Biennalist Giardini Main Entrance
"Survival of Serena" Sculpture by American artist Carole Feuerman
at the Venice Biennale in 2007.
View of "Pump Room", a work by the Hungarian artist Balázs Kicsiny
at the Venice Biennale in 2005.
Works at 54th Venice Biennale, special edition for the 150 Anniversary of Italian Unification, 2011-2012
The Venice Biennale (Italian: Biennale di Venezia; also called in English the "Venice Biennial") is a major contemporary art exhibition that takes place once every two years (in odd years) in Venice, Italy. The Venice Film Festival is part of it. So too is the Venice Biennale of Architecture, which is held in even years. A dance section, the "International Festival of Contemporary Dance", was established in 1999.
The first Biennale was held in 1895; during the first editions, decorative arts played an important role. The event became more and more international in the first decades of the 20th century: from 1907 on, several countries started installing national pavilions at the exhibition. After World War I, the Biennale showed increasing interest in innovative traditions in modern art. Between the two World Wars, many important modern artists had their work exhibited there.
In 1930, control of the Biennale passed from the Venice city council to the national Fascist government. In the 1930s, several new sections of the event were established: the Music Festival in 1930, the International Film Festival in 1932 and the Theatre Festival in 1934. From 1938, Grand Prizes were awarded in the art exhibition section.
After a six-year break during World War II, the Biennale was resumed in 1948 with renewed attention to avant-garde movements in European, and later worldwide, movements in contemporary art. Abstract expressionism was introduced in the 1950s, and the Biennale is credited with importing Pop Art into the canon of art history by awarding the top prize to Robert Rauschenberg in 1964. From 1948 to 1972, Italian architect Carlo Scarpa did a series of remarkable interventions in the Biennales exhibition spaces.
The protests of 1968 marked a crisis for the Biennale; the Grand Prizes were abandoned and more emphasis went to thematic exhibitions instead of monographic ones. In 1972, for the first time the Biennale adopted a theme: 'work and behaviour'. The 1974 edition was entirely dedicated to Chile, as a major cultural protest against the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet. New prizes - Golden Lions, like the awards for the Venice Film Festival - were installed; postmodern art entered the scene with increasingly varied and popular exhibitions.
In 1980, Achille Bonito Oliva and Harald Szeemann introduced "Aperto", a section of the exhibition designed to explore emerging art. Italian art historian Giovanni Carandente directed the 1988 and 1990 editions. A three-year gap was left afterwards to make sure that the 1995 edition would coincide with the 100th anniversary of the Biennale. The 1993 edition was directed by Achille Bonito Oliva. In 1995, Jean Clair was appointed to be the Biennale's first non-Italian director of visual arts while Germano Celant served as director in 1997.
In 1999 and 2001, Harald Szeemann directed two editions in a row (48th & 49th) bringing in a larger representation of artists from Asia and Eastern Europe and more young artist than usual and expanded the show into several newly restored spaces of the Arsenale.
The 50th edition, directed by Francesco Bonami, had a record number of seven co-curators involved, including Hans Ulrich Obrist, Catherine David, Igor Zabel, Hou Hanru and Massimiliano Gioni. The 51st edition of the Biennale opened in June 2005, curated, for the first time by two women, Maria de Corral and Rosa Martinez. De Corral organized "The Experience of Art" which included 41 artists, from past masters to younger figures. Rosa Martinez took over the Arsenale with "Always a Little Further." Drawing on "the myth of the romantic traveler" her exhibition involved 49 artists, ranging from the elegant to the profane. In 2007, Robert Storr became the first director from the United States to curate the 52nd edition of the Biennale entitled Think with the Senses – Feel with the Mind. Art in the Present Tense. Swedish curator Daniel Birnbaum was artistic director of the 2009 edition, followed by Swiss Bice Curiger in 2011. For 2013, the board of the Venice Biennale appointed Italian curator Massimiliano Gioni to the post.
The Biennale has an attendance today of over 300,000 visitors.
The formal Biennale is based at a park, the Giardini, that houses 30 permanent national pavilions. The number of countries represented is still growing. In 2005, China was showing for the first time, followed by the African Pavilion and Mexico ( 2007), the United Arab Emirates (2009), and India (2011). The assignment of the permanent pavilions was largely dictated by the international politics of the 1930s and the Cold War. There is no single format to how each country manages their pavilion. The pavilion for Great Britain is always managed by the British Council while the United States assigns the responsibility to a public gallery chosen by the Department of State which, since 1985, has been the Peggy Guggenheim Collection. The Giardini includes a large exhibition hall that houses a themed exhibition curated by the Biennale's director. Countries not owning a pavilion in the Giardini are exhibited in other venues across Venice.
In 2011, the countries are Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China(PR), Congo(DR), Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech and Slovak Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Haiti, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Mexico, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Zimbabwe. In addition to this there are two collective pavilions: Central Asia Pavilion and Istituto Italo-Latino Americano.
Initiated in 1980, the Aperto began as a fringe event for younger artists and artists of a national origin not represented by the permanent national pavilions. This is usually staged in the Arsenale and has become part of the formal biennale programme. In 1995 there was no Aperto so a number of participating countries hired venues to show exhibitions of emerging artists.
A special edition of the 54th Biennale was held at Padiglione Italia of Torino Esposizioni - Sala Nervi (December 2011 - February 2012) for the 150th Anniversary of Italian Unification. The event was directed by Vittorio Sgarbi
Role in the art market 
When the Venice Biennale was founded in 1895, one of its main goals was to establish a new market for contemporary art. Between 1942 and 1968 a sales office assisted artists in finding clients and selling their work, a service for which it charged 10% commission. Sales remained an intrinsic part of the biennale until 1968, when a sales ban was enacted. An important practical reason why the focus on non-commodities has failed to decouple Venice from the market is that the biennale itself lacks the funds to produce, ship and install these large-scale works. Therefore the financial involvement of dealers is indispensable. Furthermore, every other year the Venice Biennale coincides with nearby Art Basel, the world's prime commercial fair for modern and contemporary art.
National Pavilions 
Alongside the Central Pavilion, built in 1894 and later restructured and extended several times, the Giardini are occupied by a further 29 pavilions built at different periods by the various countries participating in the Biennale.
In 1901, Argentina was the first Latin American nation to participate in the Biennale. In 2011, it was granted a pavilion in the Sale d'Armi, which it will restore.
List of exhibitors in the Argentinian Pavilion:
- 1903 — Pío Collivadino
- 1905 — Pío Collivadino
- 1907 — Pío Collivadino
- 1954 — Lucio Fontana
- 1958 — Lucio Fontana, Juan del Prete, Raquel Forner
- 1962 — Antonio Berni
- 1966 — Lucio Fontana, Julio Le Parc
- 1968 — Lucio Fontana, Nicolás García Uriburu
- 1970 — Luis Fernando Benedit
- 1972 — Lucio Fontana
- 1978 — Lucio Fontana
- 1984 — Antonio Seguí
- 1986 — Marta Minujin
- 1995 — Jorge Orta
- 1997 — Ana Eckell
- 1997 — Jaques Bedel, Luis Benedit, Oscar Bony
- 2001 — Leandro Erlich, Graciela Sacco (Curator: Irma Arestizábal)
- 2003 — Charly Nijensohn
- 2005 — Jorge Macchi, Edgardo Rudnitzky
- 2007 — Guillermo Kuitca, Jorge Macchi, Edgardo Rudnitzky (Commissioner: Adriana Rosenberg)
- 2009 — Luis Felipe Noé (Curator: Fabián Lebenglik)
- 2011 — Adrián Villar Rojas (Curator: Rodrigo Alonso)
- 2013 — Nicola Costantino (Curator: Fernando Farina)
The Australian Pavilion, designed by Philip Cox to be a temporary structure, was opened in 1988. Cox and other generous donors gifted this pavilion to the Commonwealth Government. A new pavilion is to be designed by architectural practice Denton Corker Marshall and due to be completed in 2015. Australia's participation at the Venice Biennale is managed by the Australia Council for the Arts. However, all of the A$6m ($6.04m) needed for the new building is to be raised from the private sector.
List of exhibitors in the Australian Pavilion:
- 1954 — Sidney Nolan, Russell Drysdale, William Dobell
- 1956 — Albert Tucker
- 1958 — Arthur Streeton, Arthur Boyd
- 1978 — Ken Unsworth, John Davis, Robert Owen
- 1980 — Mike Parr, Tony Coleing, Kevin Mortensen
- 1982 — Peter Booth, Rosalie Gascoigne
- 1986 — no participation
- 1986 — Imants Tillers
- 1988 — Arthur Boyd (Australian Pavilion opens)
- 1990 — Trevor Nickolls, Rover Thomas
- 1993 — Jenny Watson
- 1995 — Bill Henson
- 1997 — Judy Watson, Yvonne Koolmatrie, Emily Kngwarreye
- 1999 — Howard Arkley
- 2001 — Lyndal Jones
- 2003 — Patricia Piccinini
- 2005 — Ricky Swallow
- 2007 — Callum Morton, Susan Norrie, Daniel von Sturmer
- 2009 — Shaun Gladwell, Vernon Ah Kee, Ken Yonetani, Claire Healy & Sean Cordeiro (Curator: Felicity Fenner)
- 2011 — Hany Armanious (Curator: Anne Ellegood)
- 2013 — Simryn Gill (Curator: Catherine de Zegher)
Designed by Joseph Hoffmann with the collaboration of Robert Kramreiter, 1934 (restored by Hans Hollein, 1984). The clear symmetrical building, conceived as a white cube from the outset, was the first Venice pavilion to have been designed by a leading Classical Modern architect. The Hoffmann pavilion was not used following the annexation of Austria by the Third Reich in 1938, nor in the subsequent Biennale years of 1940 and 1942. Austrian artists with close ties to the Nazi regime were shown in the German Pavilion.
List of exhibitors in the Austrian Pavilion:
- 1978 — Arnulf Rainer (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
- 1980 — Valie Export, Maria Lassnig (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
- 1982 — Walter Pichler (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
- 1984 — Christian Ludwig Attersee (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
- 1986 — Max Peintner, Karl Prantl (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
- 1988 — Siegfried Anzinger (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
- 1990 — Franz West (Commissioner: Hans Hollein)
- 1993 — Gerwald Rockenschaub, Andrea Fraser, Christian Philipp Müller (Commissioner: Peter Weibel)
- 1995 — Coop Himmelb(l)au, Peter Kogler, Richard Kriesche, Peter Sandbichler / Constanze Ruhm, Eva Schlegel, Ruth Schnell (Commissioner: Peter Weibel)
- 1997 — Die Wiener Gruppe (Friedrich Achleitner, Konrad Bayer, Gerhard Rühm, Oswald Wiener) (Commissioner: Peter Weibel)
- 1999 — Peter Friedl, Rainer Ganahl, Christine and Irene Hohenbüchler, Wochenklausur (Commissioner: Peter Weibel)
- 2001 — Granular Synthesis, Gelatin (Commissioner: Elisabeth Schweeger)
- 2003 — Bruno Gironcoli (Commissioner: Kasper König)
- 2005 — Hans Schabus (Commissioner: Max Hollein)
- 2007 — Herbert Brandl (Commissioner: Robert Fleck)
- 2009 — Elke Krystufek, Dorit Margreiter, Lois & Franziska Weinberger (Commissioners: Valie Export und Silvia Eiblmayr)
- 2011 — Markus Schinwald (Commissioner: Eva Schlegel)
- 2013 — Mathias Poledna (Commissioner: Jasper Sharp)
List of exhibitors in the Azerbaijan Pavilion:
Designed by Leon Sneyers, 1907 (totally restored by Virgilio Vallot, 1948).
List of exhibitors in the Belgian Pavilion:
Designed by Amerigo Marchesin, 1964.
List of exhibitors in the Brazilian Pavilion:
- 1950 — Roberto Burle Marx, Milton Dacosta, Cicero Dias, Emiliano Di Cavalcanti, Flavio de Carvalho, Candido Portinari, José Pancetti, Bruno Giorgi, Victor Brecheret, Livio Abramo, Oswaldo Goeldi
- 1958 — Lasar Segall
- 1960 — Antonio Bandeira, Danilo Di Prete, Manabu Mabe, Aloisio Magalhães, Teresa Nicolao, Loio-Pérsio, Mario Cravo
- 1962 — Alfredo Volpi, Anna Letycia Quadros, Fernando Jackson Ribeiro, Gilvan Samico, Iberê Camargo, Isabel Pons, Ivan Ferreira Serpa, Lygia Clark, Marcelo Grassmann, Rossini Quintas Perez, Rubem Valentim
- 1964 — Abraham Palatnik, Alfredo Volpi, Almir Mavignier, Franz Weissmann, Frans Krajcberg, Glauco Rodrigues, Tarsila do Amaral
- 1966 — Sergio de Camargo
- 1968 — Lygia Clark
- 1970 — Mary Vieira, Roberto Burle Marx
- 1972 — Humberto Espíndola, Paulo Roberto Leal, Franz Weissmann
- 1976 — Claudio Tozzi, Evandro Carlos Jardim, Regina Vater, Sergio Augusto Porto, Vera Chaves Barcellos
- 1978 — Carlos Alberto Fajardo, G. T. O. (Geraldo Telles de Oliveira), Julio Martins da Silva, Luiz Aquila da Rocha Miranda, Maria Auxiliadora Silva, Maria Madalena Santos Reinbolt, Paulo Gomes Garcez, Wilma Marins
- 1980 — Anna Bella Geiger, Antonio Dias, Carlos Vergara, Paulo Roberto Leal
- 1982 — Tunga, Sergio de Camargo
- 1984 — Eduardo Sued, Luiz Paulo Baravelli
- 1986 — Gastão Manoel Henrique, Geraldo de Barros, Renina Katz, Washington Novaes
- 1988 — José Resende, Juraci Dórea
- 1990 — Frida Baranek, Daniel Senise, Francisco Brennand, Gilvan Samico, Wesley Duke Lee
- 1993 — Angelo Venosa, Carlos Alberto Fajardo, Emmanuel Nassar
- 1995 — Artur Bispo do Rosário, Nuno Ramos
- 1997 — Jac Leirner, Waltercio Caldas (Curator: Paulo Herkenhoff)
- 1999 — Iran do Espírito Santo, Nelson Leirner (Curator: Ivo Mesquita)
- 2001 — Vik Muniz, Ernesto Neto, Miguel Rio Branco, Tunga (Curator: Germano Celant)
- 2003 — Beatriz Milhazes, Rosângela Rennó (Curator: Alfons Hug)
- 2005 — Chelpa Ferro, Caio Reisewitz (Curator: Alfons Hug)
- 2007 — José Damasceno, Detanico & Lain (Curator: Jacopo Crivelli Visconti)
- 2009 — Luiz Braga, Delson Uchôa (Curator: Ivo Mesquita)
- 2011 — Artur Barrio (Curators: Moacir dos Anjos, Agnaldo Farias)
The Canadian pavilion was designed by the Milan-based architecture firm BBPR (Gian Luigi Banfi, Ludovico Barbiano di Belgiojoso, Enrico Peressutti, Ernesto Nathan Rogers) and was first used at the 1958 biennale. The nation has been participating in the international exhibition since 1952. The National Gallery of Canada took over the Venice selection process from the Canada Council in 2010.
List of exhibitors in the Canadian Pavilion:
- 1952 — Emily Carr, David Milne, Goodridge Roberts, Alfred Pellan
- 1954 — Bertram Charles Binning, Paul-Emile Borduas, Jean-Paul Riopelle
- 1956 — Jack Leonard Shadbolt, Louis Archambault, Harold Town
- 1958 — James Wilson Morrice, Jacques de Tonnancour, Anne Kahane, Jack Nicols
- 1960 — Edmund Alleyne, Graham Coughtry, Jean-Paul Lemieux, Frances Loring, Albert Dumouchel
- 1962 — Jean-Paul Riopelle
- 1964 — Harold Town, Elza Mayhew
- 1966 — Alex Colville, Yves Gaucher, Sorel Etrog
- 1968 — Ulysse Comtois, Guido Molinari
- 1970 — Michael Snow
- 1972 — Gershon Iskowitz,Walter Redinger
- 1976 — Greg Curnoe
- 1978 — Ron Martin, Henry Saxe
- 1980 — Collin Campbell, Pierre Falardeau & Julien Poulin, General Idea, Tom Sherman, Lisa Steele
- 1982 — Paterson Ewen
- 1984 — Ian Carr-Harris, Liz Magor
- 1986 — Melvin Charney, Krzysztof Wodiczko
- 1988 — Roland Brerner, Michel Goulet
- 1990 — Geneviève Cadieux
- 1993 — Robin Collyer
- 1995 — Edward Poitras
- 1997 — Rodney Graham
- 1999 — Tom Dean
- 2001 — Janet Cardiff & George Bures Miller
- 2003 — Jana Sterbak
- 2005 — Rebecca Belmore
- 2007 — David Altmejd
- 2009 — Mark Lewis (Curator: Barbara Fischer)
- 2011 — Steven Shearer (Curator: Josée Drouin-Brisebois)
- 2013 — Shary Boyle (Curator: Josée Drouin-Brisebois)
Central Asia 
The first Central Asian Pavilion was an initiative of Victor Miziano in 2005. In the following years the second pavilion was organized by Yulia Sorokina (Almaty) and the third by Beral Madra (Istanbul). Each of these exhibitions was different in format and approach. The first one – Art from Central Asia. A Contemporary Archive – aimed at placing Central Asia on the ‘map’ of international art. Along the works of invited artists, there were many video compilations of films, performance and happenings presented by Central Asian artists from the end of 1990s and beginning of 2000.
List of exhibitors in the Central Asia Pavilion:
- 2005 — Said Atabekov, Vyacheslav Akhunov & Sergey Tychina, Maksim Boronilov & Roman Maskalev, Elena Vorobyeva & Viktor Vorobyev, Kasmalieva & Djumaliev, Sergey Maslov, Almagul Menlibaeva, Erbossyn Meldibekov, Alexander Nikolaev, Rustam Khalfin & Yulia Tikhonova (Curators: Viktor Misiano, Commissioner: Churek Djamgerchinova)
- 2007 — Roman Maskalev, Almagul Menlibaeva & German Popov, Gulnur Mukazhanova, Alexander Nikolaev, Aleksey Rumyantsev, Alexander Ugay, Аsia Animation, Said Atabekov, Vyacheslav Akhunov, Alla Girik & Oksana Shatalova, Digsys, Natalia Dyu, Zadarnovsky Brothers, Gaukhar Kiyekbayeva, Vyacheslav Useinov, Jamol Usmanov, Aytegin Muratbek Uulu, Jamshed Kholikov, ZITABL (Commissioner and curator: Yulia Sorokina)
- 2009 — Ermek Jaenish, Jamshed Kholikov, Anzor Salidjanov, Oksana Shatalova, Elena Vorobyeva & Viktor Vorobyev (Curator: Beral Madra, Commissioner: Vittorio Urbani)
- 2011 — Natalia Andrianova, Said Atabekov, Artyom Ernst, Galim Madanov and Zauresh Terekbay, Yerbossyn Meldibekov, Alexander Nikolaev, Marat Raiymkulov, Aleksey Rumyantsev and Alla Rumyantseva, Adis Seitaliev (Curators: Boris Chukhovich, Georgy Mamedov, Oksana Shatalova, Commissioners: Asel Akmatova, Andris Brinkmanis)
Czech Republic 
Designed by Otakar Novotný, 1926 (annex built by Boguslav Rychlinch, 1970).
List of exhibitors in the Czech and Slovak Pavilion:
Designed by Carl Brummer, 1932 (annex designed by Peter Koch, 1958).
The Danish Arts Council Committee for International Visual Arts serves as commissioner for the Danish Pavilion at the Biennale, where Denmark has taken part since 1895.
List of exhibitors in the Danish Pavilion:
Egypt was assigned a pavilion in 1952.
List of exhibitors in the Egyptian Pavilion:
Designed by Alvar Aalto to be a temporary construction for the architecture biennale in 1956, the pavilion was later restored by Fredrik Fogh with the collaboration of Elsa Makiniemi, 1976–1982. Also used by Iceland. In 2011, a big tree fell over the pavilion in Venice, effectively interrupting the Finnish exhibition in the 2011 biennale. The pavilion and the works exhibited there were damaged and the show had to be closed ahead of time. The pavilion was later restored.
- 2005 — Jaakko Heikkilä
- 2007 — Maaria Wirkkala
- 2011 — Vesa-Pekka Rannikko (Curator: Laura Köönikkä)
- 2013 — Antti Laitinen, Terike Haapoja (Curators: Mika Elo, Marko Karo Harri Laakso)
France will be celebrating nearly a century in its pavilion at the 2011 Venice Biennale, which was designed by Faust Finzi in 1912.
List of exhibitors in the French Pavilion:
- 1962 — Alfred Manessier, Jean Messagier, Serge Poliakoff, Andrew Marfaing, James Guitet
- 1976 — Herve Fisher, Fred Forest, Raymond Hains, Alain Jacquet, Bertrand Lavier, Jean-Pierre Raynaud, Jean-Michel Sanejouand, Jean-Paul Thenot (Commissioner: Pierre Restany)
- 1982 — Simon Hantaï
- 1984 — Jean Dubuffet
- 1986 — Daniel Buren
- 1991 — Jean Nouvel, Christian de Portzamparc, Philippe Starck
- 1993 — Jean-Pierre Raynaud
- 1995 — César
- 1997 — Fabrice Hybert
- 1999 — Huang Yong Ping, Jean-Pierre Bertrand
- 2001 — Pierre Huyghe
- 2003 — Jean-Marc Bustamante
- 2005 — Annette Messager
- 2007 — Sophie Calle
- 2009 — Claude Lévêque (Curator: Christian Bernard)
- 2011 — Christian Boltanski (Curator: Jean-Hubert Martin)
- 2013 — Anri Sala (Curator: Christine Macel)
(Commissioner: Marine Mizandari, First Deputy Minister of Culture of Georgia Curator: Joanna Warsza
The commissioner for the German contribution to Biennial is the German Foreign Ministry. On the recommendation of an advisory committee of museum directors and art experts, the ministry appoints a curator (formerly called a commissioner) who is responsible for the selection of the artists and the organisation of the contribution. This appointment is usually for two years in succession. From 1982 until 1990 the German Democratic Republic organized its own exhibitions in the former Pavilion of Decorative Art. Germany's pavilion was redesigned by Ernst Haiger and inaugurated in 1938 by the ruling Nazi government, a fact that has inspired artistic responses from some presenters. It was originally designed by Daniele Donghi in 1909.
List of exhibitors in the German Pavilion:
- 1950 — Der Blaue Reiter (Curator: Eberhard Hanfstaengl)
- 1952 — Die Brücke (Curator: Eberhard Hanfstaengl)
- 1954 — Heinz Battke, Leo Cremer, Edgar Ende, Paul Klee, Karl Kunz, Oskar Schlemmer, Rudolf Schlichter, Hans Uhlmann, Mac Zimmermann (Curator: Eberhard Hanfstaengl)
- 1958 — Karl Otto Götz, Fred Thieler, Julius Bissier, Rolf Cavael, Werner Gilles, Otto Herbert Hajek, Wassily Kandinsky, Heinrich Kirchner, Fritz Koenig, Hans Mettel, Otto Pankok, Hans Platschek, E. Andreas Rauch, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Johanna Schütz-Wolff, Emil Schumacher, K. R. H. Sonderborg, Wilhelm Wessel, Hans Wimmer (Curator: Eberhard Hanfstaengl)
- 1960 — Willi Baumeister, Julius Bissier, Emil Cimiotti, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Rupert Stöckl, Werner Schreib, Ernst Weiers (Kurator Konrad Röthel)
- 1962 — Werner Gilles, HAP Grieshaber, Erich Heckel, Alfred Lörcher, Brigitte Meier-Denninghoff, Emil Schumacher (Curator: Konrad Röthel)
- 1964 — Joseph Faßbender, Norbert Kricke (Commissioner: Eduard Trier)
- 1966 — Horst Antes, Günter Haese, Ferdinand Ris (Commissioner: Eduard Trier)
- 1968 — Horst Janssen, Richard Oelze (Commissioner: Alfred Hentzen)
- 1970 — Kaspar-Thomas Lenk, Heinz Mack, Georg Karl Pfahler, Günther Uecker (Commissioner: Dieter Honisch)
- 1972 — Gerhard Richter (Commissioner: Dieter Honisch)
- 1976 — Joseph Beuys, Jochen Gertz, Reiner Ruthenbeck (Commissioner: Klaus Gallwitz)
- 1978 — Dieter Krieg, Ulrich Rückriem (Commissioner: Klaus Gallwitz)
- 1980 — Georg Baselitz, Anselm Kiefer (Commissioner: Klaus Gallwitz)
- 1982 — Hanne Darboven, Gotthard Graubner, Wolfgang Laib (Commissioner: Johannes Cladders)
- 1984 — Lothar Baumgarten, A. R. Penck (Commissioner: Johannes Cladders)
- 1986 — Sigmar Polke (Commissioner: Dierk Stemmler)
- 1988 — Felix Droese (Commissioner: Dierk Stemmler)
- 1990 — Bernd and Hilla Becher, Reinhard Mucha (Commissioner: Klaus Bußmann)
- 1993 — Hans Haacke, Nam June Paik (Commissioner: Klaus Bußmann)
- 1995 — Katharina Fritsch, Martin Honert, Thomas Ruff (Commissioner: Jean-Christophe Ammann)
- 1997 — Gerhard Merz, Katharina Sieverding (Commissioner: Gudrun Inboden)
- 1999 — Rosemarie Trockel (Commissioner: Gudrun Inboden)
- 2001 — Gregor Schneider (Commissioner: Udo Kittelmann)
- 2003 — Candida Höfer, Martin Kippenberger (Curator: Julian Heynen)
- 2005 — Thomas Scheibitz, Tino Sehgal (Curator: Julian Heynen)
- 2007 — Isa Genzken (Curator: Nicolaus Schafhausen)
- 2009 — Liam Gillick (Curator: Nicolaus Schafhausen)
- 2011 — Christoph Schlingensief (Curator: Susanne Gaensheimer)
- 2013 — Ai Weiwei, Romuald Karmakar, Santu Mofokeng, Dayanita Singh (Curator: Susanne Gaensheimer)
Great Britain 
Designed by Edwin Alfred Rickards, 1909.
Since 1938 the British Council has been responsible for the British Pavilion in Venice, showing British artists at the Venice Biennale.
List of exhibitors in the British Pavilion:
- 1948 — Sculptures by Henry Moore. Paintings by J. M. W. Turner. Works by Ben Nicholson and John Tunnard.
- 1950 — Paintings by Matthew Smith and John Constable. Sculptures by Barbara Hepworth.
- 1952 — Paintings by Graham Sutherland and Edward Wadsworth. Sculptures by the New Aspects of British Sculpture group (Robert Adams, Kenneth Armitage, Reg Butler, Lynn Chadwick, Geoffrey Clarke, Bernard Meadows, Henry Moore, Eduardo Paolozzi, and William Turnbull).
- 1954 — Paintings by Francis Bacon, Lucian Freud, and Ben Nicholson. Sculptures by Reg Butler relating to his Unknown Political Prisoner monument. Lithographs by Allin Braund, Geoffrey Clarke, Henry Cliffe, Robert Colquhoun, William Gear, Henry Moore, Eduardo Paolozzi, Ceri Richards, William Scott, and Graham Sutherland.
- 1956 — Paintings by Ivon Hitchens, John Bratby, Derrick Greaves, Edward Middleditch, and Jack Smith. Sculptures by Lynn Chadwick.
- 1958 — Paintings by William Scott and S. W. Hayter. Sculptures by Kenneth Armitage, Sezione Giovani, Sandra Blow, Anthony Caro, and Alan Davie.
- 1960 — Mixed media works by Victor Pasmore. Paintings by Merlyn Evans, Geoffrey Clarke, Henry Cliffe.
- 1962 — Paintings by Ceri Richards. Sculptures by Robert Adams and Hubert Dalwood.
- 1964 — Mixed media works by Joe Tilson. Paintings by Roger Hilton, Gwyther Irwin. Sculptures by Bernard Meadows.
- 1966 — Paintings by Richard Smith, Bernard Cohen, Harold Cohen, and Robyn Denny. Sculptures by Anthony Caro.
- 1968 — Paintings by Bridget Riley and Francis Bacon. Sculptures by Philip King. 'Ways of Contemporary Research' exhibition with works by Anthony Caro, David Hockney, Ben Nicholson, Eduardo Paolozzi, Victor Pasmore, Graham Sutherland.
- 1970 -Paintings by Richard Smith.
- 1972 — Paintings by John Walker. Sculptures by William G. Tucker. 'Grafica sperimentale per la stampa' exhibition with works by Pentagram (Alan Fletcher, Colin Forbes, Mervyn Kurlansky), Michael English, John Gorham, F. H. K. Henrion, Lou Klein, Enzo Ragazzini. 'Il Libro come luogo di ricerca' exhibition with works by Gilbert and George and Victor Burgin.
- 1976 — Works by Richard Long, Richard Hamilton, Victor Pasmore, David Mackay, Alison and Peter Smithson, James Stirling, John Davies, Phillip Hyde, Anne Rawcliffe-King, Yolanda Teuten.
- 1978 — Photography by Mark Boyle. 'Six Stations for Art-Nature. The Nature of Art' exhibition with works by Gilbert and George, Francis Bacon, David Hockney, Richard Long, and Malcolm Morley. 'Art and Cinema' by Anthony McCall.
- 1980 — Works by Tim Head and Nicholas Pope. 'Art in the Seventies' exhibition with works by Bruce McLean, Kenneth Martin, Television Exhibitions, Barry Flanagan, Gilbert and George, Hamish Fulton, and Richard Long. 'Art in the Seventies. Open 80' exhibition with works by Roger Ackling, Tony Cragg, and Leonard McComb.
- 1982 — Works by Barry Flanagan. 'Aperto 82' exhibition with works by Catherine Blacker, Stephen Cox, Antony Gormley, Tim Head, Shirazeh Houshiary, Anish Kapoor, Christopher Le Brun, Judy Pfaff, Stephen Willats, and Bill Woodrow. 'Arte come arte: persistenza dell’opera — Mostra internazionale' exhibition with works by Frank Auerbach, Lucian Freud, Ronald Kitaj, and Raymond Mason.
- 1984 — Works by Howard Hodgkin. 'Arte allo Specchio' exhibition with works by Peter Greenaway and Christopher Le Brun. 'Arte, Ambiente, Scena' exhibition with works by Judy Pfaff. 'Aperto 84' exhibition with works by Terry Atkinson, Helen Chadwick, Rose Garrard, Glenys Johnson, Paul Richards, Amikam Toren, and Kerry Treng.
- 1986 — Works by Frank Auerbach (Commissioner: Henry Meyric Hughes). 'Aperto 86' exhibition with works by Lisa Milroy, John Murphy, Avis Newman, Jacqueline Poncelet, Boyd Webb, and Richard Wilson. 'Art e Scienza' exhibition with works by Eric Bainbridge, Alastair Brotchie, Anthony Caro, Leonora Carrington, Ithell Colquhoun, Stephen Cox, Tony Cragg, Neil Cummings, Brian Eno, Barry Flanagan, Jeremy Gardiner, Eric Gidney, Jocelyn Godwin, Anthony Gormley, Paul Hayward, Allen Jones, Liliane Lijn, Peter Lowe, Kyeran Lyons, Conroy Maddox, Thomas Major, Kenneth Martin, Mary Martin, Alastair Morton, Hugh O'Donnell, Andrew Owens, Digital Pictures, Mike Punt, Bridget Riley, Kurt Schwitters, Peter Sedgley, Jeffrey Steele, Paul Thomas, Philip West, and Alison Wilding.
- 1988 — Tony Cragg (Commissioner: Henry Meyric Hughes). 'Aperto 88' exhibition with works by Tony Bevan, Hannah Collins, Grenville Davey, Andy Goldsworthy, Simon Linke, Peter Nadin, and Thoms William Puckey. 'Scultori ai Giardini' exhibition with works by Lynn Chadwick, Anthony Core, Philip King, and Joe Tilson.
- 1990 — Anish Kapoor (Commissioner: Henry Meyric Hughes). 'Three Scottish Sculptors' exhibition with works by David Mach, Arthur Watson, and Kate Whiteford. 'Aperto 90' with works by Eric Bainbridge, David Leapman, Patrick Joseph McBride, Therese Oulton, Fiona Rae, and Anthony Wilson. 'Fluxus' exhibition with works by Braco Dimitrijevic, Brion Gysin, Dick Higgins, and Robin Page.
- 1993 — Richard Hamilton (Commissioner: Andrea Rose). 'Aperto 93' exhibition with works by Henry Bond, Christine Borland, Angela Bulloch, Mat Collishaw, Damien Hirst, Simon Patterson, Vong Phaophanit, Steven Pippin, Julie Roberts, and Georgina Starr. 'Punti dell'arte' exhibition with works by Anish Kapoor. 'Slittamenti' exhibition with works by Peter Greenaway and Derek Jarman. 'Macchine della pace' exhibition with works by Tony Cragg, Shirazeh Houshiary, and Julian Opie. 'La coesistenza dell'arte' exhibition with works by Braco Dimitrijevic. 'Art against Aids. Venezia 93' exhibition with works by Gilbert and George, Frank Auerbach, Tony Cragg, Richard Deacon, Shirazeh Houshiary, Anish Kapoor, Ronald Kitaj, Malcolm Morley, Ray Smith, and Rachel Whiteread. 'Tresors de Voyage' exhibition with works by Braco Dimitrijevic, Shirazeh Houshiary, and Anish Kapoor.
- 1995 — Works by Leon Kossoff. 'General Release: Young British Artists' exhibition with works by Fiona Banner, Dinos Chapman, Jake Chapman, Adam Chodzko, Matthew Dalziel, and Louise Scullion, Cerith Wyn Evans, Elizabeth Wright, Tacita Dean, Lucy Gunning, Sam Taylor-Wood, Jane and Louise Wilson, Jaki Irvine, Gary Hume, Douglas Gordan, Tom Gidley, and Ceal Floyer.
- 1997 — Rachel Whiteread (Commissioner: Andrea Rose)
- 1999 — Paintings by Gary Hume (Commissioner: Andrea Rose)
- 2001 — Mark Wallinger (Commissioner: Andrea Rose; curator: Ann Gallagher)
- 2003 — Chris Ofili (Commissioner: Andrea Rose; curator: Colin Ledwith)
- 2005 — Gilbert and George (Commissioner: Andrea Rose; curator: Richard Riley)
- 2007 — Tracey Emin (Commissioner: Andrea Rose)
- 2009 — Video installation by Steve McQueen (artist)
- 2011 — Mike Nelson (Commissioner: Andrea Rose; curator: Richard Riley)
- 2013 — Jeremy Deller
Designed by Brenno Del Giudice, M. Papandre, 1934. In 1934, after the Biennale had organised a second exhibition in Athens (1993) — Greece officially took part for the first time in the Venice exhibition. The exhibitions at the pavilion are commissioned by the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
List of exhibitors in the Greek Pavilion:
- 1936 — Maria Anagnostopoulou, Umberto Argyros, Constantinos Artemis, Nicolas Asprogerakas (Commissioner: Typaldo Forestis)
- 1936 — Konstantinos Maleas, Nikolaos Lytras, C. Stefanopoulo Alessandridi, Umberto Argyros, Aglae Papa (Commissioner: Typaldo Forestis)
- 1938 — Constantin Parthenis, Michalis Tombros, Angelos Theodoropoulos (Commissioners: Antonios Benakis, Typaldo Forestis)
- 1940 — Aginor Asteriadis, Yannis Mitarakis, Pavlos Rodokanakis, Dimitris Vitsoris, Bella Raftopoulou, Costis Papachristopoulos, George Zongolopoulos, Dimitrios Ghianoukakis, Alexandros Korogiannakis, Efthimios Papadimitriou
- 1950 — Bouzianis Giorgos
- 1976 — Michael Michaeledes, Aglaia Liberaki (Commissioner: Sotiris Messinis)
- 1978 — Yannis Pappas (Commissioner: Sotiris Messinis)
- 1980 — Pavlos (Dionysopoulos) (Commissioners: Sotiris Messinis, Emmanuel Mavrommatis)
- 1982 — Diamantis Diamantopoulos, Costas Coulentianos (Commissioner: Sotiris Messinis)
- 1984 — Christos Caras, George Georgiadis (Commissioner: Sotiris Messinis)
- 1986 — Costas Tsoclis (Commissioners: Nelli Missirli, Sotiris Messinis)
- 1988 — Vlassis Caniaris, Nikos Kessanlis (Commissioner: Emmanuel Mavrommatis)
- 1990 — Georges Lappas, Yannis Bouteas (Commissioner: Manos Stefanidis)
- 1993 — George Zongolopoulos (Commissioner: Efi Andreadi)
- 1995 — Takis (Commissioner: Maria Marangou)
- 1997 — Dimitri Alithinos, Stephen Antonakos, Totsikas, Alexandros Psychoulis (Commissioner: Efi Strousa)
- 1999 — Costas Varotsos, Danae Stratou, Evanthia Tsantila (Commissioner: Anna Kafetsi)
- 2001 — Nikos Navridis, Ilias Papailiakis, Ersi Chatziargyrou (Commissionner: Lina Tsikouta)
- 2003 — Athanasia Kyriakakos, Dimitris Rotsios (Commissioner: Marina Fokidis)
- 2005 — George Hadjimichalis (Commissioner: Katerina Koskina)
- 2007 — Nikos Alexiou (Commissioner: Yorgos Tzirtzilakis)
- 2009 — Lucas Samaras (Curator: Matthew Higgs)
- 2011 — Diohandi (Curator: Maria Marangou)
- 2013 - Stefanos Tsivopoulos (Curator: Syrago Tsiara)
Designed by Géza Rintel Maróti, 1909 (restored by Agost Benkhard, 1958).
List of exhibitors in the Hungarian Pavilion:
- 1968 — Ignác Kokas, Béla Kondor, Tibor Vilt
- 1982 — Erzsébet Schaár (Commissioner: Géza Csorba)
- 1984 — Imre Varga, György Vadász (Commissioner: Géza Csorba)
- 1986 — Imre Bak, Ákos Birkás, Károly Kelemen, István Nádler (Commissioner: Katalin Néray)
- 1988 — Imre Bukta, Sándor Pinczehelyi, Géza Samu (Commissioner: Katalin Néray)
- 1990 — László Fehér (Commissioner: Katalin Néray)
- 1993 — Joseph Kosuth, Viktor Lois (Commissioner: Katalin Keserü)
- 1995 — György Jovánovics (Commissioner: Márta Kovalovszky)
- 1997 — Róza El-Hassan, Judit Herskó, Éva Köves (Commissioner: Katalin Néray)
- 1999 — Imre Bukta, Emese Benczúr, Attila Csörgö, Gábor Erdélyi, Mariann Imre (Curator: János Sturcz)
- 2001 — Antal Lakner, Tamás Komoróczky (Curator: Júlia Fabényi, Barnabás Bencsik)
- 2003 — Little Warsaw (András Gálik, Bálint Havas) (Curator: Zsolt Petrányi)
- 2005 — Balázs Kicsiny (Curator: Péter Fitz)
- 2007 — Andreas Fogarasi (Curator: Katalin Timár)
- 2009 — Péter Forgács (Curator: András Rényi)
- 2011 — Hajnal Németh (Curator: Miklós Peternák)
In 1984, as Finland had joined Norway and Sweden in the Nordic Pavilion, Iceland was given the opportunity to rent the Finnish pavilion until 2006.
List of exhibitors in the Icelandish Pavilion:
- 1984 — Kristján Davidsson
- 1986 — Erró
- 1988 — Gunnar Örn
- 1990 — Helgi Thorgils Frídjónsson
- 1995 — Birgir Andrésson
- 1997 — Steina Vasulka
- 1999 — Sigurdur Árni Sigurdsson
- 2001 — Finnbogi Pétursson
- 2003 — Rúrí
- 2005 — Gabríela Fridriksdóttir
- 2007 — Steingrimur Eyfjörd
- 2009 — Ragnar Kjartansson (Curators: Markús Thór Andrésson, Dorothée Kirch)
- 2011 — Libia Castro & Ólafur Ólafsson
- 2013 — Katrin Sigurdardottir (Curators: Mary Ceruti, Ilaria Bonacossa)
In 2011, India was featured for the first time after 116 years, with the support of the culture ministry and the organizational participation of the Lalit Kala Akademi. Biennale organizers have reportedly invited the country to participate in past years, but the government has declined until now — a decision attributed to a lack of communication between the culture ministry and the country's National Gallery of Modern Art.
- 2011 — Mriganka Madhukaliya, Sonal Jain, Zarina Hashmi, Gigi Scaria, Praneet Soi (Curator: Ranjit Hoskote)
In 2011, Iraq returned to the Biennale for the first time after a 35-year absence. The title of the Iraq Pavilion was "Acqua Ferita" (translated as "Wounded Water"). Six important Iraqi artists from two generations interpreted the theme of water in their works, which made up the exhibition.
- 2011 — Adel Abidin, Halim Al Karim, Ahmed Alsoudani, Ali Assaf, Azad Nanakeli, Walid Siti
List of exhibitors in the Irish Pavilion:
- 1950 — Norah McGuinness, Nano Reid
- 1956 — Louis le Brocquy, Hilary Heron
- 1960 — Patrick Scott
- 1993 — Dorothy Cross, Willie Doherty
- 1995 — Kathy Prendergast
- 1997 — Jaki Irvine, Alistair McLennan
- 1999 — Anne Tallentire
- 2001 — Siobhan Hapaska, Grace Weir
- 2003 — Katie Holten (Commissioner: Valerie Connor)
- 2005 — Stephen Brandes, Mark Garry, Ronan McCrea, Isabel Nolan, Sarah Pierce, Walker and Walker (Commissioner: Sarah Glennie)
- 2007 — Gerard Byrne (Commissioner: Mike Fitzpatrick)
- 2009 — Sarah Browne, Gareth Kennedy, Kennedy Browne
- 2011 — Corban Walker (Commissioner: Emily-Jane Kirwan)
- 2013 — Richard Mosse (Commissioner: Anna O'Sullivan)
Designed by Zeev Rechter, 1952 (modified by Fredrik Fogh, 1966). Somewhat unusual in the Giardini, the pavilion has three exhibition floors.
Partial list of exhibitors at the Israeli Pavilion:
"Palazzo Pro Arte": Enrico Trevisanato, façade by Marius De Maria and Bartholomeo Bezzi, 1895; new façade by Guido Cirilli, 1914; "Padiglione Italia", present façade by Duilio Torres, 1932. The pavilion has a sculpture garden by Carlo Scarpa, 1952 and the "Auditorium Pastor" by Valeriano Pastor, 1977.
Partial list of exhibitors at the Italian Pavilion:
- 1936 — Quinto Martini
- 1966 — Ferruccio Bortoluzzi
- 1995 — Lorenzo Bonechi, Ida Cadorin Barbarigo, Roberto Capucci, Francesco Clemente, Amalia Del Ponte, Stefano Di Stasio, Paolo Gallerani, Paola Gandolfi, Nunzio, Luigi Ontani, Claudio Parmiggiani, Gianni Pisani, Pier Luigi Pizzi, Angelo Savelli, Ruggero Savino, Ettore Spalletti, Vito Tongiani, Mino Trafeli, Giuliano Vangi (curator: Jean Clair)
- 1997 — Maurizio Cattelan, Enzo Cucchi, Ettore Spalletti. (curator: Germano Celant)
- 1999 — Monica Bonvicini, Bruna Esposito, Luisa Lambri, Paola Pivi, Grazia Toderi. (curator: Harald Szeemann)
- 2001 — Alighiero Boetti (curators: Pio Baldi, Paolo Colombo, Sandra Pinto)
- 2003 — Charles Avery, Avish Khebrehzadeh, Sara Rossi, Carola Spadoni. (curators: Pio Baldi, Monica Pignatti Morano and Paolo Colombo)
- 2005 — Carolina Antich, Manfredi Beninati, Loris Cecchini, Lara Favaretto. (curators: Pio Baldi, Monica Pignatti Morano and Paolo Colombo)
- 2007 — Giuseppe Penone, Francesco Vezzoli. (curator: Ida Gianelli)
- 2009 — Collaudi, a group show with Matteo Basilé, Manfredi Beninati, Valerio Berruti, Bertozzi & Casoni, Nicola Bolla, Sandro Chia, Marco Cingolani, Giacomo Costa, Aron Demetz, Roberto Floreani, Daniele Galliano, Marco Lodola, MASBEDO, Gian Marco Montesano, Davide Nido, Luca Pignatelli, Elisa Sighicelli, Sissi, Nicola Verlato, Silvio Wolf. (curators: Luca Beatrice and Beatrice Buscaroli)
- 2011 — L'Arte non è Cosa Nostra, a group show with 250 artists, including Vanessa Beecroft, Michelangelo Pistoletto, Roberto Ferri and Rabarama. (curator: Vittorio Sgarbi)
- 2013 — Vice Versa, a group show with Francesco Arena, Massimo Bartolini, Gianfranco Baruchello, Elisabetta Benassi, Flavio Favelli, Luigi Ghirri, Piero Golia, Francesca Grilli, Marcello Maloberti, Fabio Mauri, Giulio Paolini, Marco Tirelli, Luca Vitone, Sislej Xhafa. (curator: Bartolomeo Pietromarchi)
Designed by Takamasa Yoshizaka, 1956. Japan has the longest history at the Venice Biennale compared to any other Asian nation.
List of exhibitors in the Japanese Pavilion:
- 1952 — Taikan Yokoyama, Kokei Kobayashi, Kiyotaka Kaburaki, Heihachiro Fukuda, Kyujin Yamamoto, Kenji Yoshioka, Sotaro Yasui, Shinsen Tokuoka, Ryuzaburo Umehara, Ichiro Fukuzawa, Kigai Kawaguchi
- 1954 — Hanjiro Sakamoto, Taro Okamoto
- 1956 — Kunitaro Suda, Kazu Wakita, Takeo Yamaguchi, Shigeru Ueki, Toyoichi Yamamoto, Shiko Munakata
- 1958 — Ichiro Fukuzawa, Kawabata Ryushi, Seison Maeda, Kenzo Okada, Yoshi Kinouchi, Shindo Tsuji
- 1960 — Toshimitsu Imai, Yoshishige Saito, Kei Sato, Kaoru Yamaguchi, Tadahiro Ono, Tomonori Toyofuku, Yoshitatsu Yanagihara, Yozo Hamaguchi
- 1962 — Kinuko Emi, Minoru Kawabata, Kumi Sugai, Tadashi Sugimata, Ryokichi Mukai
- 1964 — Yoshishige Saito, Toshinobu Onosato, Hisao Domoto, Tomonori Toyofuku
- 1966 — Toshinobu Onosato, Masuo Ikeda, Morio Shinoda, Ay-O
- 1968 — Tomio Miki, Kumi Sugai, Jiro Takamatsu, Katsuhiro Yamaguchi
- 1970 — Nobuo Sekine
- 1972 — Kenji Usami, Shintaro Tanaka
- 1976 — Kishin Shinoyama
- 1978 — Koji Enokura, Kishio Suga
- 1980 — Koji Enokura, Susumu Koshimizu, Isamu Wakabayashi
- 1982 — Naoyoshi Hikosaka, Yoshio Kitayama, Tadashi Kawamata
- 1984 — Kosho Ito, Kyoji Takubo, Kosai Hori
- 1986 — Isamu Wakabayashi, Masafumi Maita
- 1988 — Shigeo Toya, Keiji Umematsu, Katsura Funakoshi
- 1990 — Toshikatsu Endo, Saburo Muraoka
- 1993 — Yayoi Kusama
- 1995 — Katsuhiko Hibino, Yoichiro Kawaguchi, Hiroshi Senju, Jan Eun Choi
- 1997 — Rei Naito
- 2003 — Yutaka Sone, Motohiko Odani
- 2005 — Ishiuchi Miyako
- 2007 — Masao Okabe (Commissioner: Chihiro Minato)
- 2009 — Miwa Yanagi
- 2011 — Tabaimo (Curator: Yuka Uematsu)
- 2013 — Koki Tanaka (Curator: Mike Kuraya)
Republic of Kosovo 
- 2013 - Petrit Halilaj ( Curator Kathrin Rhonberg / Comisioner Erzen Shkololli)
Lebanon was present at the Biennale for the first time in 2007. After being absent in 2009 and 2011, it is coming back in 2013.
In 1914, the Swedish Pavilion, designed by Gustav Ferdninand Boberg, was handed over to the Netherlands. In 1954 the Dutch pavilion was demolished and reconstructed on the same site, designed by Gerrit Thomas Rietveld in 1954.
Since 1995, the Mondriaan Foundation has been responsible for the Dutch entry at the Biennale di Venezia, appointing a curator for each entry.
Dutch artists and curators of previous editions:
- 1956 — Constant, Bart van der Leck, Piet Mondriaan, André Volten
- 1964 — Karel Appel, Lucebert, J. Mooy
- 1968 — Carel Visser
- 1982 — Stanley Brouwn
- 1986 — Reinier Lucassen
- 1988 — Henk Visch
- 1990 — Rob Scholte
- 1993 — Niek Kemps
- 1995 — Marlene Dumas, Maria Roosen, Marijke van Warmerdam (Curator: Chris Dercon)
- 1997 — Aernout Mik, Willem Oorebeek (Curators: Leontine Coelewij, Arno van Roosmalen)
- 1999 — Daan van Golden (Curator: Karel Schampers)
- 2001 — Liza May Post (Curator: Jaap Guldemond)
- 2003 — Carlos Amorales, Alicia Framis, Meschac Gaba, Jeanne van Heeswijk, Erik van Lieshout (Curator: Rein Wolfs)
- 2005 — Jeroen De Rijke / Willem de Rooij (Curator: Martijn van Nieuwenhuyzen)
- 2007 — Aernout Mik (Curator Maria Hlavajova)
- 2009 — Fiona Tan (Curator: Saskia Bos)
- 2011 — Barbara Visser, Ernst van der Hoeven, Herman Verkerk, Johannes Schwartz, Joke Robaard, Maureen Mooren, Paul Kuipers, Sanneke van Hassel, Yannis Kyriakides (Curator: Guus Beumer)
- 2013 — Mark Manders (Curator: Lorenzo Benedetti)
Northern Ireland 
List of exhibitors in the Northern Ireland Pavilion:
- 2005 — "The Nature of Things", group show with Patrick Bloomer, Patrick Keogh, Ian Charlesworth, Factotum, Séamus Harahan, Michael Hogg, Sandra Johnston, Mary McIntyre, Katrina Moorhead, William McKeown, Darren Murray, Aisling O’Beirn, Peter Richards and Alistair Wilson. (curator: Hugh Mulholland)
- 2007 — Willie Doherty (curator: Hugh Mulholland)
- 2009 — Susan MacWilliam (curator: Karen Downey)
New Zealand 
List of exhibitors in the New Zealand Pavilion:
List of exhibitors in the Polish Pavilion:
Republic of Macedonia 
List of exhibitors in the Republic of Macedonia Pavilion:
- 1993 — Gligor Stefanov and Petre Nikoloski
- 1997 — Aneta Svetieva
- 1999 — Iskra Dimitrova
- 2001 — Javon Sumkovski
- 2003 — Zaneta Bangeli and Vana Urosebic
- 2005 — Antoni Maznevski
- 2007 — Blagoja Manevski
- 2009 — Nikola Uzunovski and Goce Nanevski
- 2011 — Zarko Basevski and ZERO
- 2013 — Elpida Hadzi-Vasileva
Designed by Aleksej V. Scusev, 1914.
List of exhibitors in the Russian Pavilion:
- 2011 — Andrei Monastyrsky, Elena Elagina, Sabina Hensgen, Igor Makarevich, Nikolai Pantikov, Sergei Romashko (Curator: Boris Groys)
- 2013 — Vadim Zakharov (Commissioner: Stella Kesaeva; curator: Udo Kittelmann)
The Nordic Countries 
Designed by Sverre Fehn, 1962 (small annex built by Fredrik Fogh, 1987).
The cooperation between Finland, Norway and Sweden in Venice was initiated in 1962 after the completion of the Nordic Pavilion. Until 1984, the representation of each country was organized nationally. From 1986 to 2009 the pavilion was commissioned as a whole, with the curatorial responsibility alternating between the collaborating countries. From 2011 the cooperation has been temporarily discontinued. In a trial period lasting from 2011 until 2015, the pavilion will be used for a national presentation by Sweden in 2011, Finland in 2013 and Norway in 2015.
Incomplete list of exhibitors in the Nordic Pavilion:
- 1962 — FINLAND: ; NORWAY: Rolf Nesch, Knut Rumohr; SWEDEN: Siri Derkert
- 1964 — FINLAND: ; NORWAY: Hannah Ryggen; SWEDEN: Evert Lundquist
- 1966 – FINLAND: ; NORWAY: Jakob Weidemann; SWEDEN: Öyvind Fahlström
- 1968 — FINLAND: ; NORWAY: Gunnar S. Gundersen; SWEDEN: Sivert Lindblom, Arne Jones
- 1970 — FINLAND: ; NORWAY: Arnold Haukeland; SWEDEN:
- 1972 – FINLAND: ; NORWAY: Arne Ekeland; SWEDEN:
- 1976 — FINLAND: ; NORWAY: Boge Berg, Steinar Christensen/Kristian Kvakland, Arvid Pettersen; SWEDEN: ARARAT (Alternative Research in Architecture, Resources, Art and Technology)
- 1978 — FINLAND: ; NORWAY: Frans Widerberg; SWEDEN:
- 1980 — FINLAND: ; NORWAY: Knut Rose; SWEDEN:
- 1982 — FINLAND: ; NORWAY: Synnøve Anker Aurdal; SWEDEN:
- 1984 — FINLAND: ; NORWAY: Bendik Riis; SWEDEN:
- 1986 — "Techne": Bård Breivik (NO), Marianne Heske (NO), Olli Lyytikäinen (FI), Kjell Ohlin (SE), Erik H. Olson (SE), Silja Rantanen (FI), Carl Fredrik Reuterswärd (SE), Osmo Valtonen (FI) (Curator: Mats B.)
- 1988 — Per Inge Bjørlo (NO), Rolf Hanson (SE), Jukka Mäkelä (FI) (Curator: Maaretta Jaukkuri, FI)
- 1990 — "Cavén, Barclay, Håfström": Per Barclay (NO), Kari Cavén (FI), Jan Håfström (SE) (Curator: Per Hovdenakk, NO)
- 1993 — Jussi Niva (FI), Truls Melin (SE), Bente Stokke (NO) (Curator: Lars Nittve, SE)
- 1995 — Eva Løfdahl (SE), Per Maning (NO), Nina Roos (FI) (Curator: Timo Valjakka, FI)
- 1997 — "Naturally Artificial": Henrik Håkansson (SE), Mark Dion (US), Marianna Uutininen (FI), Mariko Mori (JP), Sven Påhlsson (NO) (Curator: Jon-Ove Steihaug, NO)
- 1999 — "End of a Story": Annika von Hausswolff (SE), Knut Åsdam (NO), Eija-Liisa Ahtila (SE). (Curator: John Peter Nilsson, SE)
- 2001 — "The North is Protected": Leif Elggren (SE), Tommi Grönlund/Petteri Nisunen (FI), Carl Michael von Hausswolff (SE), Anders Tomren (NO) (Curators: Grönlund/Nisunen, FI)
- 2003 – "Devil-May-Care": Karin Mamma Andersson (SE), Kristina Bræin (NO), Liisa Luonila (FI) (Curators: Anne Karin Jortveit and Andrea Kroksnes, NO)
- 2005 — "Sharing Space Dividing Time": Miriam Bäckström and Carsten Höller (SE/DE), Matias Faldbakken (NO) (Curator: Åsa Nacking, SE)
- 2007 — "Welfare — Fare Well": Adel Abidin (IQ/FI), Jacob Dahlgren (SE), Lars Ramberg (NO), Toril Goksøyr & Camilla Martens (NO), Sirous Namazi (SE), Maaria Wirkkala FI (Curator: René Block, DE)
- 2009 — "The Collectors" (in collaboration with the Danish Pavilion): Elmgreen and Dragset, Klara Lidén (SE), Wolfgang Tillmans (DE) and others. (Curators: Elmgreen & Dragset, DK/NO)
- 2011 — SWEDEN: Fia Backström, Andreas Eriksson (Curator: Magnus af Petersens)
South Korea 
Designed by Seok Chul Kim and Franco Mancuso, 1995.
South Korea has participated in the Venice Biennale since 1995. The Korean Pavilion at the Venice Biennale was the second Asian pavilion to be opened after Japan.
List of exhibitors in the South Korean Pavilion:
- 1995 — Yoon Hyong Keun, Kwak Hoon, Kim In Kyum, Jheon Soocheon (Commissioner: Il Lee)
- 1997 — Hyungwoo Lee, Ik-joong Kang (Curator: Oh Kwang Soo)
- 1999 — Lee Bul, Noh Sang-Kyoon (Curator: Misook Song)
- 2001 — Michael Joo, Do-Ho Suh (Commissioner: Kyung-mee Park)
- 2003 — Whang In Kie, Bahc Yiso, Chung Seoyoung (Commissioner: Kim Hong-Hee)
- 2007 — Hyungkoo Lee (Commissioner: Soyeon Ahn)
- 2009 — Haegue Yang (Commissioner: Eungie Joo)
- 2011 — Lee Yong-baek (Commissioner: Yun Chea-gab)
- 2013 — tba (Curator: Kim Seung-duk)
Designed by Javier de Luque, 1922 (façade restored by Joaquin Vaquero Palacios, 1952).
List of exhibitors in the Spanish Pavilion:
Designed by Bruno Giacometti, 1952. Between 1990 and 2009, Switzerland also used the San Stae church as exhibition venue.
As of 2012, Pro Helvetia has assumed responsibility for the Swiss contributions to the Venice Biennale.
List of exhibitors in the Swiss Pavilion:
- 1962 — Alberto Giacometti
- 1982 — Dieter Roth
- 1984 — Miriam Cahn
- 1988 — Markus Raetz
- 1990 — Olivier Mosset
- 1993 — Christoph Rütimann
- 1995 — Peter Fischli & David Weiss
- 1999 — Roman Signer
- 2001 — Urs Luthi, Norbert Möslang, Andy Guhl
- 2003 — Emmanuelle Antille, Gerda Steiner, Jörg Lenzlinger
- 2005 — Pipilotti Rist, Ingrid Wildi, Gianni Motti, Shahryar Nashat, Marco Poloni (curator: Stefan Banz)
- 2007 — Yves Netzhammer, Ugo Rondinone, Urs Fischer, Christine Streuli (curators: Urs Staub, Andreas Münch)
- 2009 — Silvia Bächli, Fabrice Gygi (Commissioner: Andreas Münch, Curator: Urs Staub)
- 2011 — Thomas Hirschhorn/"Chewing the Scenery" (Curator: Andrea Thal)
- 2013 — Valentin Carron (Curator: Giovanni Carmine)
List of exhibitors in the Turkish Pavilion:
List of exhibitors in the Ukrainian Pavilion:
- 2011 — Oksana Mas «Post-vs-Proto-Renaissance» (Curator: Oleksiy Rogotchenko)
United States 
U.S. Pavilion at the Venice Biennale in the 1930s.
The United States Pavilion at the Venice Biennale was constructed in 1930 by the Grand Central Art Galleries, a nonprofit artists' cooperative established in 1922 by Walter Leighton Clark together with John Singer Sargent, Edmund Greacen, and others. As stated in the Galleries' 1934 catalog, the organization's goal was to "give a broader field to American art; to exhibit in a larger way to a more numerous audience, not in New York alone but throughout the country, thus displaying to the world the inherent value which our art undoubtedly possesses."
Having worked tirelessly to promote American art at home the 1920s, in 1930 Walter Leighton Clark and the Grand Central Art Galleries spearheaded the creation of the U.S. Pavilion at the Venice Biennale. Up until then there was no place at the Biennale dedicated to American art, and Clark felt that it was crucial to establishing the credentials of the nation's artists abroad. The pavilion's architects were William Adams Delano, who also designed the Grand Central Art Galleries, and Chester Holmes Aldrich. The purchase of the land, design, and construction was paid for by the galleries and personally supervised by Clark. As he wrote in the 1934 catalog:
"Pursuing our purpose of putting American art prominently before the world, the directors a few years ago appropriated the sum of $25,000 for the erection of an exhibition building in Venice on the grounds of the International Biennial. Messrs. Delano and Aldrich generously donated the plans for this building which is constructed of Istrian marble and pink brick and more than holds its own with the twenty-five other buildings in the Park owned by the various European governments."
The pavilion, owned and operated by the galleries, opened on May 4, 1930. Approximately 90 paintings and 12 sculptures were selected by Clark for the opening exhibition. Artists featured included Max Boehm, Hector Caser, Lillian Westcott Hale, Edward Hopper, Abraham Poole, Julius Rolshoven, Joseph Pollet, Eugene Savage, Elmer Shofeld, Ofelia Keelan, and African-American artist Henry Tanner. U.S. Ambassador John W. Garrett opened the show together with the Duke of Bergamo.
The Grand Central Art Galleries operated the U.S. Pavilion until 1954, when it was sold to the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA). Throughout the 1950s and 1960s shows were organized by MOMA, Art Institute of Chicago, and Baltimore Museum of Art. The Modern withdrew from the Biennale in 1964, and the United States Information Agency ran the Pavilion until it was sold to the Guggenheim Foundation courtesy of funds provided by the Peggy Guggenheim Collection.
Since 1986 the Peggy Guggenheim Collection has worked with the United States Information Agency, the US Department of State and the Fund for Artists at International Festivals and Exhibitions in the organization of the visual arts exhibitions at the US Pavilion, while the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation has organized the comparable shows at the Architecture Biennales. Every two years museum curators from across the U.S. detail their visions for the American pavilion in proposals that are reviewed by the NEA Federal Advisory Committee on International Exhibitions (FACIE), a group comprising curators, museum directors and artists who then submit their recommendations to the public-private Fund for United States Artists at International Festivals and Exhibitions. Traditionally the endowment's selection committee has chosen a proposal submitted by a museum or curator, but in 2004 it simply chose an artist who in turn has nominated a curator, later approved by the State Department.
Partial list of exhibitors at the United States Pavilion:
- 1930 — Edward Hopper, Julius Rolshoven, Eugene Savage, Henry Tanner.
- 1950 (26th) — Arshile Gorky, Willem de Kooning, Jackson Pollock
- 1954 (28th) — Willem de Kooning, Ben Shahn
- 1960 (30th) — Philip Guston, Hans Hofmann, Franz Kline, Theodore Roszak
- 1962 (31st) — Jan Müller, Louise Nevelson
- 1964 (32nd) — John Chamberlain, Jim Dine, Jasper Johns, Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland, Claes Oldenburg, Robert Rauschenberg, Frank Stella
- 1966 (33rd) — Helen Frankenthaler, Ellsworth Kelly, Roy Lichtenstein, Jules Olitski
- 1968 (34th) — Leonard Baskin, Edwin Dickinson, Richard Diebenkorn, Red Grooms, James McGarrell, Reuben Nakian, Fairfield Porter
- 1970 (35th) — Survey of American Prints and Printmaking (Commissioner: Lois A. Bingham; curator: Henry T. Hopkins)
- 1972 (36th) — Diane Arbus, Ronald Davis, Richard Estes, Sam Gilliam, Jim Nutt, Keith Sonnier(Commissioner: Walter Hopps)
- 1976 (37th) — Richard Artschwager, Charles Garabedian, Robert Irwin, Donald Judd, Agnes Martin, Robert Motherwell, Ed Ruscha, Robert Ryman, Joel Shapiro, Richard Tuttle, Andy Warhol, H.C. Westermann (Commissioner: Thomas M. Messer; curators: Hugh M. Davies, Sam Hunter, Rosalind Krauss, Marcia Tucker)
- 1978 (38th) — Harry Callahan, Richard Diebenkorn (Commissioner: Robert T. Buck, Jr.; curators: Peter Bunnell, Linda Cathcart)
- 1980 (39th) — Vito Acconci, Christo, Laurie Anderson and others (Commissioner: Janet Kardon)
- 1982 (40th) — Jess, Robert Smithson (posthumous), Richard Pousette-Dart (Commissioner: Thomas W. Leavitt; curator: Robert Hobbs)
- 1984 (41st) — Eric Fischl, Charles Garabedian, and others (Commissioner: Marcia Tucker; curators: Lynn Gumpert, Ned Rifkin)
- 1986 (42nd) — Isamu Noguchi (Commissioner: Henry Geldzahler)
- 1988 (43rd) — Jasper Johns (Curator: Mark Rosenthal)
- 1990 (44th) — Jenny Holzer — Mother and Child (Commissioner: Michael Auping)
- 1993 (45th) — Louise Bourgeois (Curator: Charlotta Kotik)
- 1995 (46th) — Bill Viola — Buried Secrets (Curator: Marilyn A. Zeitlin)
- 1997 (47th) — Robert Colescott (Commissioner: Mimi Roberts)
- 1999 (48th) — Ann Hamilton (Curators: Katy Kline, Helaine Posner)
- 2001 (49th) — Robert Gober (Curators: Olga M. Viso, James Rondeau)
- 2003 (50th) — Fred Wilson (Commissioner: Kathleen Goncharov; curator: Maurice Berger)
- 2005 (51st) — Ed Ruscha (Commissioner: Linda Norden; curator: Donna De Salvo)
- 2007 (52nd) — Félix González-Torres (posthumous) (Curator: Nancy Spector)
- 2009 (53rd) — Bruce Nauman (Curators: Carlos Basualdo, Michael R. Taylor)
- 2011 (54th) — Allora & Calzadilla (Commissioner: Lisa Freiman)
- 2013 (55th) — Sarah Sze (Curators: Holly Block, Carey Lovelace)
Ex-warehouse of the Biennale, 1958, ceded to the government of Uruguay, 1960.
List of exhibitors in the Uruguayan Pavilion:
- 1954 — José Cuneo, Severino Pose
- 1956 — Joaquín Torres García
- 1960 — Zoma Baitler, Washington Barcala, Norberto Berdia, José Cuneo, José Echave, Adolfo Halty, Augusto Torres, Vicente Martìn, Julio Verdier (Commissioner: Jorge Pàez Vilaró)
- 1962 — Germán Cabrera, Juan Ventayol
- 1964 — Jorge Damiani, José Gamarra, Nelson Ramos, Jorge Páez Vilaró
- 1968 — Antonio Frasconi
- 1986 — Ernesto Aroztegui, Clever Lara
- 1988 — Luis Camnitzer
- 1990 — Gonzalo Fonseca
- 1993 — Águeda Dicancro
- 1995 — Ignacio Iturria
- 1997 — Nelson Ramos
- 1999 — Ricardo Pascale
- 2001 — Rimer Cardillo (Commissioner: Cléver Lara)
- 2003 — Pablo Atchugarry (Curator: Luciano Caramel)
- 2005 — Lacy Duarte (Commissioners: Alicia Haber, Olga Larnaudie)
- 2007 — Ernesto Vila (Commissioner: Enrique Aguerre)
- 2009 — Raquel Bessio, Juan Burgos, Pablo Uribe (Commissioners: Patricia Bentancur, Alfredo Torres)
- 2011 — Alejandro Cesarco, Magela Ferrero (Curator: Clio Bugel)
- 2013 — Wifredo Díaz Valdéz
Designed by Carlo Scarpa, 1956.
List of exhibitors in the Venezuelan Pavilion:
- 1964 — Jesús Rafael Soto
- 1970 — Carlos Cruz-Diez, Jesús Rafael Soto
- 1978 -- Luisa Richter
- 1980 — Regulo Pérez
- 1988 — Jacobo Borges
- 1990 — Julio Pacheco Rivas
- 2005 — Santiago Pol (Commissioner: Vivian Rivas Gingerich)
- 2007 — Antonio Briceño, Vincent & Feria (Commissioner: Zuleiva Vivas)
- 2009 — Claudio Perna, Antonieta Sosa, Alejandro Otero
- 2011 — Francisco Bassim, Clemencia Labin, Yoshi (Curator: Luis Hurtado)
- "Venezia" Group of Pavilions — Brenno Del Giudice (Arti Decorative pavilion 1932); other pavilions (Yugoslavia, Romania, Latin America), 1938.
- Ticket Office — Carlo Scarpa, 1951.
- Book Shop — James Stirling, 1991.
The Venice Biennale has awarded prizes to the artists participating at the Exhibition since the first edition back in 1895. Grand Prizes were established in 1938 and ran until 1968 when they were abolished due to the protest movement. Prizes were taken up again in 1986. There are five judges on the jury.
1938 to 1968 
- International grand prize for painting: Mark Tobey (United States)
- International Grand prize for sculpture: Eduardo Chillida (Spain)
Since 1986 
- 1988 :
- Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Jasper Johns (USA)
- Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Italy
- Leone d'Oro for the Best Artist of the international exhibition: Gary Hill (USA), R. B. Kitaj (USA)
- Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Akram El Magdoub, Hamdi Attia, Medhat Shafik, Khaled Shokry (Egypt)
- 2007 :
- Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Malick Sidibé (Mali)
- Leone d'Oro for the Best Artist of the international exhibition: León Ferrari (Argentina)
- Leone d'Oro for the Best Young Artist: Emily Jacir (USA)
- Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Andreas Fogarasi (Hungary)
- 2009 :
- Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: Yoko Ono (Japan), John Baldessari (USA)
- Leone d'Oro for the Best Artist of the international exhibition: Tobias Rehberger (Germany)
- Leone d'Oro for the Best Young Artist: Nathalie Djurberg (Sweden)
- Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Bruce Nauman (USA)
Unofficial Pavilions 
As well as the national pavilions there are countless "unofficial pavilions" that spring up every year. 2009 there were pavilions such as the Gabon Pavilion and a Peckham pavilion. Upcoming artists in new media showed work in an Internet Pavilion in 2011.
See also 
- ^ Vittorio Sgarbi, Lo Stato dell'Arte, Moncalieri (Torino), Istituto Nazionale di Cultura, 2012
- ^ "Dance". La Biennale di Venezia. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- ^ a b Velthuis, Olav (June 3, 2011). "The Venice Effect". The Art Newspaper. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- ^ Riding, Alan (June 10, 1995). "Past Upstages Present at Venice Biennale". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- ^ "The British Council and the Venice Biennale". UK at the Venice Biennale. British Council. 2009. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- ^ Vogel, Carol (June 7, 2009). "A More Serene Biennale". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- ^ http://www.beniculturali.it/mibac/export/MiBAC/sito-MiBAC/Contenuti/MibacUnif/Eventi/visualizza_asset.html_1130614661.html
- ^ Adam, Georgina (June 6, 2009). "Trading places". Financial Times. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- ^ National Pavilions La Biennale di Venezia.
- ^ Hirsch, Faye (June 2, 2011). "Adrian Villar Rojas: The Last Sculpture on Earth". Art in America. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Martino, Enzo Di. The History of the Venice Biennale. Venezia: Papiro Arte, 2007.
- ^ The Australian Pavilion Australia Council for the Arts.
- ^ Louisa Buck (June 27, 2012), Australia’s new Venice pavilion to be built with private money The Art Newspaper.
- ^ "The Austrian Pavilion". la Biennale 2011 Austria, Markus Schinwald, Commissioner Eva Schlegel. Federal Ministry for Education, Arts and Culture. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- ^ The pavilion of Azerbaijan — 54th international art exhibition
- ^ a b c d e "ARTINFO's Comprehensive Guide to the 2011 Venice Biennale National Pavilions". ARTINFO. Louise Blouin Media. May 30, 2011. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- ^ http://www.toronto.com/article/733967
- ^ "SPEECH MATTERS — The Danish Pavilion at the 54th International Art Exhibition — la Biennale di Venezia" (PDF). Danish Pavilion. May 20, 2011. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- ^ Venice Biennale 2013 FRAME Foundation, Helsinki.
- ^ A Brief Look Back: Icelandic Participation at the Venice Biennale, LIST Icelandic Art News, 28 February 2007.
- ^ Dana Gilerman (December 13, 2006), The war changed her plans Haaretz.
- ^ "Pavilion of Lebanon, Venice Biennale". Pavilion of Lebanon, Venice Biennale. 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- ^ "Akram Zaatari represents Lebanon at Venice.". Biennial Foundation. 20 october 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- ^ Lee Woo-young (August 2013, 2012), Kim selected for Venice Biennale Korea Pavilion The Korea Herald.
- ^ a b c "American Art Show Opened at Venice", New York Times, May 5, 1930
- ^ "Painters and Sculptors' Gallery Association to Begin Work", New York Times, December 19, 1922
- ^ a b http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/collection/grancent.htm%7C1934 Grand Central Art Galleries catalog
- ^ "Venice to Exhibit Art of Americans", The New York Times, March 6, 1932
- ^ Vogel, Carol (August 3, 2004). "American Art Is Adrift for Biennale in Venice". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- ^ "US Pavilion". Peggy Guggenheim Collection. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- ^ Vogel, Carol (May 12, 2011). "War Machines (With Gymnasts)". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- ^ Vogel, Carol (October 29, 2004). "Ruscha to Represent U.S. at the Venice Biennale". The New York Times. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
- ^ La Biennale di Venezia — Chelsea Art Galleries
- ^ Josine Ianco-Starrels (June 29, 1986), Noguchi Represents U.s. At 42nd Venice Biennale Los Angeles Times.
- ^ Edward J. Sozanski (June 23, 1988), [Jasper Johns' Coup In Venice Show Organized By The Art Museum Is The Probable Hit Of The Biennale] The Philadelphia Inquirer.
- ^ Carol Vogel (June 12, 1993), The Venice Biennale: An Art Bazaar Abuzz New York Times.
- ^ Video Artist Is Chosen For the Venice Biennale New York Times, May 7, 1994.
- ^ Carol Vogel (June 17, 1996), A Painter Is Chosen For Biennale New York Times.
- ^ List duo to curate show for Venice Biennale List Visual Arts Center, June 3, 1998.
- ^ Carol Vogel (January 25, 2008), Bruce Nauman Chosen for Venice Biennale New York Times.
- ^ "Georges Braque 1882–1963". Tate.
- ^ Monod-Fontaine, Isabelle. "Henri Laurens (French, 1885–1954)". Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press / MoMA.
- ^ "Max Ernst 1891–1976". Tate.
- ^ Horan, Tom (June 8, 2009). "Venice Biennale: finding out about the now". The Telegraph. Retrieved October 22, 2011.
Further reading 
- Sophie Bowness and Clive Phillpot (ed), Britain at the Venice Biennale 1895–1996, The British Council, 1995
- Martino, Enzo Di. The History of the Venice Biennale, Venezia, Papiro Arte, 2007.
- Sarah Thornton. Seven Days in the Art World. New York: WW Norton, 2008.
- Digitalarti Mag (2009). Venice Biennale. pp. 8–12.
- 52nd Venice Biennale and Documenta 12 in Kassel vol.20 July 2007 n.paradoxa: international feminist art journal pp. 88–92
- Vittorio Sgarbi, Lo Stato dell'Arte: 54 Esposizione internazionale d'Arte della Biennale di Venezia. Iniziativa speciale per il 150° Anniversario dell'Unità d'Italia, Moncalieri (Torino), Istituto Nazionale di Cultura, 2012
External links