population of Urmia city is about 667,499 (with 197,749 households).[22]

Ethnic composition[edit]

The city has been home to various ethnic groups during its history. The population of Urmia in the early Islamic period was Christian.[23] At the beginning of the 20th century, the city had a significant Christian minority (Assyrians and Armenians) [8][24] with the Christian population of the town consisting of 40-50 percent of the total population.[25][better source needed] According to Macuch, and Ishaya, the city was the spiritual capital of the Assyrians were influenced by four Christian missions which were established in the city from period from 1830 to the end of World War I.[26] A large number of the Assyrians and Armenians were killed in 1914 during the Armenian and Assyrian genocides[27] which resulted in a change in the city's demographics.[26] During the era of Reza Shah Pahlavi, Iranian Assyrians were invited to return to the region and several thousand did return. There are around 5,000 Assyrians left in the city,[28] or around 1% of the population.

Until the Iran crisis of 1946 and the Establishment of the State of Israel in 1947 several thousand Jews also lived Urmia and their language (Lishán Didán) is still spoken by an aging community in Israel.

Today the population is mostly made up of Azerbaijanis who live alongside minorities of Kurds,[5][6] Assyrians[5][6] and Armenians[5][6].

Today the majority of the population can also speak the official language of Iran, Persian, in addition to their own native tongue.[29][30][31]


The majority of people are followers of Shia Islam.

The city is the archiepiscopal see of the Eastern Catholic Metropolitan Chaldean Catholic Archeparchy of Urmyā, which has a suffragan in Salmas. There are also Protestants, Nestorians and Armenian Orthodox. There are four churches in the central part of the city, two being Nestorian, one Armenian and one Chaldean.[32][33]

The city is also home to followers of Sunni Islam, the Bahá'í Faith, Judaism[citation needed] and different kinds of Yazdanism, whose adherents are Kurds.[citation needed]


Parks and touristic centers[edit]

An aerial view of Urmia

Urmia has many parks and touristic coastal villages in the shore of Urmia Lake. The oldest park in Urmia, called Park-e Saat, was established in the first Pahlavi's era. Urmia's largest park is Ellar Bagi Park (Azerbaijani "People's Garden") along the Shahar Chayi, or the "City River".

Lakes and Ponds:

  • Urmia Lake Natural Park
  • Hasanloo Lake
  • Marmisho lake
  • Shahrchay ِDam
  • Urmia Lake Islands


  • Haft Abad
  • Soole Dokel
  • Dana Boğan
  • Ali Pancesi
  • Isti Sou


  • Park-e Saat (Clock Park)
  • Park-e Jangali (Jungle Park)
  • Ellar Bagi (People`s Garden)
  • Park-e Shahr (City Park)
  • Park-e Saheli (Riverside Park)
  • Park-e Shaghayegh
  • Alghadir Park
  • Tokhmemorghi (Oval) Park
  • Ghaem Park

and ....

Touristic Coastal Villages:

  • Chichest
  • Bari
  • Fanoos
  • Sier
  • Band
  • Khoshako

Landscape Attractions:

  • Qasimlu Valley
  • Kazem Dashi Islet in Lake Urmia
  • Kashtiban Village
  • Imamzada Village
  • Silvana Region
  • Rashekan to Dash Aghol
  • Nazloo
  • Dalamper
  • Kaboodan Island[34]


Urmia's climate is cold semi-arid (Köppen: BSk) with cold winters, mild springs, hot dry summers and warm autumns. Precipitation is heavily concentrated in late autumn, winter (mostly in the form of snow), and especially spring, while summer precipitation is very scarce. Temperatures in Urmia are much colder than most of the remainder of Iran because of the elevation. Alhough to dry for being a traditional continental climate, it has cold enough winters to qualify for general continental.

Climate data for Urmia (Orumiyeh)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 16.4
Average high °C (°F) 2.6
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.3
Average low °C (°F) −6.1
Record low °C (°F) −22.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 30.2
Average precipitation days 9.6 9.4 11.4 12.7 12 5 2.2 1.7 2.1 7.1 8.3 8.5 90
Average snowy days 8.5 7.5 3.7 0.8 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 1.5 5.5 27.8
Average relative humidity (%) 76 74 65 60 58 51 48 48 49 60 70 74 61.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 114 132.9 169.6 197.9 268.6 344.3 364 341.2 293.1 222.3 166.4 118.7 2,733
Source #1:[35]
Source #2: NOAA (extremes, mean, snow, sun, humidity, 1961–1990)[36]


Sport is an important part of Urmia's culture. The most popular sport in Urmia is volleyball. Urmia is considered as Iran's volleyball capital, and that is because of the ranks that Shahrdari Urmia VC got in Iranian Volleyball Super League and for the great volleyball players that play in Iran men's national volleyball team (such as Saed Marouf, Abdolreza Alizadeh, Milad Ebadipour, etc.) and first class coaches in Iran. Recently Urmia has also been called "the city of volleyball lovers" by the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (International Volleyball Federation, FIVB) official website.

The 2010 Asian Men's Cup Volleyball Championship was held in Ghadir Arena in Urmia, 2012 WAFF Futsal Championship, and the 2012 Asian Junior Men's Volleyball Championship was also held in Urmia.



  • Natural History Museum – Displays the animals native to the vicinity of Urmia.
  • Urmia Museum – Archaeological museum affiliated with the faculty of Shahid Beheshti University.
  • Urmia Museum of Crafts and Classical Arts.
  • Urmia Museum of َAntrophology.


A School in Urmia (1910)

The first modern style school established in urmia in 1834.[37]

Urmia University's hall

Higher education[edit]

Urmia was an important center for higher education approximately a century ago, indeed, medical faculty of Urmia which was built by Joseph Cochran and a team of American medical associates in 1878, is the first University of Iran. Unfortunately the faculty became shut down even before establishment of first official university of Iran, University of Tehran.
Nowadays Urmia has become a considerable educational city. The city owns state and private universities and institutes listed below.

Universities in Urmia:

University Web Site
Urmia University [1]
Malek Ashtar University of Technology Urmia Branch [2]
Urmia University of Medical Sciences [3]
Urmia University of Technology [4]
Islamic Azad University of Urmia [5]
Payame Noor University of Urmia [6]
Elmi Karbordi University of Urmia [7]
University College of Saba [8]
University College of Azarabadegan [9]
University College of Elm O fan [10]
University College of Kamal [11]
Shahid Beheshti Technical School [12]
Ghazi Tabatabaee Technical School [13]
The Girls Technical School of Urmia [14]
Najand Institute of Higher Education [15]
University College Afagh [16]




Urmia has one state-owned television channel, West Azerbaijan TV. This channel's broadcasts are in both Azerbaijani and Farsis and it broadcasts internationally through satellite Intelsat 902.[38]


Urmia has one radio channel broadcasting in both Azerbaijani, and Farsi. The name of the local radio is Chichest.[38]



  • Orumiye
  • Barish news


  • Sedaye Urmia
  • Amanat
  • Koosha
  • Araz

Beside other minor Press that are being published regularly.



Most of Urmia's residents travel by car through the system of roads and highways. Urmia is also served by Taxis and public Buss. There are also some private groups which provide services called "Phone-taxi."[citation needed] A metro line for Urmia is under research.[citation needed]

Urmia is linked to Europe through Turkey's roads and Sero border crossing. Urmia Airport opened in 1964 and was the first international airport in West Azerbaijan county, Iran. As of April 2015 it only has regularly scheduled domestic flights to Tehran's Mehrabad International Airport. The city is not served by Iran National Railways (IRIR, Persian: رجا ).

Health systems[edit]

The Iranian government operates public hospitals in the Urmia metropolitan region. There are also a number of private hospitals and medical centers in the city. Hospitals include:[citation needed]

  • Imam Khomeiny Hospital
  • Motahari Hospital
  • Imam Riza Hospital
  • Beheshti Hospital
  • Taleghani Hospital
  • Fatimiye Pro-Medical Clinic
  • Kosar Women's Pro-Medical Clinic
  • Shafa Hospital
  • Solati Hospital
  • Seyedoshohada Heart Pr0-Hospital
  • Gholipour Children's Pro-Hospital
  • Razi Psychiatry Pro-Hospital
  • 504 Artesh Hospital
  • Arefian Hospital
  • Azerbaijan Hospital
  • Milad international medical center[39]
  • Omid Cancer Pro-Clinic


The Turkish government has a consulate on Beheshti Ave., Urmia, Iran.


Within its history Urmia was the origin for many Iranian illumination and modernization movements. The city was the hometown of numerous figures including politicians, revolutionaries, artists, and military leaders. Here is a partial list of some of the people who was born or lived in Urmia.

For a complete list see: Category:People from Urmia

Twin towns and sister cities[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Urmia can be found at GEOnet Names Server, at this link, by opening the Advanced Search box, entering "-3077456" in the "Unique Feature Id" form, and clicking on "Search Database".
  2. ^ Variously transliterated as Oroumieh, Oroumiyeh, Orūmīyeh and Urūmiyeh
  3. ^ Also Rezaeyeh, Rezā’īyeh, Rezâiyye


  1. ^ Population according to statistical center of Iran Archived 3 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. in Persian
  2. ^ "Census of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1385 (2006)". Islamic Republic of Iran. Archived from the original (Excel) on 2011-11-11. 
  3. ^ "Country Study Guide-Azerbaijanis". STRATEGIC INFORMATION AND DEVELOPMENTS-USA. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
  4. ^ "Iran-Azerbaijanis". Library of Congress Country Studies. December 1987. Retrieved 13 August 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d "Orumiyeh". Looklex Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 2013-08-13. 
  6. ^ a b c d "Orumiye". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2013-08-13. 
  7. ^ Hooglund (2008), pp. 100–101.
  8. ^ a b
  9. ^ a b "Assyrians in the History of Urmia, Iran". 
  10. ^ a b E.J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936, M. Th Houtsma, page 1035, 1987
  11. ^ Richard Nelson Frye, The history of ancient Iran, München (1984), 48-49
  12. ^ The Proto-Indoaryans, by T. Burrow, The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 2 (1973), pp. 123-140, Published by: Cambridge University Press, see 139
  13. ^ Sykes, Percy (1921). A History of Persia. London: Macmillan and Company. p. 67. 
  14. ^ Rothman 2015, p. 236.
  15. ^ Nasiri & Floor 2008, p. 248.
  16. ^ a b c Oberling 1984, pp. 582-586.
  18. ^ Naby, Eden (September 2007). "Theater, Language and Inter-Ethnic Exchange: Assyrian Performance before World War I Eden Naby1" (PDF). Iranian Studies, 40:4. 4. 40: 501–510. Retrieved 30 September 2011. 
  19. ^ a b Tejirian, Eleanor H.; Simon, Reeva S. (1 September 2012). Conflict, conquest, and conversion. Columbia University Press. pp. 350–351. ISBN 978-0-231-51109-4. Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
  20. ^ a b Atabaki, Touraj (4 September 2006). Iran and the First World War: Battleground of the Great Powers. I.B.Tauris. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-86064-964-6. Retrieved 7 April 2013. 
  21. ^ Gaunt, David; Beṯ-Şawoce, Jan (2006), Massacres, resistance, protectors: Muslim-Christian relations in Eastern Anatolia during World War I, Gorgias Press LLC, pp. 106–107, ISBN 978-1-59333-301-0 
  22. ^ 2012 census
  23. ^ "URMIYA", Encyclopaedia of Islam (edition 2)
  24. ^ Iran. 
  25. ^ "Urmia". 
  26. ^ a b "ASSYRIANS IN IRAN". 
  27. ^ "The Armenian Genocide". 
  28. ^ "Evidence in Stone and Wood: The Assyrian/Syriac History and Heritage of the Urmia Region in Iran". 
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  30. ^ دكتر م پناهايان، مجموعه اي در چهار جلد به نام " فرهنگ جغرافياي ملي تركان ايران زمين " سال 1351
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  32. ^ Location of Nestorian Churches-,45.0678303,244m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x0000000000000000:0x3a31bcdb0de639d3!6m1!1e1
  33. ^ Location of Armenian and Chaldean churches-'04.3%22N+45%C2%B003'57.9%22E/@37.5511954,45.0653628,244m/data=!3m2!1e3!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x0:0x0
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  37. ^ "معاون شهرسازی و معماری شهردار ارومیه خبر داد تخصیص بودجه 550 میلیارد تومانی شهرداری ارومیه". 
  38. ^ a b "پایگاه اطلاع رسانی صدا و سیمای مرکز آذربایجان غربی". 
  39. ^ "بیمارستان بین‌المللی 300 تختخوابی ارومیه". 
  40. ^ Urmia, Erzurum sign sisterhood agreement , retrieved 24 May 2015


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