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Virgin Soil and European Immigrants
Virgin Soil and European Immigrants
Published: 2014/02/13
Channel: Cornell X
Module 4: Virgin Soil Epidemics and the “Shatter Zone” Framework
Module 4: Virgin Soil Epidemics and the “Shatter Zone” Framework
Published: 2015/09/08
Channel: Gratz Tube
'Virgin Soil' Epidemics and Demographic Collapse in the Americas
Published: 2013/09/26
Channel: UChicagoCISSR
OnAPlain(NirvanaCover)-Virgin Soil Epidemic
OnAPlain(NirvanaCover)-Virgin Soil Epidemic
Published: 2015/09/07
Channel: billybrews40s
Virgin Soil
Virgin Soil
Published: 2014/11/08
Channel: Phil and the Osophers - Topic
7. Smallpox (II): Jenner, Vaccination, and Eradication
7. Smallpox (II): Jenner, Vaccination, and Eradication
Published: 2011/03/16
Channel: YaleCourses
Very Ape-VirginSoilEpidemic(Nirvana)cover
Very Ape-VirginSoilEpidemic(Nirvana)cover
Published: 2015/08/04
Channel: billybrews40s
virginsoil - Dolores (official video)
virginsoil - Dolores (official video)
Published: 2015/12/27
Channel: virginsoil band switzerland
The Black Legend, Native Americans, and Spaniards: Crash Course US History #1
The Black Legend, Native Americans, and Spaniards: Crash Course US History #1
Published: 2013/01/31
Channel: CrashCourse
Bananas Are Losing the War on Fungus
Bananas Are Losing the War on Fungus
Published: 2015/12/18
Channel: SciShow
Public Lecture Video (3.8.2012): Extreme Japan: How the country will both soar and sink
Public Lecture Video (3.8.2012): Extreme Japan: How the country will both soar and sink
Published: 2012/03/27
Channel: Temple University, Japan Campus
The Tobacco Epidemic
The Tobacco Epidemic
Published: 2013/06/21
Channel: ecancer
374 - Human Health Lessons from Indigenous Peoples - Raymond Obomsawin
374 - Human Health Lessons from Indigenous Peoples - Raymond Obomsawin
Published: 2013/08/20
Channel: Amazing Discoveries
DEMOGRAPHIC COLLAPSE AND DEATH OF WESTERN CULTURE
DEMOGRAPHIC COLLAPSE AND DEATH OF WESTERN CULTURE
Published: 2013/11/22
Channel: Stefano Camuncoli
Cherokee Medicine, Colonial Germs: An Indigenous Nation
Cherokee Medicine, Colonial Germs: An Indigenous Nation's Fight against Smallpox, 15181824
Published: 2017/01/10
Channel: Tyron Michael
"Forecasting Infectious Disease Epidemics Using Dynamic Modeling: Ebola and Zika as Case Studies"
"Forecasting Infectious Disease Epidemics Using Dynamic Modeling: Ebola and Zika as Case Studies"
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: BBVA Foundation
Guinea Agribusiness: Sector recovering after Ebola epidemic
Guinea Agribusiness: Sector recovering after Ebola epidemic
Published: 2015/10/29
Channel: CGTN Africa
Hurricane Irma: Drinking water, rotting rubbish pose risk of epidemic on French Caribbean islands
Hurricane Irma: Drinking water, rotting rubbish pose risk of epidemic on French Caribbean islands
Published: 2017/09/15
Channel: FRANCE 24 English
Ebola: Up to 100 in Texas at Risk of Exposure
Ebola: Up to 100 in Texas at Risk of Exposure
Published: 2014/10/03
Channel: Cloud News
The Cholera Pandemic and 19th Century Japanese Culture
The Cholera Pandemic and 19th Century Japanese Culture
Published: 2015/09/10
Channel: The University of Chicago
Epidemics, Ebola, Putin and the Holy Flame
Epidemics, Ebola, Putin and the Holy Flame
Published: 2014/08/19
Channel: Kenneth Storey
Islamic State has destroyed the “Green Church”, a symbol of the Christian roots of Iraq
Islamic State has destroyed the “Green Church”, a symbol of the Christian roots of Iraq
Published: 2014/09/26
Channel: ROME REPORTS in English
Denmark Increases Pressure On Young Couples To Have Children To Avert Demographic Collapse
Denmark Increases Pressure On Young Couples To Have Children To Avert Demographic Collapse
Published: 2015/10/07
Channel: Martin Brodel
Health Care and Epidemics in Antiquity: The Example of Ancient Mesopotamia
Health Care and Epidemics in Antiquity: The Example of Ancient Mesopotamia
Published: 2013/09/26
Channel: UChicagoCISSR
William Paterson Environmental Science Professor Studies Soil at Controlled Burn
William Paterson Environmental Science Professor Studies Soil at Controlled Burn
Published: 2012/04/13
Channel: William Paterson University
With the use of newly invented transparent soil, Scientists revealed secret life of plants
With the use of newly invented transparent soil, Scientists revealed secret life of plants
Published: 2012/11/12
Channel: Alexis Summers
Black Death in the Middle East and Europe
Black Death in the Middle East and Europe
Published: 2013/09/26
Channel: UChicagoCISSR
Political Collapse and Revolution
Political Collapse and Revolution
Published: 2011/04/28
Channel: Preservation2012
Student Use of the Library
Student Use of the Library
Published: 2015/09/10
Channel: The University of Chicago
Dr. Mercola Interviews Dr. Ayoub About Infantile Rickets
Dr. Mercola Interviews Dr. Ayoub About Infantile Rickets
Published: 2014/02/17
Channel: Mercola
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Dr. Mercola and Dr. Ayoub Discuss Infantile Rickets
Published: 2014/02/17
Channel: Mercola
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Published: 2011/11/05
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Creating Something New ∞The Pleiadian High Council of Seven, Channeled by Daniel Scranton
Creating Something New ∞The Pleiadian High Council of Seven, Channeled by Daniel Scranton
Published: 2016/05/23
Channel: Daniel Scranton
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Published: 2015/04/17
Channel: montgomerycollege
Are We Approaching Peak Retirement?
Are We Approaching Peak Retirement?
Published: 2013/10/17
Channel: allofuscanberich
Trial By Fire, ShatterZone
Trial By Fire, ShatterZone
Published: 2011/01/12
Channel: Kasper Tsak
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Published: 2013/01/26
Channel: franciscanfriars
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TEDxFullerton - John Crawford - Embodied Media in Performance
Published: 2010/09/20
Channel: TEDx Talks
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My Favorite Bands 3.
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Рыбий жир в бодибилдинге. Омега 3 жирные кислоты
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1800 PublicHealth
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Channel: Vbort44
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Можно ли тренироваться на пустой желудок?
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Donald Feder: The Cultural Roots of Demographic Winter
Donald Feder: The Cultural Roots of Demographic Winter
Published: 2012/12/19
Channel: Dialogue of Civilizations Research Institute
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Побочные эффекты (побочки) от предтреников (предтренировочных комплексов). Как пить предтрен?
Published: 2016/11/05
Channel: ПРОКАЧКА
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Channel: ПРОКАЧКА
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15. Tropical Medicine as a Discipline
Published: 2011/03/16
Channel: YaleCourses
Retaliation
Retaliation
Published: 2015/12/23
Channel: Vomitory - Topic
The Dust Bowl by Ken Burns | PBS America
The Dust Bowl by Ken Burns | PBS America
Published: 2013/07/09
Channel: PBSAmerica
Module 10: Cultural Genocide in International Law and Domestic Politics
Module 10: Cultural Genocide in International Law and Domestic Politics
Published: 2015/09/08
Channel: Gratz Tube
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Паганини: Скрипач Дьявола (2013) (The Devil's Violinist)
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Virgin soil epidemic is a term coined by Alfred Crosby,[1] defining it as epidemics "in which the populations at risk have had no previous contact with the diseases that strike them and are therefore immunologically almost defenseless". The concept is related to that developed by William McNeill in which he connected the development of agriculture and more sedentary life with the emergence of new diseases as microbes moved from domestic animals to humans.[2] Virgin soil epidemics have occurred with European colonization, particularly during the Age of Discovery, when European explorers and colonialists brought diseases to "New World" lands in the Americas, Australia and Pacific Islands.[3] This concept would later be adopted wholesale by Jared Diamond as a central theme in his popular book Guns, Germs and Steel as an explanation for successful European expansion.

When a population has not had contact with a particular pathogen, individuals in that population have not built up any immunity to that organism, and have not received immunity passed from mother to child.[4] Epidemiologist Francis Black has suggested that some isolated populations may not have mixed enough to become as genetically heterogeneous as their colonizers, which would also have affected their natural immunity.[4] Consequently when a previously unknown disease is introduced to such a population, there is an increase in the morbidity and mortality rates; historically this increase has often been devastating, and always noticeable.[3]

Diseases introduced to the Americas by European colonizers—and their African slaves—include smallpox, yellow fever, measles and malaria, as well as new strains of typhus and influenza.[1][5]

Virgin soil epidemics also occurred in the Old World prior to the Age of Discovery. For example, the Romans spread smallpox through new populations in Europe and the Middle East in the 2nd century AD, and the Mongols brought the bubonic plague to Europe and the Middle East in the 14th century.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ a b Crosby, Alfred W. (1976), "Virgin Soil Epidemics as a Factor in the Aboriginal Depopulation in America", The William and Mary Quarterly, Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 33 (2), pp. 289–299, JSTOR 1922166 
  2. ^ McNeill, William H. (1976), Plagues and Peoples, Anchor Press, ISBN 978-0385121224 
  3. ^ a b Cliff et al, p. 120
  4. ^ a b Hays, p. 87
  5. ^ a b Alchon, p. 80
Bibliography

External links[edit]

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