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Sickle Cell Anaemia: Genetics Education Resource
Sickle Cell Anaemia: Genetics Education Resource
Published: 2011/01/15
Channel: SCOOTERDMU
The Voice 2016 Blind Audition - Paxton Ingram: "Dancing on My Own"
The Voice 2016 Blind Audition - Paxton Ingram: "Dancing on My Own"
Published: 2016/03/01
Channel: The Voice
Brandon Ingram Full Highlights ACC Tourn vs NC State 2nd Rd (3-9-16) 22 Pts 7 Rebs 4 Asts, SO GOOD!
Brandon Ingram Full Highlights ACC Tourn vs NC State 2nd Rd (3-9-16) 22 Pts 7 Rebs 4 Asts, SO GOOD!
Published: 2016/03/10
Channel: ShowTyme Collegiate BasketBall Media
Goin threw things in life
Goin threw things in life
Published: 2013/03/16
Channel: Vernon Ingram
Mass Shooter Caught on Camera Teaches Lessons for Survival | Active Self Protection
Mass Shooter Caught on Camera Teaches Lessons for Survival | Active Self Protection
Published: 2016/12/20
Channel: Active Self Protection
DiY  -  Ingram
DiY - Ingram
Published: 2017/05/02
Channel: Free Is In Da House
Vernons Aces - Paul Ingram
Vernons Aces - Paul Ingram
Published: 2017/04/01
Channel: Paul Ingram
Alabama RB 40-Yard Dash Simulcam: Derrick Henry vs. Mark Ingram vs. T.J. Yeldon | 2016 NFL Combine
Alabama RB 40-Yard Dash Simulcam: Derrick Henry vs. Mark Ingram vs. T.J. Yeldon | 2016 NFL Combine
Published: 2016/02/26
Channel: NFL
Luther Ingram - If Loving You Is Wrong
Luther Ingram - If Loving You Is Wrong
Published: 2011/10/06
Channel: haynesalexis
MOH recipient Robert R. Ingram
MOH recipient Robert R. Ingram
Published: 2009/04/07
Channel: Pritzker Military Museum & Library
#32 Tharon Ingram LB Mallard Creek HS Full Season 2014
#32 Tharon Ingram LB Mallard Creek HS Full Season 2014
Published: 2015/01/01
Channel: Skywalkervideo
Bullets and Guns
Bullets and Guns
Published: 2013/12/12
Channel: Vernon Ingram
Roger Ingram: Roger
Roger Ingram: Roger's Story
Published: 2015/04/16
Channel: jwpepper1876
MIT Admissions Video (1997)
MIT Admissions Video (1997)
Published: 2016/06/14
Channel: forever90s
Live Performance 1
Live Performance 1
Published: 2010/10/04
Channel: captainTWEETY
Live Performance 4
Live Performance 4
Published: 2010/10/05
Channel: captainTWEETY
Live Performance 2
Live Performance 2
Published: 2010/10/04
Channel: captainTWEETY
Live Performance 6
Live Performance 6
Published: 2010/10/05
Channel: captainTWEETY
Live Performance 3
Live Performance 3
Published: 2010/10/05
Channel: captainTWEETY
Al B. Sure - Touch You 1990
Al B. Sure - Touch You 1990
Published: 2011/01/28
Channel: ArchieGe
Heros Of VieTnam War_Special Forces Medal of Honor Recipients_...
Heros Of VieTnam War_Special Forces Medal of Honor Recipients_...
Published: 2012/09/16
Channel: PauL HeLLstrom
Live Performance 5
Live Performance 5
Published: 2010/10/05
Channel: captainTWEETY
Sports Science: Melvin Ingram
Sports Science: Melvin Ingram
Published: 2012/03/26
Channel: fernandomorquecho
I Have No Right To Love You - Marjorie Ingram
I Have No Right To Love You - Marjorie Ingram
Published: 2015/07/14
Channel: OldieRolas
"Jupiter - Bring of Jollity" performed by the Barbara Ingram School for the Arts Symphony Orchestra
"Jupiter - Bring of Jollity" performed by the Barbara Ingram School for the Arts Symphony Orchestra
Published: 2014/06/11
Channel: Marty Robinson
Wolfedance 2007 Jack Ingram Mustang
Wolfedance 2007 Jack Ingram Mustang
Published: 2007/07/08
Channel: John Clay Wolfe
First Time Together [1980] - Jimmy Martin & Ralph Stanley
First Time Together [1980] - Jimmy Martin & Ralph Stanley
Published: 2016/05/01
Channel: Take's Bluegrass Album Channel
6yr Clint Jean-Pierre 16.03s 100m Finals Mark Trail Invitational 2017
6yr Clint Jean-Pierre 16.03s 100m Finals Mark Trail Invitational 2017
Published: 2017/05/29
Channel: jaylen Outler
♦♥♠ SEE WHAT This WOMAN Was Doing at The BEACH in BIKINI ♦♥♠
♦♥♠ SEE WHAT This WOMAN Was Doing at The BEACH in BIKINI ♦♥♠
Published: 2017/02/27
Channel: Bestie Vlogger Hub
Duffy Bishop - "Monkey Pants"
Duffy Bishop - "Monkey Pants"
Published: 2017/05/27
Channel: jesterpro
Dam shr b ad
Dam shr b ad
Published: 2013/02/12
Channel: Vernon Ingram
Jack Ingram
Jack Ingram's Acoustic Motel Spotlights Drew Kennedy on The Texas Music Scene
Published: 2014/04/28
Channel: The Texas Music Scene TV
Drew Brees Hits Mark Ingram for the TD! | Saints vs. Chiefs | NFL- NFL Highlights
Drew Brees Hits Mark Ingram for the TD! | Saints vs. Chiefs | NFL- NFL Highlights
Published: 2016/12/02
Channel: NFL Highlights
Fly Me To Frisco [1974] - Jimmy Martin And The Sunny Mountain Boys
Fly Me To Frisco [1974] - Jimmy Martin And The Sunny Mountain Boys
Published: 2016/12/26
Channel: Take's Bluegrass Album Channel
Guns and drugs seized from local businesses in SWAT raid
Guns and drugs seized from local businesses in SWAT raid
Published: 2014/05/22
Channel: LOCAL 12
UTS Big Thinking Forum: From 1967 to 2067 - Sydney Festival 2017
UTS Big Thinking Forum: From 1967 to 2067 - Sydney Festival 2017
Published: 2017/02/22
Channel: Sydney Festival
Peter Green - Little Dreamer ( Full Album ) 1980
Peter Green - Little Dreamer ( Full Album ) 1980
Published: 2014/03/10
Channel: FABTBIRDS BLUES
New Breed R&B With Added Popcorn
New Breed R&B With Added Popcorn
Published: 2014/10/16
Channel: LombardMod
Mark Ingram Bullies His Way in for the TD | Falcons vs. Saints | NFL
Mark Ingram Bullies His Way in for the TD | Falcons vs. Saints | NFL
Published: 2015/10/16
Channel: NFL
OYOSports Fantasy Football - Draft Day
OYOSports Fantasy Football - Draft Day
Published: 2014/08/26
Channel: OYO Sports
How to Get Your Books Into Bookstores and Libraries Amy Collins | PPP102
How to Get Your Books Into Bookstores and Libraries Amy Collins | PPP102
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: Tom Corson-Knowles
Ingram APC Race to the Finish Manila
Ingram APC Race to the Finish Manila
Published: 2017/03/27
Channel: Angela Chan
46 Galatians 02 - J Vernon Mcgee - Thru the Bible
46 Galatians 02 - J Vernon Mcgee - Thru the Bible
Published: 2014/03/24
Channel: Ken Zenk
4099 Lafortune St
4099 Lafortune St
Published: 2016/02/17
Channel: Linda McKee Royal Lepage Gale Real Estate
MFSB - My Mood (Phil  Intern  Records 1975)
MFSB - My Mood (Phil Intern Records 1975)
Published: 2017/03/31
Channel: DiscoSaturdayNightTV
Goodnight by James Ingram
Goodnight by James Ingram
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: Jadin Witt
Helen Alone Trailer
Helen Alone Trailer
Published: 2014/01/28
Channel: Helen Alone
Heisman Highlights - Mark Ingram
Heisman Highlights - Mark Ingram
Published: 2016/09/06
Channel: ESPNCreativeWorks
Ingram
Ingram's Pioneer Log Cabin Village 2016
Published: 2016/09/25
Channel: jedidiah305
Cabin in the Sky (1943) - (Song: Going Up - Duke Ellington & Orchestra)
Cabin in the Sky (1943) - (Song: Going Up - Duke Ellington & Orchestra)
Published: 2014/01/31
Channel: vintagemusictv
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Vernon Martin Ingram
Born (1924-05-19)19 May 1924
Breslau, Germany
Died 17 August 2006(2006-08-17) (aged 82)
Boston, Massachusetts
Residence Germany, United Kingdom, United States
Nationality German
Fields Biologist
Institutions MIT
Alma mater University of London
Doctoral advisor Fred Barrow
Notable awards William Allan Award (1967)
Spouse Elizabeth Ingram
Children Peter, Jennifer

Vernon Martin Ingram, Ph.D., FRS (19 May 1924 – 17 August 2006) born Werner Adolf Martin Immerwahr, was a German American professor of biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Biography[edit]

Ingram was born in Breslau, Lower Silesia. When he was 14, he and his family left Nazi Germany because of their opposition to Nazism (being Jewish) and settled in England. He then Anglicised his name to Vernon Ingram.

During the Second World War, Ingram worked at a chemical factory producing drugs for the war effort and at night studied at Birkbeck College at the University of London. He received a bachelor's degree in chemistry in 1945 and a PhD in organic chemistry in 1949.

After receiving his doctorate, Ingram worked at postdoctoral appointments at the Rockefeller Institute and Yale University. At Rockefeller, he worked with Moses Kunitz on crystallizing proteins. While at Yale, he studied peptide chemistry with Joseph Fruton. In 1952, Ingram returned to England and started working at the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge, studying protein chemistry.

In 1956, Ingram, John A. Hunt, and Antony O. W. Stretton determined that the change in the hemoglobin molecule in sickle cell disease and trait was the substitution of the glutamic acid in position 6 of the β-chain of the normal protein by valine. Ingram used electrophoresis and chromatography to show that the amino acid sequence of normal human and sickle cell anemia hemoglobins differed due to a single substituted amino acid residue. Much of this work was done with the support of Max Perutz and Francis Crick. Ingram won the William Allan Award from the American Society of Human Genetics in 1967.

This was the first time a researcher demonstrated that a single amino acid exchange in a protein can cause a disease or disorder. As a result, Vernon Ingram is sometimes referred to as "The father of Molecular Medicine." [1]

Ingram joined the MIT faculty in 1958, intending to stay for only one year. He found that he enjoyed it there so much that he stayed on. While at MIT, Ingram collaborated with Paul Marks of Columbia University on hemoglobin research. He was also interested in embryonic hemoglobin and how it differed from that of adults.

By the 1980s, Ingram became interested in neuroscience and especially Alzheimer's Disease. His interest was sparked by the work his second wife, Elizabeth (Beth), was doing with mentally retarded people in the Boston area. She had heard that Down syndrome was a disease of the neurofilaments; this turned out not to be the cause, but it was noted that people with Down syndrome did develop Alzheimer's Disease by the time they were 40.

After retirement, Ingram continued his research, maintaining a small laboratory at MIT. He and his wife, Beth, were housemasters of Ashdown House at MIT for 16 years. Asteroid 6285 Ingram is named in their honor. Ingram was Director of the Experimental Study Group, an alternative undergraduate education community at MIT, from 1989-1999. [2] He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2002. [3]

Ingram died in Boston, Massachusetts, on August 17, 2006 of injuries stemming from a fall.

See also[edit]

Selected publications[edit]

  • Ingram, V.M. (1956). "A Specific Chemical Difference between Globins of Normal and Sickle-cell Anemia Hemoglobins". Nature. 178 (4537): 792–794. PMID 13369537. doi:10.1038/178792a0. 
  • Ingram,, V.M. (1957). "Gene Mutations in Human Hemoglobin: The Chemical Difference between Normal and Sickle Hemoglobin". Nature. 180 (4581): 326–328. PMID 13464827. doi:10.1038/180326a0. 
  • Hunt, J.A.; V.M. Ingram (1958). "Abnormal Human Haemoglobins. II. The Chymotryptic Digestion of the Trypsin-resistant Core of Haemoglobins A and S". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 28 (3): 46–549. PMID 13560405. doi:10.1016/0006-3002(58)90517-1. 
  • Blanchard, B.J.; A. Chen; C. Kelly; K. Stafford; B. Stockwell; V.M. Ingram (2004). "Novel Compounds eliminate the Neurotoxicity of the Alzheimer Aβ Peptide". Abstr. Massachusetts Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center, Annual meeting. 
  • Ingram, V.M.; B.J. Blanchard; A. Chen; C. Kelly; K. Stafford; B. Stockwell (2004). "Blocking the Initial Molecular Mechanism of Alzheimer’s Disease". Abstr. International Congress on Alzheimer’s Disease, Philadelphia. 
  • Ingram, V.M. (2004). "The Role of Alzheimer Aβ Peptides in Ion Transport across Cell Membranes, in Subcellular Biochemistry: Alzheimer’s Disease". In eds. Harris, R.; Fahrenholz, F. Cellular and Molecular Aspects of Amyloid. London: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. 
  • Colby, D.W.; P. Garg; G. Chao; J. Webster; A. Messer; V.M. Ingram; K.D. Wittrup (17 September 2004). "Development of a Human Variable Light Chain Domain Intracellular Antibody against Huntingtin via Yeast Surface Display". J. Mol. Biol. 342 (3): 901–12. PMID 15342245. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2004.07.054. 
  • Webster, J.M.; D.W. Colby; V.M. Ingram; K.D. Wittrup; A. Messer (November 2004). "Enhanced anti-Huntington's Disease Intrabodies". Abstract Soc. Neurosci. 

Inaugural Article: Efficient reversal of Alzheimer's disease fibril formation and elimination of neurotoxicity by a small molecule Barbara J. Blanchard, Albert Chen, Leslie M. Rozeboom, Kate A. Stafford, Peter Weigele, and Vernon M. Ingram PNAS 2004 101: 14326-14332

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2002 National Academy Fellows". Genome Biology. 2002-05-02. Retrieved 2006-10-25. 
  2. ^ Darren J. Clarke (2002-07-17). "Surprise! High-flying Tribute for Ingrams". MIT News Office. Retrieved 2006-10-25. 
  3. ^ "Three Faculty Named to NAS". MIT News Office. 2002-05-15. Retrieved 2006-10-25. 

External links[edit]

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