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1982 Yamaha Virago XV750 Custom Cafe Racer GoPro Hero 3+
1982 Yamaha Virago XV750 Custom Cafe Racer GoPro Hero 3+
::2013/11/06::
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82 virago cafe racer build timelaps break down part 1
82 virago cafe racer build timelaps break down part 1
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Yamaha Virago XV 535 Custom cruiser, full road review complete
Yamaha Virago XV 535 Custom cruiser, full road review complete
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How gut stock exhaust on Yamaha Virago 1100
How gut stock exhaust on Yamaha Virago 1100
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Virago Seat Recover
Virago Seat Recover
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Yamaha XV750 Virago Cafe Racer - GB CUSTOMS
Yamaha XV750 Virago Cafe Racer - GB CUSTOMS
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Yamaha Virago Motorcycle Starter Bendix Explanation & Fix Pt 1
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1985 XV1100 Yamaha Virago Bobber Build
1985 XV1100 Yamaha Virago Bobber Build
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1991 Yamaha Virago 1100
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Yamaha Virago VX 535 Puste Wydechy
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Yamaha Virago 1100. Ride to work.
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Видеообзор мопеда IRBIS VIRAGO 1 день как купил.
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My Old School Bobber (Virago 535)
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Virago 750 Straight Pipe
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Virago Sound on the run
Virago Sound on the run
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Ronco Virago 250
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MODIFICAÇÃO NO FILTRO DE AR DA VIRAGO
MODIFICAÇÃO NO FILTRO DE AR DA VIRAGO
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Yamaha Virago XV750 Cafe Racer Rebuild Project inc videos
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1995 Yamaha Virago 1100 Carb Removal / Clean / Reinstall
1995 Yamaha Virago 1100 Carb Removal / Clean / Reinstall
::2013/04/07::
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Virago - Un Instant
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yamaha virago 535
yamaha virago 535
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Yamaha Virago 535 motor oil changing
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Clip de Virago-Ouvre-Moi (Baise-moi)
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Test-Drive Virago 250 Yamaha... outro estilo, muito confortável, muito bonita a moto...
Test-Drive Virago 250 Yamaha... outro estilo, muito confortável, muito bonita a moto...
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07 Yamaha Virago 250 Carb Cleanout
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Virago single carb
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Yamaha Virago XV535.mp4
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Zlot Yamaha Virago cz.4
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bobber virago 125 son
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Monitor 66 - Virago
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YAMAHA VIRAGO 750 XV750 Venezuela
YAMAHA VIRAGO 750 XV750 Venezuela
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Yamaha Virago 250 exhaust
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Yamaha Virago 1100 Sound
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Yamaha Virago 250 Subindo a Serra de SP-MG Cruzeiro / Passa Quatro
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GoPro: 1995 Yamaha Virago 750 - Speeding on Yarnell Hill, AZ
GoPro: 1995 Yamaha Virago 750 - Speeding on Yarnell Hill, AZ
::2013/05/06::
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1991 XV1100 Yamaha Virago Bobber Build #2
1991 XV1100 Yamaha Virago Bobber Build #2
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Yamaha Virago 535 Sound In HD
Yamaha Virago 535 Sound In HD
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XV1000 Virago Cruise
XV1000 Virago Cruise
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Custom Yamaha V-Star/Virago 250 With Gutted Exhaust (1080P HD)
Custom Yamaha V-Star/Virago 250 With Gutted Exhaust (1080P HD)
::2011/06/02::
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Tanie Testowanie 2013 cz. 2 - Konger Virago, Ron Thompson Steelhead Pro, Shimano Vegance
Tanie Testowanie 2013 cz. 2 - Konger Virago, Ron Thompson Steelhead Pro, Shimano Vegance
::2013/09/25::
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Theatre of Tragedy - Virago
Theatre of Tragedy - Virago
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Yamaha Virago 250 Zero to Sixty Moto Vlog
Yamaha Virago 250 Zero to Sixty Moto Vlog
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yamaha virago xv 250
yamaha virago xv 250
::2010/06/07::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Bronze of a young female warrior in Lombard costume. Francesco Porzio, Monumento alla difesa di Casale, 1897

A virago is a woman who demonstrates exemplary and heroic qualities. The word comes from the Latin word vir, meaning 'man' (cf. virile) to which the suffix -ago is added, a suffix that effectively re-genders the word to be female.

The word virago has almost always had an association with cultural gender transgression. A virago, of whatever excellence, was still identified by her gender. There are recorded instances of viragos (such as Joan of Arc) fighting battles, wearing men's clothing, or receiving the tonsure.[1] The word virago could also be used disparagingly, to imply that a virago was not excellent or heroic, but was instead violating cultural norms. Thus virago joined pejoratives such as termagant,[2] 'mannish', 'amazonian' and shrew to demean women who acted aggressively or like men.

History[edit]

Historically, the concept of a virago reaches back into antiquity where Hellenistic philosophy asserted that elite and exceptionally heroic men had virtus. Virtus (once again linked to vir, the brave man abiding by society's highest values and ethics as opposed to homo, human being) defined the traits of excellence for a man in ancient Rome (and Greece), including valor and heroism, but also morality and physical strength. Women and non-elite or unheroic men (slaves, servants, craftsmen, merchants) were considered a lesser category, and believed to be less excellent in Roman morality. A woman, however, if exceptional enough could earn the title virago. In doing so, she surpassed the expectations for what was believed possible for her gender, and embodied masculine-like aggression[3] and/or excellence. Virago, then, was a title of respect and admiration. In Christianity, a nun or holy woman who had become equal in divinity to male monks through practiced celibacy, exemplary religious practice and devotion, and intact virginity, was considered to have surpassed the limitations of her femaleness and was called virago.[4][5]

Standard modern dictionaries define virago as both a woman who has aggressive male characteristics, such as being noisy or domineering, as well as a woman of "great stature, strength, and courage".[6][7] Thus virago continues to be associated with the naming of a woman who has risen above cultural and gender stereotypes to embody a virile heroism. For example, the British Royal Navy christened at least four warships Virago.

Vulgate Bible[edit]

The Vulgate Bible, translated by Jerome and others in the 4th century C.E., was the first Latin translation of the Hebrew Bible Old Testament. In Genesis 2:23, Jerome uses the words Vir for man and Virago for "woman" attempting to reproduce a pun on "male" and "female" (Is and Issah) that existed in the Hebrew text.[8][9]

The Vulgate reads:

Dixitque Adam hoc nunc os ex ossibus meis et caro de carne mea haec vocabitur virago quoniam de viro sumpta est.
"And Adam said: This now is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called woman, because she was taken out of man."

The Middle English poem Cursor Mundi retains the Latin name for the woman in its otherwise Middle English account of the creation:

Quen sco was broght be-for adam, Virago he gaf her to nam; þar for hight sco virago, ffor maked of the man was sco. (lines 631–34)
"When she was brought before Adam, Virago was the name he gave to her; Therefore she is called Virago, For she was made out of the man."

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jane Tibbetts Schulenburg. Forgetful of their sex: female sanctity and society, ca. 500-1100. University Of Chicago Press, 2001. Page 50. ISBN 978-0-226-74054-6.
  2. ^ "Virago". Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  3. ^ Virginia Blanton. Signs of devotion: the cult of St. Æthelthryth in medieval England, 695-1615 Pennsylvania State Univ Pr (Trd) (April 30, 2007). Page 168. ISBN 978-0-271-02984-9.
  4. ^ Newman, Barbara. From Virile Woman to WomanChrist: Studies in Medieval Religion and Literature. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. Page 5. ISBN 978-0-8122-1545-8.
  5. ^ Laurence Lux-Sterritt. Redefining Female Religious Life: French Ursulines And English Ladies in Seventeenth-Century Catholicism. Ashgate Pub Co (January 30, 2006). Page 61. ISBN 978-0-7546-3716-5.
  6. ^ "Virago". Merriam-Webster Online. Retrieved 2011-11-25. 
  7. ^ http://www.answers.com/topic/virago
  8. ^ Saint Jerome, Robert Hayward. Saint Jerome's Hebrew questions on Genesis. Oxford University Press, USA (August 10, 1995) Page 113. ISBN 978-0-19-826350-0
  9. ^ Helen Kraus. Gender Issues in Ancient and Reformation Translations of Genesis 1-4. Oxford University Press, USA (December 17, 2011). Page 182. ISBN 978-0-19-960078-6

Bibliography[edit]

  • Ernst Breisach, Caterina Sforza ; A Renaissance virago, Chicago [usw.]: University Press 1967
  • Elizabeth D. Carney,"Olympias and the Image of the Virago" in: Phoenix, Vol. 47, No. 1 (Spring, 1993), pp. 29–55
  • Morris, Richard. Cursor Mundi: A Northunbrian Poem of the XIV Century. London: Oxford UP, 1874. Republished 1961.
  • Barbara Newman. From virile woman to womanChrist: studies in medieval religion and literature. University of Pennsylvania Press (January 1, 1995)
  • Jane Tibbetts Schulenburg. Forgetful of their sex: female sanctity and society, ca. 500-1100. University Of Chicago Press (January 1, 2001)
  • Yenna Wu, The Chinese virago : a literary theme, Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.] : Harvard Univ. Press, 1995
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