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After Effects Motion Tracking Basics Tutorial
After Effects Motion Tracking Basics Tutorial
Published: 2015/02/21
Channel: matt01ss
Introduction to Camera Tracking in Blender
Introduction to Camera Tracking in Blender
Published: 2012/03/08
Channel: Blender Guru
Video Tracking using Particle Filter with Online Gentle Adaboost
Video Tracking using Particle Filter with Online Gentle Adaboost
Published: 2012/07/08
Channel: Olov Samuelsson
Stable Multi-Target Tracking in Real-Time Surveillance Video (CVPR 2011)
Stable Multi-Target Tracking in Real-Time Surveillance Video (CVPR 2011)
Published: 2011/04/21
Channel: ActiveVision Oxford
Real-Time Object Tracking Using Dlib
Real-Time Object Tracking Using Dlib
Published: 2015/02/03
Channel: Davis King
Motion Tracking Tutorial | 3D Text | Boujou & Cinema 4D
Motion Tracking Tutorial | 3D Text | Boujou & Cinema 4D
Published: 2012/11/21
Channel: HEYPRESTO2010
MovieReshape: Tracking and Reshaping of Humans in Videos
MovieReshape: Tracking and Reshaping of Humans in Videos
Published: 2010/09/16
Channel: Arjun Jain
Sony a6300 Tutorial: Auto Focus Tracking For Video
Sony a6300 Tutorial: Auto Focus Tracking For Video
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: The Gary Fong Channel
Video tracking and inserting digital content in under 2 minutes with fayIN for After Effects CC
Video tracking and inserting digital content in under 2 minutes with fayIN for After Effects CC
Published: 2016/03/29
Channel: fayteq AG
How to get awesome tracking shots - with a tripod!
How to get awesome tracking shots - with a tripod!
Published: 2013/06/10
Channel: Fenchel & Janisch
How to get tracking shots with a monopod!
How to get tracking shots with a monopod!
Published: 2013/07/15
Channel: Fenchel & Janisch
After Effects Basic Tutorial - MOTION TRACKING
After Effects Basic Tutorial - MOTION TRACKING
Published: 2014/06/07
Channel: Kriscoart
TrackView-Video Monitoring, Cloud Recording and Location Tracking
TrackView-Video Monitoring, Cloud Recording and Location Tracking
Published: 2016/08/29
Channel: TrackView
Animacion 3D Motion Tracking After Effects Tutorial
Animacion 3D Motion Tracking After Effects Tutorial
Published: 2015/05/13
Channel: nuvaproductions
Spouse Tracking Tracker Live Real Time GPS Tracking Video Review
Spouse Tracking Tracker Live Real Time GPS Tracking Video Review
Published: 2015/06/02
Channel: Shopping Sated
SMART video-tracking 3.0 main features
SMART video-tracking 3.0 main features
Published: 2012/11/05
Channel: PanlabHarvard
Track YouTube Videos with Google Tag Manager and Google Analytics
Track YouTube Videos with Google Tag Manager and Google Analytics
Published: 2015/09/09
Channel: Measureschool
TrackView - Video Monitoring and Location Tracking
TrackView - Video Monitoring and Location Tracking
Published: 2013/10/27
Channel: Emily W.
Motion Tracking con texto 3D | After Effects TUTORIAL
Motion Tracking con texto 3D | After Effects TUTORIAL
Published: 2015/04/01
Channel: ArturoGLProducciones
Fuji X-T2 vs Sony A6300 Video tracking autofocus
Fuji X-T2 vs Sony A6300 Video tracking autofocus
Published: 2016/10/17
Channel: Max Yuryev
Kephrii - Eye Tracker in Overwatch
Kephrii - Eye Tracker in Overwatch
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: Kephrii
OpenCV Tutorial: Real-Time Object Tracking Without Colour
OpenCV Tutorial: Real-Time Object Tracking Without Colour
Published: 2014/01/28
Channel: Kyle Hounslow
EPFLNews - Dynamic video-tracking for sports without physical tags
EPFLNews - Dynamic video-tracking for sports without physical tags
Published: 2011/11/03
Channel: École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)
Tracking Embedded YouTube Videos with Google Tag Manager
Tracking Embedded YouTube Videos with Google Tag Manager
Published: 2017/01/19
Channel: Teach to Fish Digital
Tutorial: Real-Time Object Tracking Using OpenCV
Tutorial: Real-Time Object Tracking Using OpenCV
Published: 2013/03/12
Channel: Kyle Hounslow
Blender Tutorial - Everything You NEED to Know About Camera Tracking!
Blender Tutorial - Everything You NEED to Know About Camera Tracking!
Published: 2017/02/25
Channel: Moby Motion
Real-time video tracking with OpenCV and QT
Real-time video tracking with OpenCV and QT
Published: 2016/06/08
Channel: Nauroze Hoath
Motion Tracking Tutorial in Magix Edit Pro Plus &  Magix ProX7
Motion Tracking Tutorial in Magix Edit Pro Plus & Magix ProX7
Published: 2016/03/27
Channel: Constantin Gabor
Cinema 4D R17 - 3D Motion Tracking & Compositing for Live Action Footage - Sean Frangella
Cinema 4D R17 - 3D Motion Tracking & Compositing for Live Action Footage - Sean Frangella
Published: 2015/08/10
Channel: Sean Frangella
Object tracking in matlab
Object tracking in matlab
Published: 2013/04/08
Channel: Mike Claffey
How to add Motion Graphics in 360 degree video. Tracking VR. After Effect + project template
How to add Motion Graphics in 360 degree video. Tracking VR. After Effect + project template
Published: 2016/12/10
Channel: Light Studio
Video: Tracking Rain For Tonight, Cooler Trend To Follow
Video: Tracking Rain For Tonight, Cooler Trend To Follow
Published: 2017/06/04
Channel: WCVB Channel 5 Boston
Nikon D750 focus tracking
Nikon D750 focus tracking
Published: 2014/12/19
Channel: dpreview com
PF Track Tutorial - Object Motion Tracking
PF Track Tutorial - Object Motion Tracking
Published: 2011/06/01
Channel: thevfxbro
Human Detection, Tracking and Segmentation in Surveillance Video
Human Detection, Tracking and Segmentation in Surveillance Video
Published: 2014/11/18
Channel: UCF CRCV
Dynamic target tracking camera system keeps its eye on the ball #DigInfo
Dynamic target tracking camera system keeps its eye on the ball #DigInfo
Published: 2013/06/18
Channel: ikinamo
Bosch Security - Video analytics at the edge - Intelligent Tracking
Bosch Security - Video analytics at the edge - Intelligent Tracking
Published: 2016/04/21
Channel: BoschSecurity
Hexapod tracking video
Hexapod tracking video
Published: 2015/05/07
Channel: Erik Lely
Motion Tracking
Motion Tracking
Published: 2009/10/27
Channel: Mikromedia SA
Simple Video Tracking in MATLAB (real time)
Simple Video Tracking in MATLAB (real time)
Published: 2012/03/15
Channel: David Sanchez Blancas
11.5: Computer Vision: Color Tracking - Processing Tutorial
11.5: Computer Vision: Color Tracking - Processing Tutorial
Published: 2016/07/05
Channel: The Coding Train
Video-Tracking: Sport e Videosorveglianza
Video-Tracking: Sport e Videosorveglianza
Published: 2013/11/04
Channel: 3DEverywhere
3D Tracking & Compositing Tutorial (After Effects & Cinema 4D) - Sean Frangella
3D Tracking & Compositing Tutorial (After Effects & Cinema 4D) - Sean Frangella
Published: 2014/06/09
Channel: Sean Frangella
Matlab Object Detection Tracking
Matlab Object Detection Tracking
Published: 2013/01/30
Channel: Blad Uran
3DS MAX CAMERA TRACKING TUTORIAL (DETAILED)
3DS MAX CAMERA TRACKING TUTORIAL (DETAILED)
Published: 2016/08/04
Channel: Bilal Ayub Vlog
What Does a Pianist See? | Eye Tracking - Episode 1
What Does a Pianist See? | Eye Tracking - Episode 1
Published: 2017/03/28
Channel: Function
WHAT I EAT IN A DAY VLOG | TRACKING CALORIES, MACROS, AND NUTRIENTS
WHAT I EAT IN A DAY VLOG | TRACKING CALORIES, MACROS, AND NUTRIENTS
Published: 2017/06/26
Channel: Maddie Lymburner
Gary Kovacs: Tracking the trackers
Gary Kovacs: Tracking the trackers
Published: 2012/05/03
Channel: TED
Long-term Robust Visual Tracking via Temporal Learning and Deep Neural Networks
Long-term Robust Visual Tracking via Temporal Learning and Deep Neural Networks
Published: 2015/11/18
Channel: Shu Wang
BoofCV: Video Object Tracking 2013
BoofCV: Video Object Tracking 2013
Published: 2013/12/31
Channel: BoofCV
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Video tracking is the process of locating a moving object (or multiple objects) over time using a camera. It has a variety of uses, some of which are: human-computer interaction, security and surveillance, video communication and compression, augmented reality, traffic control, medical imaging[1] and video editing.[2][3] Video tracking can be a time consuming process due to the amount of data that is contained in video. Adding further to the complexity is the possible need to use object recognition techniques for tracking, a challenging problem in its own right.

Objective[edit]

An example of visual servoing for the robot hand to catch a ball by object tracking with visual feedback that is processed by a high-speed image processing system.[4][5]

The objective of video tracking is to associate target objects in consecutive video frames. The association can be especially difficult when the objects are moving fast relative to the frame rate. Another situation that increases the complexity of the problem is when the tracked object changes orientation over time. For these situations video tracking systems usually employ a motion model which describes how the image of the target might change for different possible motions of the object.

Examples of simple motion models are:

  • When tracking planar objects, the motion model is a 2D transformation (affine transformation or homography) of an image of the object (e.g. the initial frame).
  • When the target is a rigid 3D object, the motion model defines its aspect depending on its 3D position and orientation.
  • For video compression, key frames are divided into macroblocks. The motion model is a disruption of a key frame, where each macroblock is translated by a motion vector given by the motion parameters.
  • The image of deformable objects can be covered with a mesh, the motion of the object is defined by the position of the nodes of the mesh.

Algorithms[edit]

To perform video tracking an algorithm analyzes sequential video frames and outputs the movement of targets between the frames. There are a variety of algorithms, each having strengths and weaknesses. Considering the intended use is important when choosing which algorithm to use. There are two major components of a visual tracking system: target representation and localization, as well as filtering and data association.

Target representation and localization is mostly a bottom-up process. These methods give a variety of tools for identifying the moving object. Locating and tracking the target object successfully is dependent on the algorithm. For example, using blob tracking is useful for identifying human movement because a person's profile changes dynamically.[6] Typically the computational complexity for these algorithms is low. The following are some common target representation and localization algorithms:

  • Kernel-based tracking (mean-shift tracking[7]): an iterative localization procedure based on the maximization of a similarity measure (Bhattacharyya coefficient).
  • Contour tracking: detection of object boundary (e.g. active contours or Condensation algorithm). Contour tracking methods iteratively evolve an initial contour initialized from the previous frame to its new position in the current frame. This approach to contour tracking directly evolves the contour by minimizing the contour energy using gradient descent.

Filtering and data association is mostly a top-down process, which involves incorporating prior information about the scene or object, dealing with object dynamics, and evaluation of different hypotheses. These methods allow the tracking of complex objects along with more complex object interaction like tracking objects moving behind obstructions.[8] Additionally the complexity is increased if the video tracker (also named TV tracker or target tracker) is not mounted on rigid foundation (on-shore) but on a moving ship (off-shore), where typically an inertial measurement system is used to pre-stabilize the video tracker to reduce the required dynamics and bandwidth of the camera system.[9] The computational complexity for these algorithms is usually much higher. The following are some common filtering algorithms:

  • Kalman filter: an optimal recursive Bayesian filter for linear functions subjected to Gaussian noise.It is an algorithm that uses a series of measurements observed over time, containing noise (random variations) and other inaccuracies, and produces estimates of unknown variables that tend to be more precise than those based on a single measurement alone.[10]
  • Particle filter: useful for sampling the underlying state-space distribution of nonlinear and non-Gaussian processes.[11][12][13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Peter Mountney, Danail Stoyanov & Guang-Zhong Yang (2010). "Three-Dimensional Tissue Deformation Recovery and Tracking: Introducing techniques based on laparoscopic or endoscopic images." IEEE Signal Processing Magazine. 2010 July. Volume: 27". IEEE Signal Processing Magazine. 27 (4): 14–24. doi:10.1109/MSP.2010.936728. 
  2. ^ Lyudmila Mihaylova, Paul Brasnett, Nishan Canagarajan and David Bull (2007). Object Tracking by Particle Filtering Techniques in Video Sequences; In: Advances and Challenges in Multisensor Data and Information. NATO Security Through Science Series, 8. Netherlands: IOS Press. pp. 260–268. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.60.8510Freely accessible. ISBN 978-1-58603-727-7. 
  3. ^ Kato, Hirokazu & Mark Billinghurst (1999). "Marker Tracking and HMD Calibration for a Video-based Augmented Reality Conferencing System" (PDF). IWAR '99 Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE and ACM International Workshop on Augmented Reality. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA. 
  4. ^ "High-speed Catching System (exhibited in National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation since 2005)". Ishikawa Watanabe Laboratory, University of Tokyo. Retrieved 12 February 2015. 
  5. ^ "Basic Concept and Technical Terms". Ishikawa Watanabe Laboratory, University of Tokyo. Retrieved 12 February 2015. 
  6. ^ S. Kang; J. Paik; A. Koschan; B. Abidi & M. A. Abidi (2003). "Real-time video tracking using PTZ cameras". Proc. SPIE. 5132: 103–111. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.101.4242Freely accessible. doi:10.1117/12.514945. 
  7. ^ Comaniciu, D.; Ramesh, V.; Meer, P., "Real-time tracking of non-rigid objects using mean shift," Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, 2000. Proceedings. IEEE Conference on , vol.2, no., pp.142,149 vol.2, 2000
  8. ^ Black, James, Tim Ellis, and Paul Rosin (2003). "A Novel Method for Video Tracking Performance Evaluation". Joint IEEE Int. Workshop on Visual Surveillance and Performance Evaluation of Tracking and Surveillance: 125–132. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.10.3365Freely accessible. 
  9. ^ Gyro Stabilized Target Tracker for Off-shore Installation
  10. ^ M. Arulampalam; S. Maskell; N. Gordon & T. Clapp (2002). "A Tutorial on Particle Filters for Online Nonlinear/Non-Gaussian Bayesian Tracking". IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing. 50 (2): 174. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.117.1144Freely accessible. doi:10.1109/78.978374. 
  11. ^ Emilio Maggio; Andrea Cavallaro (2010). Video Tracking: Theory and Practice. 1. Video Tracking provides a comprehensive treatment of the fundamental aspects of algorithm and application development for the task of estimating, over time. 
  12. ^ Karthik Chandrasekaran (2010). Parametric & Non-parametric Background Subtraction Model with Object Tracking for VENUS. 1. Background subtraction is the process by which we segment moving regions in image sequences. 
  13. ^ J. Martinez-del-Rincon, D. Makris, C. Orrite-Urunuela and J.-C. Nebel (2010). "Tracking Human Position and Lower Body Parts Using Kalman and Particle Filters Constrained by Human Biomechanics". IEEE Transactions on Systems Man and Cybernetics - Part B', 40(4).

External links[edit]

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