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Wild Monitor Lizard - Varanidae - Lagarto gigante - Singapore
Wild Monitor Lizard - Varanidae - Lagarto gigante - Singapore
Published: 2015/03/02
Channel: Wild Animals
Varanidae - Video Learning - WizScience.com
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National Geographic Documentary - Komodo Dragon - Wildlife Animal
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Published: 2017/11/05
Channel: Wild Animal Documentary
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Published: 2016/06/05
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Dragão de Komodo, O Lagarto Gigante da Indonésia
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TIJC2014 Varanidae, Dan Phillips : Silpakon University Jazz Faculty
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Channel: Thailand International Jazz Conference TIJC
Monitor Lizards Do Battle! (Lumphini Park - Bangkok, Thailand)
Monitor Lizards Do Battle! (Lumphini Park - Bangkok, Thailand)
Published: 2009/02/01
Channel: Nicholas Snow
The Clouded Monitor (Varanus nebulosus)
The Clouded Monitor (Varanus nebulosus)
Published: 2017/11/09
Channel: Bambini film
Fishing Adventure Thailand by Nopbkk - Lucky Rat vs Varanidae
Fishing Adventure Thailand by Nopbkk - Lucky Rat vs Varanidae
Published: 2014/02/20
Channel: Nop Karnjanabhan
Varaan op vakantie in Maleisië (Varanidae)
Varaan op vakantie in Maleisië (Varanidae)
Published: 2011/08/10
Channel: tvfreak7777
Komodo dragon (Varanus Komodoensis)
Komodo dragon (Varanus Komodoensis)
Published: 2010/05/01
Channel: Animal education
Komodo Islands - Nature Conservancy of Komodo
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Published: 2012/11/07
Channel: Alvin Alexander
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Biawak - Bayawak - Menyawak - Nyambik - Berekai - Monitor lizard - Goanna - Varanidae
Published: 2014/10/15
Channel: Ispinardi Harjanto
Varanidae - American Boy
Varanidae - American Boy
Published: 2015/08/21
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Channel: EV3Gurl
Komodo Dragon Mating
Komodo Dragon Mating
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Channel: Animal Channel
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Monkey Eating Monitor Lizard
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Channel: VID NOW
Varanidae - Remy [MEOW!]
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Published: 2015/08/23
Channel: Foxty Music
Vast desert monitor in Reptilium Landau Familie Varanidae
Vast desert monitor in Reptilium Landau Familie Varanidae
Published: 2013/09/23
Channel: Prof_LOL
Nile Monitor (Varanus niloticus, Water Leguaan, River Leguaan)
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Published: 2013/02/09
Channel: AnimalsReview
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Channel: REYDI OKTAVIAN
How to Pronounce Varanidae
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Channel: Emma Saying
Komodo!The Deadly Encounter With A Monster Dragon.
Komodo!The Deadly Encounter With A Monster Dragon.
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: jit mukherjee
Varanidae - Rainbows | ER Free Release
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Published: 2015/08/23
Channel: ELECTRONIC RAVERS
Best of KOMODO DRAGON Hunting Skills - Komodo vs Hawk, Python Snake, Deer, Chicken
Best of KOMODO DRAGON Hunting Skills - Komodo vs Hawk, Python Snake, Deer, Chicken
Published: 2017/08/29
Channel: Stonehenge
Varano del Nilo Comiendo (Varanus niloticus)
Varano del Nilo Comiendo (Varanus niloticus)
Published: 2011/07/18
Channel: AntonioRockSnake
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How to Pronounce Varanidae - Correct Pronunciation
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Published: 2012/12/22
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The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis)
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The quince monitor (Varanus melinus)
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Published: 2017/11/04
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Exo Reptil - Alimentación Correcta de Varano Acuático
Exo Reptil - Alimentación Correcta de Varano Acuático
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Monitor lizard in the wild
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Published: 2017/07/07
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Lace monitor (Varanus varius)
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Channel: Animal education
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Dani Varan - Sincera iubire
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Komodo Dragon - description
Komodo Dragon - description
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Channel: Multicultural Videos
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Varanids
Temporal range:
Late Cretaceous - Holocene, 80–0 Ma
Komodo Dragons in the wild on Rinca island Indonesia..jpg
Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis)
Varanus exanthematicus in the wild.jpg
Savannah monitor (Varanus exanthematicus)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Superfamily: Varanoidea
Family: Varanidae
Merrem, 1820
Genera

See text

Varanidae is a family of lizards in the superfamily Varanoidea. The family, a group of carnivorous and frugivorous lizards,[1] includes the extinct Megalania (the largest known lizard), the Komodo dragon (the largest living lizard), and the crocodile monitor. Varanidae also contains the living genus Varanus and a number of extinct taxa. Their closest living relatives are the anguid and helodermatid lizards.[2]

Taxonomy[edit]

Varanidae was defined by Estes, de Queiroz and Gauthier (1988) as the clade containing the most recent common ancestor of Lanthanotus and Varanus and all of its descendants.[3] A similar definition was formulated by Conrad et al. (2008), who defined Varanidae as the clade containing Varanus varius, Lanthanotus borneensis, and all descendants of their last common ancestor.[4] Using one of these definitions leads to the inclusion of the earless monitor lizard (Lanthanotus borneensis) in the family Varanidae.

Lee (1997) created a different definition of Varanidae, defining it as the clade containing Varanus and all taxa more closely related to Varanus than to Lanthanotus;[5][6] this definition explicitly excludes the earless monitor lizard from Varanidae. Whether Lanthanotus borneensis is included in or excluded from Varanidae depends on the author: for example, Vidal et al. (2012) classify the earless monitor lizard as a member of a separate family Lanthanotidae,[7] while Gauthier et al. (2012) classify it as a member of Varanidae.[8]

Genera[edit]

The extinct Saniwa ensidens
Genera marked with are extinct

Genera usually included in Varanidae (under subfamily Varaninae according to Conrad et al., 2008)):

  • Iberovaranus Hoffstetter, 1969 - Considered to be a junior synonym of Varanus by Delfino et al. (2013).[9]
  • Ovoo Norell, Gao, & Conrad, 2008[10]
  • Saniwa Leidy, 1870
  • Varanus Shaw, 1790

Genera sometimes included in Varanidae (under subfamily Lanthanotinae according to Conrad et al., 2008). Treated as under the separate family Lanthanotidae by other authors:

Basal varanoids:

Formerly included in Varanidae:

Phylogeny[edit]

Below is a cladogram from Conrad et al. (2008) that shows relationships within Varanoidea:[12]

Varanoidea 

Mosasaurs




"Saniwa" feisti




Necrosaurus





Saniwides



Telmasaurus



 Varanidae 
 Lanthanotinae 

Aiolosaurus




Lanthanotus



Cherminotus




 Varaninae 

Ovoo




Saniwa



Varanus









Biology[edit]

Gray's monitor (Varanus olivaceus) is a tree-dwelling varanid from the Philippines that primarily feeds on fruit

Monitor lizards are reputed to be among the most intelligent lizards. Most species forage widely and have large home ranges,[13] and many have high stamina.[14] Although most species are carnivorous, three arboreal species in the Philippines (Varanus olivaceus, Varanus mabitang, and Varanus bitatawa) are primarily frugivores.[1][15] Among species of living varanids, the limbs show positive allometry, being larger in larger-bodied species, although the feet become smaller as compared with the lengths of the other limb segments.[16]

Varanids possess unidirectional pulmonary airflow, including airsacs akin to those of birds.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Welton, L. J.; Siler, C. D.; Bennett, D.; Diesmos, A.; Duya, M. R.; Dugay, R.; Rico, E. L. B.; Van Weerd, M.; Brown, R. M. (2010). "A spectacular new Philippine monitor lizard reveals a hidden biogeographic boundary and a novel flagship species for conservation". Biology Letters. 6 (5): 654–658. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.0119. ISSN 1744-9561. PMC 2936141Freely accessible. PMID 20375042. 
  2. ^ Fry, B.G.; Vidal, N; Norman J.A.; Vonk F.J.; Scheib, H.; Ramjan S.F.R; Kuruppu S.; Fung, K.; Hedges, B.; Richardson M.K.; Hodgson, W.C.; Ignjatovic, V.; Summerhays, R.; Kochva, E. (February 2006). "Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes" (PDF). Nature. 439 (7076): 584–588. doi:10.1038/nature04328. PMID 16292255. 
  3. ^ Estes, Richard; Kevin de Queiroz; Jacques Gauthier (1988). "Phylogenetic Relationships within Squamata". In Richard J. Estes. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Lizard Families: Essays Commemorating Charles L. Camp. Stanford University Press. p. 166. ISBN 9780804714358. 
  4. ^ a b Conrad J. (2008). "Phylogeny and systematics of Squamata (Reptilia) based on morphology". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 310: 1–182. doi:10.1206/310.1. 
  5. ^ Lee MSY (1997-01-29). "The phylogeny of varanoid lizards and the affinities of snakes". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 352 (1349): 53–91. doi:10.1098/rstb.1997.0005. PMC 1691912Freely accessible. 
  6. ^ Michael S.Y Lee (2005). "Molecular evidence and marine snake origins". Biology Letters. 1 (2): 227–230. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2004.0282. PMC 1626205Freely accessible. PMID 17148173. 
  7. ^ Nicolas Vidal, Julie Marin, Julia Sassi, Fabia U. Battistuzzi, Steve Donnellan, Alison J. Fitch, Bryan G. Fry, Freek J. Vonk, Ricardo C. Rodriguez de la Vega, Arnaud Couloux and S. Blair Hedges (2012). "Molecular evidence for an Asian origin of monitor lizards followed by Tertiary dispersals to Africa and Australasia". Biology Letters. 8 (5): 853–855. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2012.0460. PMC 3441001Freely accessible. PMID 22809723. 
  8. ^ Jacques A. Gauthier, Maureen Kearney, Jessica Anderson Maisano, Olivier Rieppel, Adam D.B. Behlke; Kearney; Maisano; Rieppel; Behlke (2012). "Assembling the Squamate Tree of Life: Perspectives from the Phenotype and the Fossil Record". Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. 53 (1): 3–308. doi:10.3374/014.053.0101. 
  9. ^ Massimo Delfino, Jean-Claude Rage, Arnau Bolet and David M. Alba (2013). "Synonymization of the Miocene varanid lizard Iberovaranus Hoffstetter, 1969 with Varanus Merrem, 1820". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. in press. doi:10.4202/app.2012.0025. 
  10. ^ a b c Conrad, JL; Balcarcel, AM; Mehling, CM (2012). "Earliest Example of a Giant Monitor Lizard (Varanus, Varanidae, Squamata)". PLoS ONE. 7 (8): e41767. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0041767. PMC 3416840Freely accessible. PMID 22900001. 
  11. ^ Alexandra Houssaye, Nathalie Bardet, Jean–Claude Rage, Xabier Pereda Suberbiola, Baâdi Bouya, Mbarek Amaghzaz and Mohamed Amalik (2011). "A review of Pachyvaranus crassispondylus Arambourg, 1952, a pachyostotic marine squamate from the latest Cretaceous phosphates of Morocco and Syria". Geological Magazine. 148 (2): 237–249. doi:10.1017/S0016756810000580. 
  12. ^ Conrad, J.; Rieppel, O.; Grande, L. (2008). "Re-assessment of varanid evolution based on new data from Saniwa ensidens Leidy, 1870 (Squamata, Reptilia)" (PDF). American Museum Novitates. 3630: 1–15. doi:10.1206/596.1. 
  13. ^ Perry, G.; Garland, T., Jr. (2002). "Lizard home ranges revisited: effects of sex, body size, diet, habitat, and phylogeny" (PDF). Ecology. 83 (7): 1870–1885. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(2002)083[1870:LHRREO]2.0.CO;2. 
  14. ^ Clemente, C.J.; Withers, P.C.; Thompson, G.G. (2009). "Metabolic rate and endurance capacity in Australian varanid lizards (Squamata; Varanidae; Varanus)". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society (]). 97 (3): 664–676. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2009.01207.x. 
  15. ^ Greene, Harry W. (1986). Diet and Arboreality in the Emerald Monitor, Varanus prasinus, with Comments on the Study of Adaptation. Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History. OCLC 14915452. Retrieved 12 December 2013. 
  16. ^ Christian, A.; Garland, T., Jr. (1996). "Scaling of limb proportions in monitor lizards (Squamata: Varanidae)" (]). Journal of Herpetology. 30 (2): 219–230. doi:10.2307/1565513. JSTOR 1565513. 
  17. ^ Unidirectional Airflow In The Lungs Of Birds, Crocs And Now Monitor Lizards

External links[edit]

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