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Virgin Soil and European Immigrants
Virgin Soil and European Immigrants
Published: 2014/02/13
Channel: Cornell X
Module 4: Virgin Soil Epidemics and the “Shatter Zone” Framework
Module 4: Virgin Soil Epidemics and the “Shatter Zone” Framework
Published: 2015/09/08
Channel: Gratz Tube
'Virgin Soil' Epidemics and Demographic Collapse in the Americas
Published: 2013/09/26
Channel: UChicagoCISSR
OnAPlain(NirvanaCover)-Virgin Soil Epidemic
OnAPlain(NirvanaCover)-Virgin Soil Epidemic
Published: 2015/09/07
Channel: billybrews40s
Very Ape-VirginSoilEpidemic(Nirvana)cover
Very Ape-VirginSoilEpidemic(Nirvana)cover
Published: 2015/08/04
Channel: billybrews40s
virginsoil - Dolores (official video)
virginsoil - Dolores (official video)
Published: 2015/12/27
Channel: virginsoil band switzerland
7. Smallpox (II): Jenner, Vaccination, and Eradication
7. Smallpox (II): Jenner, Vaccination, and Eradication
Published: 2011/03/16
Channel: YaleCourses
Photostory Columbus 1
Photostory Columbus 1
Published: 2009/10/18
Channel: Derricksocialscience
Health Care and Epidemics in Antiquity: The Example of Ancient Mesopotamia
Health Care and Epidemics in Antiquity: The Example of Ancient Mesopotamia
Published: 2013/09/26
Channel: UChicagoCISSR
Muslim Condition Worldwide Is Also Our Business
Muslim Condition Worldwide Is Also Our Business
Published: 2014/08/12
Channel: Al Hikmat
With the use of newly invented transparent soil, Scientists revealed secret life of plants
With the use of newly invented transparent soil, Scientists revealed secret life of plants
Published: 2012/11/12
Channel: Alexis Summers
Discrimination, Disaster, and Disease: Revisiting Hiroshima and Minamata in the Wake of Fukushima
Discrimination, Disaster, and Disease: Revisiting Hiroshima and Minamata in the Wake of Fukushima
Published: 2013/11/27
Channel: UChicagoCISSR
2017 - un an cum niciodată n-a mai fost! (english subtitles)
2017 - un an cum niciodată n-a mai fost! (english subtitles)
Published: 2017/12/18
Channel: Vremea Trezirii
How Fentanyl Gets To The U.S. From China (HBO)
How Fentanyl Gets To The U.S. From China (HBO)
Published: 2017/12/22
Channel: VICE News
Hurricane Irma: Drinking water, rotting rubbish pose risk of epidemic on French Caribbean islands
Hurricane Irma: Drinking water, rotting rubbish pose risk of epidemic on French Caribbean islands
Published: 2017/09/15
Channel: FRANCE 24 English
Americas: PANKS -- A New Demographic
Americas: PANKS -- A New Demographic
Published: 2013/11/08
Channel: Euromonitor International
Bananas Are Losing the War on Fungus
Bananas Are Losing the War on Fungus
Published: 2015/12/18
Channel: SciShow
DEMOGRAPHIC COLLAPSE AND DEATH OF WESTERN CULTURE
DEMOGRAPHIC COLLAPSE AND DEATH OF WESTERN CULTURE
Published: 2013/11/22
Channel: Stefano Camuncoli
Smallpox and Epidemiology (IB Biology)
Smallpox and Epidemiology (IB Biology)
Published: 2017/02/20
Channel: Alex Lee
Dr. Mercola Interviews Dr. Ayoub About Infantile Rickets
Dr. Mercola Interviews Dr. Ayoub About Infantile Rickets
Published: 2014/02/17
Channel: Mercola
Guinea Agribusiness: Sector recovering after Ebola epidemic
Guinea Agribusiness: Sector recovering after Ebola epidemic
Published: 2015/10/29
Channel: CGTN Africa
The Tobacco Epidemic
The Tobacco Epidemic
Published: 2013/06/21
Channel: ecancer
374 - Human Health Lessons from Indigenous Peoples - Raymond Obomsawin
374 - Human Health Lessons from Indigenous Peoples - Raymond Obomsawin
Published: 2013/08/20
Channel: Amazing Discoveries
Epidemics, Ebola, Putin and the Holy Flame
Epidemics, Ebola, Putin and the Holy Flame
Published: 2014/08/19
Channel: Kenneth Storey
Donald Feder: The Cultural Roots of Demographic Winter
Donald Feder: The Cultural Roots of Demographic Winter
Published: 2012/12/19
Channel: Dialogue of Civilizations Research Institute
Black Death in the Middle East and Europe
Black Death in the Middle East and Europe
Published: 2013/09/26
Channel: UChicagoCISSR
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Moving Dirt in the Sluice Looking for Issues
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: Bullshitkorner
Dr. Mercola and Dr. Ayoub Discuss Infantile Rickets
Dr. Mercola and Dr. Ayoub Discuss Infantile Rickets
Published: 2014/02/17
Channel: Mercola
Trial By Fire, ShatterZone
Trial By Fire, ShatterZone
Published: 2011/01/12
Channel: Kasper Tsak
Jan 26 - Homily: Speak Boldly About Jesus
Jan 26 - Homily: Speak Boldly About Jesus
Published: 2013/01/26
Channel: franciscanfriars
Professor Nazeer Ahmad
Professor Nazeer Ahmad
Published: 2012/02/18
Channel: NIHERST Trinidad and Tobago
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Published: 2009/03/21
Channel: Fair Mormon
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Germ Theory Deception Part 2
Published: 2016/05/09
Channel: Jonathan H
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Student Use of the Library
Published: 2015/09/10
Channel: The University of Chicago
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The 700 Club - January 10, 2018
Published: 2018/01/10
Channel: The Official 700 Club
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Raid The Convent - Satanic Butcher (Nunslaughter Cover)
Published: 2015/03/04
Channel: H. B.
Module 10: Cultural Genocide in International Law and Domestic Politics
Module 10: Cultural Genocide in International Law and Domestic Politics
Published: 2015/09/08
Channel: Gratz Tube
Another sad day for NZDF at Christchurch airport
Another sad day for NZDF at Christchurch airport
Published: 2016/09/20
Channel: John Perry
15. Tropical Medicine as a Discipline
15. Tropical Medicine as a Discipline
Published: 2011/03/16
Channel: YaleCourses
Montgomery College
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Published: 2015/04/17
Channel: montgomerycollege
Podcast #108 - Dr. Sara Gottfried The Hormone Cure - Bulletproof Radio
Podcast #108 - Dr. Sara Gottfried The Hormone Cure - Bulletproof Radio
Published: 2014/03/28
Channel: Bulletproof
Islamic State has destroyed the “Green Church”, a symbol of the Christian roots of Iraq
Islamic State has destroyed the “Green Church”, a symbol of the Christian roots of Iraq
Published: 2014/09/26
Channel: ROME REPORTS in English
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1800 PublicHealth
Published: 2012/05/24
Channel: Vbort44
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Рыбий жир в бодибилдинге. Омега 3 жирные кислоты
Published: 2015/06/04
Channel: ПРОКАЧКА
Omerta Expert Custom
Omerta Expert Custom
Published: 2009/02/15
Channel: CrosscomCustomsGH
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Pre-Production 12.11.12
Published: 2012/12/11
Channel: CleanPyroAsia
Творог на ночь. Польза и вред творога
Творог на ночь. Польза и вред творога
Published: 2015/05/30
Channel: ПРОКАЧКА
The Dust Bowl by Ken Burns | PBS America
The Dust Bowl by Ken Burns | PBS America
Published: 2013/07/09
Channel: PBSAmerica
Political Collapse and Revolution
Political Collapse and Revolution
Published: 2011/04/28
Channel: Preservation2012
Что такое мышечная память? Насколько быстро можно восстановить форму после долговременного пропуска?
Что такое мышечная память? Насколько быстро можно восстановить форму после долговременного пропуска?
Published: 2015/12/12
Channel: ПРОКАЧКА
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Virgin soil epidemic is a term coined by Alfred Crosby,[1] defining it as epidemics "in which the populations at risk have had no previous contact with the diseases that strike them and are therefore immunologically almost defenseless". The concept is related to that developed by William McNeill in which he connected the development of agriculture and more sedentary life with the emergence of new diseases as microbes moved from domestic animals to humans.[2] Virgin soil epidemics have occurred with European colonization, particularly during the Age of Discovery, when European explorers and colonialists brought diseases to "New World" lands in the Americas, Australia and Pacific Islands.[3] This concept would later be adopted wholesale by Jared Diamond as a central theme in his popular book Guns, Germs and Steel as an explanation for successful European expansion.

When a population has not had contact with a particular pathogen, individuals in that population have not built up any immunity to that organism, and have not received immunity passed from mother to child.[4] Epidemiologist Francis Black has suggested that some isolated populations may not have mixed enough to become as genetically heterogeneous as their colonizers, which would also have affected their natural immunity.[4] This can also happen when a considerable amount of time has passed between disease outbreaks, that no one in a particular community has ever experienced the disease to gain immunity.[5] Consequently when a previously unknown disease is introduced to such a population, there is an increase in the morbidity and mortality rates; historically this increase has often been devastating, and always noticeable.[3]

Diseases introduced to the Americas by European colonizers—and their African slaves—include smallpox, yellow fever, measles and malaria, as well as new strains of typhus and influenza.[1][6]

Virgin soil epidemics also occurred in the Old World prior to the Age of Discovery. For example, the Romans spread smallpox through new populations in Europe and the Middle East in the 2nd century AD, and the Mongols brought the bubonic plague to Europe and the Middle East in the 14th century.[6]

Criticisms[edit]

Research over the last few decades has problematized the notion of Virgin Soil epidemics. David S. Jones has argued that the term "Virgin Soil" is often used to describe a genetic predisposition to disease infection, and obscures the more complex social, environmental, and biological factors that can enhance or reduce a populations susceptibility.[7] . Paul Kelton has argued that the slave trade in Indigenous people by Europeans exacerbated the spread and virulence of smallpox and that a "Virgin Soil" model alone cannot account for the widespread disaster of the epidemic.[8] Cristobal Silva has re-examined accounts by colonists of 17th century New England epidemics and has explored how they were products of particular historical circumstances rather than universal or genetically inevitable processes.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ a b Crosby, Alfred W. (1976), "Virgin Soil Epidemics as a Factor in the Aboriginal Depopulation in America", The William and Mary Quarterly, Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, 33 (2), pp. 289–299, JSTOR 1922166 
  2. ^ McNeill, William H. (1976), Plagues and Peoples, Anchor Press, ISBN 978-0385121224 
  3. ^ a b Cliff et al, p. 120
  4. ^ a b Hays, p. 87
  5. ^ Daschuk, James (2013). Clearing the Plains: Disease, Politics of Starvation and the Loss of Aboriginal Life. Regina: University of Regina Press. pp. 11–12. ISBN 9780889772960. 
  6. ^ a b Alchon, p. 80
  7. ^ Jones, David (2003). "Virgin Soils Revisited". The William and Mary Quarterly. 60 (4): The William and Mary Quarterly. 
  8. ^ Kelton, Paul (2007). Epidemics and Enslavement: Biological Catastrophe in the Native Southeast, 1492-1715. Omaha: University of Nebraska Press. 
  9. ^ Silva, Cristobal (2011). Miraculous Plagues: An Epidemiology of Early New England Narrative. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press. 
Bibliography

External links[edit]

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