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The First and Second Vermont Republic
The First and Second Vermont Republic
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: Tales of History
U.S. States That Were Once Independent Countries
U.S. States That Were Once Independent Countries
Published: 2014/01/14
Channel: Wanderlust Wisdom: Travel, History, & Science
What if... the vermont republic survived?
What if... the vermont republic survived?
Published: 2016/09/04
Channel: what if alternative
Second Vermont Republic  Dr  Rob Williams
Second Vermont Republic Dr Rob Williams
Published: 2014/05/13
Channel: Nathan Hanna
Free Vermont!: FOX
Free Vermont!: FOX's "Big Story" on VT independence effort
Published: 2007/07/12
Channel: RobWilliamsMedia
THE STATES WANT TO SECEDE FROM THE UNION - FREE VT!
THE STATES WANT TO SECEDE FROM THE UNION - FREE VT!
Published: 2008/09/15
Channel: truthvspropaganda
Alternate History: "Greater Vermont Republic"
Alternate History: "Greater Vermont Republic"
Published: 2011/01/26
Channel: alternatehistorypt
What
What's Good: The Free Republic of Vermont
Published: 2008/09/08
Channel: whatsgoodvt
Vermont Republic
Vermont Republic
Published: 2016/01/08
Channel: WikiAudio
NECN: Vermont independence gains traction...
NECN: Vermont independence gains traction...
Published: 2007/09/29
Channel: VermontCommons
Republicans Talk Secession
Republicans Talk Secession
Published: 2012/11/13
Channel: Thom Hartmann Program
VERMONT, NEW ENGLAND, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, USA
VERMONT, NEW ENGLAND, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, USA
Published: 2015/06/20
Channel: WORLDWIDE TRAVEL AND WILDLIFE EXPERIENCES
Vermont Governor Speaks About Secession...
Vermont Governor Speaks About Secession...
Published: 2007/09/27
Channel: VermontCommons
In The Box
In The Box
Published: 2010/10/29
Channel: VTsecession
VT Independence Convention [SIV 104]
VT Independence Convention [SIV 104]
Published: 2008/11/12
Channel: StuckinVermont
Thomas Naylor: History of Vermont secession movement 1of5
Thomas Naylor: History of Vermont secession movement 1of5
Published: 2010/07/28
Channel: Grassroots Activist Guild
The Republic History of Vermont Trailer
The Republic History of Vermont Trailer
Published: 2016/08/09
Channel: Yankee Separatist
Vermont Second Republic FTW
Vermont Second Republic FTW
Published: 2012/03/05
Channel: Stewkakke
Secession Flags in Columbia, SC
Secession Flags in Columbia, SC
Published: 2014/09/29
Channel: RedShirtArmy
VERMONT INDEPENDENCE CANDIDATES
VERMONT INDEPENDENCE CANDIDATES
Published: 2010/09/13
Channel: VTFREE
Burlington, VT Secession Convention Press Conference
Burlington, VT Secession Convention Press Conference
Published: 2007/01/23
Channel: VTsecession
Secession: A natural, common practice coming to a U.S. near U.
Secession: A natural, common practice coming to a U.S. near U.
Published: 2012/09/28
Channel: RidleyReport
Constitution Party 2017
Constitution Party 2017
Published: 2017/02/27
Channel: Carlos S
Rev. Steven L. Craft Speaks at Constitution Party Convention
Rev. Steven L. Craft Speaks at Constitution Party Convention
Published: 2017/01/07
Channel: Christian Citizenship Ministries
Welcome to Vermont!
Welcome to Vermont!
Published: 2013/03/09
Channel: AllThingsParody
Macedonian Chief of Defense sees VT Guard in action
Macedonian Chief of Defense sees VT Guard in action
Published: 2013/07/17
Channel: WPTZ NewsChannel 5
A Philosophy of US Healthcare
A Philosophy of US Healthcare
Published: 2009/07/14
Channel: quillinhand
All You Need To Know About-Better Qualified-Vermont-How To Fight With Negative Accounts
All You Need To Know About-Better Qualified-Vermont-How To Fight With Negative Accounts
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: Find Out More About-Affordable Credit Repair Company-Vermont-Fix Your Credit Score
The Song Of The Vermonters
The Song Of The Vermonters
Published: 2012/07/28
Channel: MadeInTheShadeEnt
Constitution Party Commercial
Constitution Party Commercial
Published: 2017/02/15
Channel: Cesia Cervantes
Thomas Naylor: On secession--economics  3of5
Thomas Naylor: On secession--economics 3of5
Published: 2010/07/29
Channel: Grassroots Activist Guild
Thomas Naylor on Racism and Secession
Thomas Naylor on Racism and Secession
Published: 2009/07/13
Channel: quillinhand
GLS - Part 7 of 10
GLS - Part 7 of 10
Published: 2010/09/18
Channel: jeroloman
Their legacy, socialists beat them in the temporary republic state of Vermont !
Their legacy, socialists beat them in the temporary republic state of Vermont !
Published: 2014/07/11
Channel: TOLGACOANITUILHREAA
GLS - Part 10 of 10
GLS - Part 10 of 10
Published: 2010/09/18
Channel: jeroloman
GLS - Part 8 of 10
GLS - Part 8 of 10
Published: 2010/09/18
Channel: jeroloman
SVR - Part 7 of 10
SVR - Part 7 of 10
Published: 2010/01/16
Channel: jeroloman
GLS - Part 9 of 10
GLS - Part 9 of 10
Published: 2010/09/18
Channel: jeroloman
What type nation would NH be?
What type nation would NH be?
Published: 2012/09/23
Channel: RidleyReport
Michael Hill & Thomas Naylor Interview on Glenn Beck Program
Michael Hill & Thomas Naylor Interview on Glenn Beck Program
Published: 2007/10/09
Channel: dixienetdotorg
New Connecticut
New Connecticut
Published: 2015/01/06
Channel: Taylor Cordeiro
National Geographic Documentary - The Wild West - Wildlife Animal
National Geographic Documentary - The Wild West - Wildlife Animal
Published: 2017/02/10
Channel: Natgeo Documentary HD
Vermont
Vermont's Craziest Politicians '04
Published: 2007/09/30
Channel: Billy Bob Thompson
Thomas Naylor: On secession--perception and strategies 2of5
Thomas Naylor: On secession--perception and strategies 2of5
Published: 2010/07/28
Channel: Grassroots Activist Guild
Thomas Naylor: On secession--psychology & demographics  4of5
Thomas Naylor: On secession--psychology & demographics 4of5
Published: 2010/07/29
Channel: Grassroots Activist Guild
Vermonters on Independence - Education
Vermonters on Independence - Education
Published: 2009/06/17
Channel: VermontCommons
SVR
SVR's "Mock Funeral": March 2006
Published: 2007/10/01
Channel: VermontCommons
US & EU Secession Hypocrisy
US & EU Secession Hypocrisy
Published: 2016/11/29
Channel: General B.N. and the Tupac Army
PKN BTV Vol. 16: Rob Williams
PKN BTV Vol. 16: Rob Williams
Published: 2015/06/24
Channel: Pecha Kucha Burlington
SVR - Part 1 of 10
SVR - Part 1 of 10
Published: 2010/01/19
Channel: jeroloman
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Vermont Republic
1777–1791
Green Mountain Boys Flag Great Seal
Motto
Freedom and Unity on Great Seal
Stella quarta decima on Vermont coinage
in English "the fourteenth star"
Capital Windsor, then Castleton
Languages English
Government Republic
Governor
 •  1778–1789 Thomas Chittenden
 •  1789–1790 Moses Robinson
 •  1790–1791 Thomas Chittenden
Legislature House of Representatives of the Freemen of Vermont
Historical era American Revolution
 •  Independence January 15, 1777
 •  Admitted to Union March 4, 1791
Currency Vermont copper
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Province of New York
NewHampshire1692Seal.png Province of New Hampshire
New Hampshire Grants
Vermont
Vermont coin with the passage VERMONTIS. RES. PUBLICA. on the obverse, and the motto "STELLA QUARTA DECIMA" on the reverse
Engraving of Thomas Chittenden, first and third governor of the Vermont Republic, and first governor of the State of Vermont
The Old Constitution House in Windsor, Vermont, where the 1777 constitution was signed, is also called the birthplace of Vermont.

Later historians have used the term Vermont Republic[1] to refer to the government of Vermont that existed from 1777 to 1791. In January 1777, delegates from 28 towns met and declared independence from the jurisdictions and land claims both of the British colony of Quebec and of the American states of New Hampshire and New York. They also abolished adult slavery within their boundaries. Many people in Vermont took part in the American Revolution, although the Continental Congress did not recognize the jurisdiction.[2] Because of vehement objections from New York, which had conflicting property claims, the Continental Congress declined to recognize Vermont, then known as the New Hampshire Grants.[3] Vermont's overtures to join the British Province of Quebec failed.[4] In 1791, Vermont officially joined the United States as the 14th state.

Vermont coined a currency called Vermont coppers from a mint operated by Reuben Harmon in East Rupert (1785–1788),[5] and operated a postal system. While the Vermont coppers bore the legend Vermontis. Res. Publica (Latin for republic or state of Vermont), the constitution and other official documents used the term "State of Vermont". It referred to its chief executive as a "governor". The 1777 constitution refers to Vermont variously: the third paragraph of the preamble, for example, mentions "the State of Vermont", and in the preamble's last paragraph, the constitution refers to itself as "the Constitution of the Commonwealth".[6]

The Vermont Republic was called[by whom?] the "reluctant republic" because many early citizens favored political union with the United States rather than full independence. Both popular opinion and the legal construction of the government made clear that the independent State of Vermont would eventually join the original 13 states. While the Continental Congress did not allow a seat for Vermont, Vermont engaged William Samuel Johnson, representing Connecticut, to promote its interests.[7] In 1785 the Vermont General Assembly granted Johnson title to the former King's College Tract as a form of compensation for representing Vermont.[8]

History[edit]

After 1724, the Province of Massachusetts Bay built Fort Dummer near Brattleboro, as well as three other forts along the northern portion of the Connecticut River to protect against raids by Native Americans further south into Western Massachusetts. After 1749, Benning Wentworth, the Royal Governor of New Hampshire, granted land to anyone in a land granting scheme designed to enrich himself and his family. After 1763, settlement increased due to easing security concerns after the end of the French and Indian Wars. The Province of New York had made grants of land, often in areas overlapping similar grants made by the Province of New Hampshire; this issue had to be resolved by the King in 1764, who granted the land to New York, but the area was popularly known as the New Hampshire Grants. The "Green Mountain Boys", led by Ethan Allen, was a militia force from Vermont that supported the New Hampshire claims and fought the British during the American Revolution.

Founding[edit]

Following controversy between the holders of the New York grants and the New Hampshire grants, Ethan Allen and his militia of "Green Mountain Boys" suppressed Loyalists. On January 15, 1777, a convention of representatives from towns in the territory declared the region independent, choosing the name the Republic of New Connecticut (although it was sometimes known colloquially as the Republic of the Green Mountains).[9] On June 2 of that year, the name of the fledgling nation was officially changed to "Vermont" (from the French, les Verts Monts, meaning the Green Mountains)[10] upon the suggestion of Dr. Thomas Young,[11] a Boston Tea Party leader and mentor to Ethan Allen.

John Greenleaf Whittier's poem The Song of the Vermonters, 1779 describes the period in ballad form. First published anonymously, the poem had characteristics in the last stanza that were similar to Ethan Allen's prose and caused it to be attributed to Allen for nearly 60 years.[12] The last stanza reads:

Come York or come Hampshire, come traitors or knaves,
If ye rule o'er our land ye shall rule o'er our graves;
Our vow is recorded—our banner unfurled,
In the name of Vermont we defy all the world!

Constitution and frame of government[edit]

The Constitution of Vermont was drafted and ratified at Elijah West's Windsor Tavern in 1777, and was the first written constitution for an independent state in North America. The settlers in Vermont, who sought independence from New York, justified their constitution on the same basis as the first state constitutions of the former colonies: authority is derived from the people.[13] As historian Christian Fritz notes in American Sovereigns: The People and America's Constitutional Tradition before the Civil War:

They saw themselves as a distinct region outside the legitimate jurisdiction of New York. Possessing an identifiable population or "a people" entitled them to the same constitutional rights of self-government as other "Peoples" in the American confederacy.[14]

In addition to creating a new government for the original thirteen colonies, the claims for Vermont's independence raised the question of creating state governments. At the same time as they struggled for independence from Great Britain, Americans had to confront just how that formation should take place and who constituted "the people".[citation needed]

The New Hampshire Grants region petitioned Congress for entry into the American union as a state independent of New York in 1777. Fourteen years later it was admitted as the State of Vermont.

The Vermont constitution was modeled after the radically democratic constitution of Pennsylvania on the suggestion of Dr. Young, who worked with Thomas Paine and others on that 1776 document in Philadelphia.

During the time of the Vermont Republic, the government issued its own coinage and currency, and operated a postal service. The governor of Vermont, Thomas Chittenden,[15] with consent of his council and the General Assembly, appointed commissioners to the American government seated in Philadelphia. Vermont exchanged ambassadors with the United States, the Netherlands, and France.[16]

After a British regiment and allied Mohawks attacked and terrorized Vermont settlers, in the Royalton Raid, Ethan Allen led a group of Vermont politicians in secret discussions with Frederick Haldimand, the Governor General of the Province of Quebec, about rejoining the British Empire.[17]

Symbolism of fourteen[edit]

Much of the symbolism associated with Vermont in this period expressed a desire for political union with the United States. Vermont's coins minted in 1785 and 1786 bore the Latin inscription "STELLA QUARTA DECIMA (meaning "the fourteenth star"). The Great Seal of Vermont, designed by Ira Allen, centrally features a 14-branched pine tree.

Union[edit]

On March 6, 1790, the legislature of New York consented to Vermont statehood provided a group of commissioners representing New York and a similar group representing Vermont could agree on a settlement of numerous conflicting claims to real estate. On October 7, the commissioners proclaimed the negotiations successfully concluded with an agreement that Vermont would pay $30,000 to New York to be distributed among New Yorkers who claimed land in Vermont under New York land patents.[18] The Vermont General Assembly then authorized a convention to consider an application for admittance to the "Union of the United States of America". The convention met at Bennington, on January 6, 1791. On January 10, 1791 the convention approved a resolution to make an application to join the United States by a vote of 105 to 2.[19] Vermont was admitted to the Union by 1 Stat. 191 on March 4, 1791. Vermont's admission act is the shortest of all state admissions, and Vermont is "the only state admitted without conditions of any kind, either those prescribed by the congress or the state from which it was carved."[20] March 4 is celebrated in Vermont as Vermont Day.[21]

Vermont's admission to the Union in 1791 was in part as a free state counterweight to Kentucky, which joined as a slave state shortly after Vermont. The North, the smaller states, and states concerned about the impact of the sea-to-sea grants held by other states, all supported Vermont's admission. Thomas Chittenden served as governor for Vermont for most of this period, and became its first governor as a member-state in the United States.[22]

The 1793 Vermont state constitution made relatively few changes to the 1786 Vermont state constitution, which had in turn succeeded the 1777 constitution. It retained many of its original ideas, as noted above, and kept the separation of powers. It remains in force with several amendments.[23]

See also[edit]

  • Second Vermont Republic, a present-day secessionist group seeking to return the state to its former independent status

References[edit]

  1. ^ Van DeWater, Frederic F. (1974) [1941]. The Reluctant Republic, Vermont 1724–1791. The Countryman Press. pp. 195, 218–219. ISBN 0-914378-02-3. 
  2. ^ Onuf, Peter S. (1981). "State-Making in Revolutionary America: Independent Vermont as a Case Study". Journal of American History. 67 (4): 806–7. JSTOR 1888050. 
  3. ^ Cont'l Cong., Journal and Records from June 30, 1777, in 8 Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774–1789 508–13 (Library of Cong. eds., 1904–1937).
  4. ^ Bemis, S. F. (1916). "Relations between the Vermont Separatists and Great Britain, 1789–1791" (PDF). American Historical Review. 21 (3): 547–560. doi:10.1086/ahr/21.3.547. 
  5. ^ Bucholt, Margaret (1991). "Manchester and the Mountains Chamber of Commerce". An Insider's Guide to Southern Vermont. Penguin. 
  6. ^ Vermont Office of the Secretary of State (2012-03-26). "The Constitution of 1777". The Vermont State Archives & Records Administration. Retrieved 2012-05-18. 
  7. ^ Swift, Esther M. (1977). Vermont Place-Names, Footprints in History. The Stephen Greene Press. pp. 282–283. ISBN 0-8289-0291-7. 
  8. ^ Swift, Esther M. (1977). Vermont Place-Names, Footprints in History. The Stephen Greene Press. pp. 580, 587–588. ISBN 0-8289-0291-7. 
  9. ^ Van DeWater, Frederic F. (1974) [1941]. The Reluctant Republic, Vermont 1724–1791. The Countryman Press. p. 182. ISBN 0-914378-02-3. 
  10. ^ Van DeWater, Frederic F. (1974) [1941]. The Reluctant Republic, Vermont 1724–1791. The Countryman Press. pp. 195, 218–219. ISBN 0-914378-02-3. 
  11. ^ Allen, Ira (1969) [1798]. The Natural and Political History of Vermont. Rutland, VT: C.E. Tuttle Co. p. 59. ISBN 0-8048-0419-2. 
  12. ^ "Song of the Vermonters; the Ode Attributed to Ethan Allen. Its authorship finally settled–John G. Whittier Acknowledges it as His, but Only as 'a Boy's Practical Joke'.". The New York Times. 1877-08-06. Retrieved 2008-04-02. 
  13. ^ Onuf, Peter S. (1981). "State-Making in Revolutionary America: Independent Vermont as a Case Study". Journal of American History. 67 (4): 797–815. JSTOR 1888050. 
  14. ^ Fritz, Christian G. (2008). American Sovereigns: The People and America's Constitutional Tradition Before the Civil War. Cambridge University Press. pp. 60–67.  (describing Vermont's struggle for independence from New York during the American Revolution)
  15. ^ Allen, Ira (1969) [1798]. The Natural and Political History of Vermont. Rutland, VT: C.E. Tuttle Co. p. 72. ISBN 0-8048-0419-2. 
  16. ^ Strum, Harvey; Pierpaoli Jr., Paul G. (2014). Tucker, Spencer C., ed. The Encyclopedia of the Wars of the Early American Republic, 1783-1812: A Political, Social, and Military History. 1. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 705. ISBN 978-1-59884-156-5. Retrieved 15 February 2017. 
  17. ^ "Revolutionary War Timeline". Vermont Historical Society. 
  18. ^ Mello, Robert, Moses Robinson and the Founding of Vermont, Vermont Historical Society, 2014, page 264
  19. ^ Forbes, Charles Spooner (March 1902). "Vermont's Admission to the Union". The Vermonter. 7 (8): 101–102. Retrieved January 25, 2011. 
  20. ^ Paul W. Gates, History of public land law development, p. 286. Public Land Law Review Commission, Washington D.C. 1968
  21. ^ "March 4". History by Day. 
  22. ^ "Thomas Chittenden". National Governors Association. Retrieved 24 October 2012. 
  23. ^ "1793 Vermont Constitution". 

Further reading[edit]

  • Allen, Ira (1969) [1798]. The Natural and Political History of the State of Vermont, One of the United States of America. Charles E. Tuttle Company. ISBN 0-8048-0419-2. 
  • Bellesiles, Michael A. (1993). Revolutionary Outlaws: Ethan Allen and the Struggle for Independence on the Early American Frontier. 
  • Bryan, Frank & McClaughry, John (1989). The Vermont Papers: Recreating Democracy on a Human Scale. Chelsea Green Publishing. ISBN 0-930031-19-9. 
  • Graffagnino, J. Kevin (1978). "'The Vermont 'Story': Continuity And Change In Vermont Historiography". Vermont History. 46 (2): 77–99. 
  • Onuf, Peter S. (March 1981). "State-Making in Revolutionary America: Independent Vermont as a Case Study". Journal of American History. 67 (4): 797–815. JSTOR 1888050. 
  • Orton, Vrest (1981). Personal Observations on the Republic of Vermont. Academy. ISBN 0-914960-30-X. 
  • Roth, Randolph A. (2003). The Democratic Dilemma: Religion, Reform, and the Social Order in the Connecticut River Valley of Vermont, 1791–1850. 
  • Shalhope, Robert E. (1996). Bennington and the Green Mountain Boys: The Emergence of Liberal Democracy in Vermont, 1760–1850.  a standard scholarly history
  • Van de Water, Frederic Franklyn (1974). The Reluctant Republic: Vermont 1724–1791. The Countryman Press. ISBN 0-914378-02-3. 
  • Williams, Samuel (1794). The Natural and Civil History of Vermont. Isaiah Thomas and David Carlisle, Jun. 
  • The Constitution of the State of Vermont: a Facsimile Copy of the 1777 Original. The Vermont Historical Society. 1977. 

External links[edit]

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