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Venipuncture OSCE Exam - Phlebotomy using a vacutainer
Venipuncture OSCE Exam - Phlebotomy using a vacutainer
Published: 2014/11/11
Channel: OSCE PASS
Venipuncture
Venipuncture
Published: 2008/07/17
Channel: CliniSnips
How a Vacutainer works?
How a Vacutainer works?
Published: 2013/04/03
Channel: Sanjay R
Syringe vs Vacutainer System - August 25, 2016 - Thursday Morning Phlebotomy Vlog
Syringe vs Vacutainer System - August 25, 2016 - Thursday Morning Phlebotomy Vlog
Published: 2016/08/25
Channel: Crystastic Jewels
Extracción de Sangre con Sistema Vacutainer
Extracción de Sangre con Sistema Vacutainer
Published: 2012/12/06
Channel: Rosenro7XD
Performing Venepuncture / Venipuncture - Taking Blood / Drawing Blood Draw
Performing Venepuncture / Venipuncture - Taking Blood / Drawing Blood Draw
Published: 2006/04/18
Channel: slyswami
Sistema Vacutainer
Sistema Vacutainer
Published: 2014/02/19
Channel: Mon Batsinger
Blood bottles guide
Blood bottles guide
Published: 2014/07/13
Channel: Geeky Medics
Safe and Effective Blood Draw
Safe and Effective Blood Draw
Published: 2012/10/07
Channel: OSHVideo08
How to draw blood using a tube holder
How to draw blood using a tube holder
Published: 2015/06/19
Channel: Center for Phlebotomy Education
Vacutainer Venipuncture Procedure Demonstration
Vacutainer Venipuncture Procedure Demonstration
Published: 2014/09/15
Channel: Ann Salinas
Blood collection using safety Lok blood collection set and
Blood collection using safety Lok blood collection set and
Published: 2014/03/16
Channel: constance mak
Extracción de sangre con vacutainer
Extracción de sangre con vacutainer
Published: 2009/11/30
Channel: turbicorvina
How to use the Eclipse Needle System
How to use the Eclipse Needle System
Published: 2015/12/18
Channel: Crystastic Jewels
TDL Blood Collection with the BD Eclipse™ Needle and Vacutainer® System instructions
TDL Blood Collection with the BD Eclipse™ Needle and Vacutainer® System instructions
Published: 2013/08/02
Channel: TDLPathology
Extracción de Sangre Venosa (vacutainer).
Extracción de Sangre Venosa (vacutainer).
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Channel: Christiaan Castro Contreras
vacutainer blood sample
vacutainer blood sample
Published: 2015/04/02
Channel: zviad kereselidze
Vacutainer Tube System - Sept. 1, 2016 - Thursday Morning Phlebotomy Vlog
Vacutainer Tube System - Sept. 1, 2016 - Thursday Morning Phlebotomy Vlog
Published: 2016/09/01
Channel: Crystastic Jewels
Vacutainer (Phlebotomy) Tubes and Additives (Highly Requested)
Vacutainer (Phlebotomy) Tubes and Additives (Highly Requested)
Published: 2015/09/07
Channel: Crystastic Jewels
Venipuncture OSCE Exam Demo - Phlebotomy using vacutainer
Venipuncture OSCE Exam Demo - Phlebotomy using vacutainer
Published: 2014/11/11
Channel: OSCE PASS
EXTRACCIÓN DE SANGRE CON VACUTAINER
EXTRACCIÓN DE SANGRE CON VACUTAINER
Published: 2016/06/15
Channel: Misión Cultural No. 9 Edo. de Hidalgo
Phlebotomy: Stabilizing Vacutainer Holder + Right Handed or Left Handed?
Phlebotomy: Stabilizing Vacutainer Holder + Right Handed or Left Handed?
Published: 2016/05/05
Channel: Crystastic Jewels
PRÁCTICA DE EXTRACCIÓN DE SANGRE CON VACUTAINER
PRÁCTICA DE EXTRACCIÓN DE SANGRE CON VACUTAINER
Published: 2016/06/15
Channel: Misión Cultural No. 9 Edo. de Hidalgo
Vacutainer
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Published: 2015/10/15
Channel: Audiopedia
Phlebotomy Vacutainer
Phlebotomy Vacutainer
Published: 2010/11/08
Channel: blood101LOL
HONGREAT Vacutainer tube automatic assembly line (HY100BCA)
HONGREAT Vacutainer tube automatic assembly line (HY100BCA)
Published: 2016/12/24
Channel: Tina Luo
Skill Demonstration: Blood draw with Vacutainer - for student midwives
Skill Demonstration: Blood draw with Vacutainer - for student midwives
Published: 2016/11/23
Channel: Missouri Midwife
Vacutainer Tubes / Additives - Dec.8, 2016 - Thursday Morning Phlebotomy Vlog
Vacutainer Tubes / Additives - Dec.8, 2016 - Thursday Morning Phlebotomy Vlog
Published: 2016/12/08
Channel: Crystastic Jewels
Vacutainer(진공채혈관)를 이용한 정맥채혈
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Published: 2014/03/06
Channel: 이정애
BD Vacutainer® CPT™ (Cell Preparation Tube) System
BD Vacutainer® CPT™ (Cell Preparation Tube) System
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: BD PAS Europe
真空管抽血  vacutainer blood taking
真空管抽血 vacutainer blood taking
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Channel: Ray Li
BD Vacutainer® UltraTouch™ Push Button Blood Collection Set
BD Vacutainer® UltraTouch™ Push Button Blood Collection Set
Published: 2016/02/18
Channel: BDCorporate
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Channel: Gül- Sim
MC MUTUAL. Colección bioseguridad. Sistema extracción sanguínea y hemocultivo Vacutainer
MC MUTUAL. Colección bioseguridad. Sistema extracción sanguínea y hemocultivo Vacutainer
Published: 2015/09/04
Channel: canalMCMUTUAL
Laborgemeinschaft Bielefeld - Die Blutentnahme mit Hilfe des BD-Eclipse-Vacutainer® -Systems
Laborgemeinschaft Bielefeld - Die Blutentnahme mit Hilfe des BD-Eclipse-Vacutainer® -Systems
Published: 2014/01/08
Channel: Laborgemeinschaft Bielefeld
BD Vacutainer® Preset™ Safety Blood Gas Syringe - Instructional Video
BD Vacutainer® Preset™ Safety Blood Gas Syringe - Instructional Video
Published: 2017/01/24
Channel: BD PAS Europe
BD Vacutainer Eclipse Signal
BD Vacutainer Eclipse Signal
Published: 2013/09/12
Channel: 88makelab
BD Vacutainer® UltraTouch™ Safety Activation Complete
BD Vacutainer® UltraTouch™ Safety Activation Complete
Published: 2017/04/05
Channel: BD PAS Europe
How to Collect Blood from a Central Line   Vacutainer Method
How to Collect Blood from a Central Line Vacutainer Method
Published: 2017/07/14
Channel: Skills Lab NURS 3530
Phlebotomy: Collecting Urine Specimens + GRADUATION : )
Phlebotomy: Collecting Urine Specimens + GRADUATION : )
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Channel: Crystastic Jewels
Tubo BD Vacutainer® RST - Grupo Alfalab / Comlab
Tubo BD Vacutainer® RST - Grupo Alfalab / Comlab
Published: 2014/04/01
Channel: Grupo Alfalab
PRÁCTICA: #1 METODO DE  EXTRACCIÓN DE SANGRE VENOSA  CON SISTEMA VACUTAINER
PRÁCTICA: #1 METODO DE EXTRACCIÓN DE SANGRE VENOSA CON SISTEMA VACUTAINER
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Channel: Joaquín Sampedro
Medical Assistant Students Practice a Vacutainer Blood Draw
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Published: 2016/02/10
Channel: Pinnacle Career Institute
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Venipuncture Procedure using Vacutainer Method
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Channel: LML
RFID Vacutainer
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Published: 2014/04/16
Channel: Eprojetech
Extracción Sanguínea - Jeringa y Vacutainer
Extracción Sanguínea - Jeringa y Vacutainer
Published: 2016/03/19
Channel: CarlosD LópezT
VACUTAINER EN EL HOSPITAL PERRANDO
VACUTAINER EN EL HOSPITAL PERRANDO
Published: 2011/05/17
Channel: mele melenin
Blood Specimen collection using vacutainer system سحب عينة دم باستخدام الفاكوتينر
Blood Specimen collection using vacutainer system سحب عينة دم باستخدام الفاكوتينر
Published: 2015/11/22
Channel: OMEGA Lab
Vacutainer - Sanjay Instruments
Vacutainer - Sanjay Instruments
Published: 2012/05/02
Channel: IQStudi0s
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A range of Vacutainer tubes containing blood

A Vacutainer blood collection tube is a sterile glass tube with a colored rubber stopper creating a vacuum seal inside of the tube facilitating the drawing of a predetermined volume of liquid. Vacutainer tubes may contain additives designed to stabilize and preserve the specimen prior to analytical testing. Tubes are available with a safety-engineered closure (rubber stopper), with a variety of labeling options and stopper colors as well as a range of draw volumes.

Vacutainer tubes were invented by Joseph Kleiner and Becton Dickinson in 1949.[1] Vacutainer is a registered trademark of Becton Dickinson, which manufactures and sells the tubes today.[citation needed]

Principles[edit]

Drawing blood using a vacutainer. The clear plastic sheath around the top of the tube holds the needle. The orange guard will shield the needle after it is withdrawn from the patient to protect from accidental needle sticks.

Vacutainer needle are double ended, with one side being encased in a thin rubber coating for safety. When the needle is screwed into the translucent plastic needle holder, the rubber needle is inside the holder, and the exposed needle will be inserted into the vein. When a Vacutainer tube is inserted into the holder, its rubber cap is punctured by the inner needle and the vacuum in the tube pulls blood through the needle and into the tube. The filled tube is then removed and another can be inserted and filled the same way. The amount of air evacuated from the tube predetermines how much blood will fill the tube before blood stops flowing.

Each tube is topped with a color-coded plastic or rubber cap. Tubes often include additives that mix with the blood when collected, and the color of each tube's plastic cap indicates which additives it contains.

Blood collection tubes expire because over time the vacuum is lost and blood will not be drawn into the tube when the needle punctures the cap.

Types of tubes[edit]

A tiger top tube after centrifugation to separate blood cells from serum

Vacutainer tubes may contain additional substances that preserve blood for processing in a medical laboratory. Using the wrong tube may make the blood sample unusable for the intended purpose. These additives are typically thin film coatings applied using an ultrasonic nozzle.

The additives may include anticoagulants (EDTA, sodium citrate, heparin) or a gel with density between those of blood cells and blood plasma. Additionally, some tubes contain additives that preserve certain components of or substances within the blood, such as glucose. When a tube is centrifuged, the materials within are separated by density, with the blood cells sinking to the bottom and the plasma or serum accumulating at the top. Tubes containing gel can be easily handled and transported after centrifugation without the blood cells and serum mixing.

Vacutainer blood tubes

The meanings of the various colors are standardized across manufacturers.[2][3][4]

The term order of draw refers to the sequence in which tubes should be filled. The needle which pierces the tubes can carry additives from one tube into the next, so the sequence is standardized so that any cross-contamination of additives will not affect laboratory results.[4]

Containers containing coagulants[edit]

  • Gold or "tiger" red/black top: clot activator and gel for serum separation
  • Red top (plastic, not glass): clot activator but no serum separation gel
  • Orange or grey/yellow "tiger" Top: thrombin, a rapid clot activator, for stat serum testing

Containers containing anticoagulants[edit]

  • Green: sodium heparin or lithium heparin used for plasma determinations in clinical chemistry (e.g. urea and electrolyte determination). Sodium heparin collection tubes are the classically preferred tube for peripheral blood or bone marrow for cytogenetic studies. Lithium heparin is considered suboptimal for cytogenetics.[citation needed]
  • Light green or green/gray "tiger": For plasma determinations.
  • Purple or lavender: K2 EDTA. This is a strong anticoagulant and these tubes are usually used for complete blood counts (CBC). Lavender top tubes are generally used when whole blood is needed for analysis. Can also be used for some blood bank procedures such as blood type and screen. EDTA tubes are preferred by most molecular genetics laboratories for molecular genetic studies (DNA or RNA).[citation needed]
  • Grey: sodium fluoride and oxalate. Fluoride prevents enzymes in the blood from working, by preventing glycolysis so a substrate such as glucose will not be gradually used up during storage. Oxalate is an anticoagulant.
  • Light blue: sodium citrate. Citrate is a reversible anticoagulant, and these tubes are used for coagulation assays.
  • Dark Blue: EDTA.These tubes are used for trace metal analysis.
  • Black - Used for Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR).

Other[edit]

  • Red (glass): Contains no additives.
  • Light yellow: Contains sodium polyanethol sulfonate (SPS). Used for blood culture specimens or acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD), used for blood bank studies, HLA phenotyping, and paternity testing.
  • Tan (glass or plastic): Contains either sodium heparin (glass) or K2EDTA (plastic). Used for lead determinations. These tubes are certified to contain no lead.

History and culture[edit]

A pile of blood collection tubes
Blood collection tubes are among the basic medical supplies taken by disaster relief programs to affected areas.

History[edit]

Vacutainer technology was developed in 1947 by Joseph Kleiner,[1] and is currently marketed by Becton Dickinson (B-D).[5]

The plastic tube version, known as Vacutainer PLUS, was developed at B-D in the early 1990s by E. Vogler, D. Montgomery and G. Harper amongst others of the Surface Science Group as US patents 5344611, 5326535, 5320812, 5257633 and 5246666.[6]

Vacutainers are widely used in phlebotomy in developed countries due to safety and ease of use. Vacutainers have the advantage of being prepared with additives, allowing easy multi-tube draws, and having a lower chance of hemolysis.[7] In developing countries, it is still common to draw blood using a syringe or syringes.

Culture[edit]

The purple top tube became an issue in the O.J. Simpson murder case when the defense alleged that small droplets of blood found at the crime scene contained the preservative EDTA. Had this been true, it would have meant that the droplet might have been taken from the purple top tube used to collect Simpson's blood and planted at the crime scene.[8]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

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