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Slavoj Zizek - Deleuze And The Virtual In Reality
Slavoj Zizek - Deleuze And The Virtual In Reality
Published: 2017/05/05
Channel: Tuigen Heim
2016 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: Is the Universe a Simulation?
2016 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: Is the Universe a Simulation?
Published: 2016/04/08
Channel: American Museum of Natural History
Rameses B -  Virtuality
Rameses B - Virtuality
Published: 2017/02/03
Channel: Rameses B
Why Elon Musk says we
Why Elon Musk says we're living in a simulation
Published: 2016/08/15
Channel: Vox
Is life a video game? | Elon Musk | Code Conference 2016
Is life a video game? | Elon Musk | Code Conference 2016
Published: 2016/06/02
Channel: Recode
Slavoj Zizek: The Reality of the Virtual
Slavoj Zizek: The Reality of the Virtual
Published: 2012/08/20
Channel: Casper Børretzen
Philosophy Virtual Museusm Project
Philosophy Virtual Museusm Project
Published: 2017/10/22
Channel: Richard Matthew
The Simulation Hypothesis - FULL PROGRAM - HD (Original)
The Simulation Hypothesis - FULL PROGRAM - HD (Original)
Published: 2015/10/07
Channel: Fair Wind Films
David Chalmers: Spatial Experience and Virtual Reality
David Chalmers: Spatial Experience and Virtual Reality
Published: 2015/10/08
Channel: Rotman Institute of Philosophy
You are a Simulation & Physics Can Prove It: George Smoot at TEDxSalford
You are a Simulation & Physics Can Prove It: George Smoot at TEDxSalford
Published: 2014/02/12
Channel: TEDx Talks
Simulated Reality
Simulated Reality
Published: 2016/02/19
Channel: LEMMiNO
6 Things That Might Prove We Are Living in A Simulated Reality
6 Things That Might Prove We Are Living in A Simulated Reality
Published: 2015/11/06
Channel: Esoteric Detective
Pitch philosophy of virtuality. Hyperrealiteit - een illustratie
Pitch philosophy of virtuality. Hyperrealiteit - een illustratie
Published: 2014/04/06
Channel: Werner van rossum
10 Incredible Reasons We
10 Incredible Reasons We're Living in a Computer Simulation
Published: 2016/07/07
Channel: Planet Dolan
Plato’s Allegory of the Cave - Alex Gendler
Plato’s Allegory of the Cave - Alex Gendler
Published: 2015/03/17
Channel: TED-Ed
APPEARANCE AND REALITY
APPEARANCE AND REALITY
Published: 2014/09/22
Channel: Fiz
Todd May fortæller her om Gilles Deleuze
Todd May fortæller her om Gilles Deleuze's filosofi
Published: 2013/05/23
Channel: DISPUK Uddannelsescenter
What virtuality means to architecture
What virtuality means to architecture
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: Arch2O
Chris Milk: How virtual reality can create the ultimate empathy machine
Chris Milk: How virtual reality can create the ultimate empathy machine
Published: 2015/04/22
Channel: TED
Rameses B - Virtuality
Rameses B - Virtuality
Published: 2017/05/02
Channel: Music Wish
Trekosophy s04e05 The Virtuality Man (2015-03-25)
Trekosophy s04e05 The Virtuality Man (2015-03-25)
Published: 2015/04/04
Channel: Trekosophy
Physics of Babylon: The Quantum Mystery School for the Coming One-World Religion...
Physics of Babylon: The Quantum Mystery School for the Coming One-World Religion...
Published: 2017/06/29
Channel: the Truth is stranger than fiction...
Philosophical conversations
Philosophical conversations
Published: 2009/04/17
Channel: OneOpenSpace
Choosing History: A Philosophy of the Past
Choosing History: A Philosophy of the Past
Published: 2011/09/16
Channel: Penn Arts & Sciences
The Philosophy of Rick and Morty – Wisecrack Edition
The Philosophy of Rick and Morty – Wisecrack Edition
Published: 2015/12/19
Channel: Wisecrack
UNREAL VIRTUALITY: The "Educational" Assault on Zetetic Thought...
UNREAL VIRTUALITY: The "Educational" Assault on Zetetic Thought...
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: the Truth is stranger than fiction...
Philosophy of Art Pt 1
Philosophy of Art Pt 1
Published: 2009/01/26
Channel: rwrudeen
Virtuality, the Force of Art
Virtuality, the Force of Art
Published: 2009/05/27
Channel: OneOpenSpace
The Philosophy of Art
The Philosophy of Art
Published: 2006/03/21
Channel: King Dante Productions
PCG2013 - Rune Klevjer - Representation and Virtuality in Computer Games
PCG2013 - Rune Klevjer - Representation and Virtuality in Computer Games
Published: 2015/02/09
Channel: PCG Lectures
Simon Critchley. Politics, Nihilism, and the Philosophy of Disappointment. 2010
Simon Critchley. Politics, Nihilism, and the Philosophy of Disappointment. 2010
Published: 2011/03/31
Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
Virtuality and the (Real) Humanities
Virtuality and the (Real) Humanities
Published: 2010/10/18
Channel: Penn Arts & Sciences
Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 1/11
Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 1/11
Published: 2007/10/17
Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
Everyone Is Being
Everyone Is Being 'Astral-Projected'... [FLAT EARTH]
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: the Truth is stranger than fiction...
Virtuality
Virtuality
Published: 2015/10/13
Channel: Shawn Stack
Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 5/11
Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 5/11
Published: 2007/10/19
Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 11/11
Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 11/11
Published: 2007/10/21
Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
Virtuality - Short Movie
Virtuality - Short Movie
Published: 2010/07/09
Channel: yiochukangsecondary
3: Virtuality&Identity: a bite-size lecture on Farman
3: Virtuality&Identity: a bite-size lecture on Farman's Mobile Interface Theory
Published: 2012/05/02
Channel: Kathi Inman Berens
Danish Philosophy of Rain
Danish Philosophy of Rain
Published: 2010/06/03
Channel: OneOpenSpace
What is X REALITY? What does X REALITY mean? X REALITY meaning, definition & explanation
What is X REALITY? What does X REALITY mean? X REALITY meaning, definition & explanation
Published: 2017/10/29
Channel: The Audiopedia
Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 10/11
Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 10/11
Published: 2007/10/20
Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
Pete Wolfendale - Ariadne’s Thread: Temporality and Modality in Deleuze’s Metaphysics
Pete Wolfendale - Ariadne’s Thread: Temporality and Modality in Deleuze’s Metaphysics
Published: 2015/01/03
Channel: Actual Virtual Journal
Slavoj Žižek: Masterclass on Jacques Lacan: A Lateral Introduction - Day 1, 25th May 2006
Slavoj Žižek: Masterclass on Jacques Lacan: A Lateral Introduction - Day 1, 25th May 2006
Published: 2017/06/25
Channel: Simon Gros
Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 6/11
Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 6/11
Published: 2007/10/19
Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 7/11
Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 7/11
Published: 2007/10/19
Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 9/11
Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 9/11
Published: 2007/10/20
Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
How to Meditate with Nature
How to Meditate with Nature
Published: 2017/06/15
Channel: Zuza Banasińska
Bergson-Deleuze: Incorporating Duration into Nanocognition
Bergson-Deleuze: Incorporating Duration into Nanocognition
Published: 2015/02/15
Channel: TechnologyPhilosopher
Flat Earth: "Red-Planet Hollywood": NASA
Flat Earth: "Red-Planet Hollywood": NASA's New Fake Mars Toy [Plus, How YOU can go to Mars!]
Published: 2017/06/13
Channel: the Truth is stranger than fiction...
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Virtuality is a concept in philosophy, particularly that of French thinker Gilles Deleuze[citation needed].

Deleuze used the term virtual to refer to an aspect of reality that is ideal, but nonetheless real. An example of this is the meaning, or sense, of a proposition that is not a material aspect of that proposition (whether written or spoken) but is nonetheless an attribute of that proposition.[citation needed] Both Henri Bergson, who strongly influenced Deleuze, and Deleuze himself build their conception of the virtual in reference to a quotation in which writer Marcel Proust defines a virtuality, memory as "real but not actual, ideal but not abstract". A dictionary definition written by Charles Sanders Peirce, referencing the philosphy of Duns Scotus, supports this understanding of the virtual as something that is "as if" it were real, and the everyday use of the term to indicate what is "virtually" so, but not so in fact.[1][a][b]

Deleuze's concept[edit]

Deleuze's concept of the virtual has two aspects: first, the virtual is a kind of surface effect produced by actual causal interactions at the material level.[citation needed] When one uses a computer, the monitor displays an image that depends on physical interactions happening at the level of hardware. The window is nowhere in actuality, but is nonetheless real and can be interacted with. This example actually leads to the second aspect of the virtual that Deleuze insists upon: its generative nature. This virtual is a kind of potentiality that becomes fulfilled in the actual. It is still not material, but it is real.

Deleuze argues that Henri Bergson developed "the notion of the virtual to its highest degree" and that he based his entire philosophy on it.[2] In Bergsonism, Deleuze writes that "virtual" is not opposed to "real" but opposed to "actual", whereas "real" is opposed to "possible".[3] This definition, which is almost indistinguishable from potential, originates in medieval Scholastics and the pseudo-Latin "virtualis". Deleuze identifies the virtual, considered as a continuous multiplicity, with Bergson's "duration": "it is the virtual insofar as it is actualized, in the course of being actualized, it is inseparable from the movement of its actualization."[4]

Other concepts[edit]

Another core meaning has been elicited by Denis Berthier, in his 2004 book "Méditations sur le réel et le virtuel" ("Meditations on the real and the virtual"), based on uses in science (virtual image), technology (virtual world), and etymology (derivation from virtue—Latin virtus[5]). At the same ontological level as "the possible" (ie. ideally-possible) abstractions, representations, or imagined "fictions", the actually-real "material", or the actually-possible "probable", the "virtual" is "ideal-real". It is what is not real, but displays the full qualities of the real—in a plainly actual (i.e., not potential)—way. The prototypical case is a reflection in a mirror: it is already there, whether or not one can see it; it is not waiting for any kind of actualization. This definition allows one to understand that real effects may be issued from a virtual object, so that our perception of it and our whole relation to it, are fully real, even if it is not. This explains how virtual reality can be used to cure phobias. Brian Massumi shows the political implications of this.

However, note that the writers above all use terms such as "possible", "potential" and "real" in different ways and relate the virtual to these other terms differently. Deleuze regards the opposite of the virtual as the actual. Rob Shields argues that the opposite of the virtual is the material for there are other actualities such as a probability (e.g., "risks" are actual dangers that have not yet materialized but there is a "probability" that they will).[6]

The virtual is far more than a technical or communications term. Martin Luther argued in his writing The Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ—Against the Fanatics with other Protestants, most notably Zwingli, over the virtualism of the Christian Eucharist, in alignment with Catholic tradition, that the Eucharist was actually and not virtually the body and blood of Christ.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Virtual [Lat. virtus, strength, from vir, a man]: Ger. virtuell ; Fr. (1) virtuel; Ital. (1) virtuale. (1) A virtual X (where X is a common noun) is something, not an X, which has the efficiency (virtus) of an X. This is the proper meaning of the word; but (2) it has been seriously confounded with 'potential' which is almost its contrary. For the potential X is of the nature of X, but is without actual efficiency. A virtual velocity is something not a velocity, but a displacement; but equivalent to a velocity in the formula, 'what is gained in velocity is lost in power.' So virtual representation was the non-representation of the American colonies in the British Parliament, which was supposed to be replaced by something. So Milton asks whether the angels have virtual or immediate touch. So, too, the sun was said to be virtualiter on earth, that is, in its efficiency. (3) Virtual is sometimes used to mean pertaining to virtue in the sense of an ethical habit. Virtual knowledge: a term of Scotus defined by him (Opus Oxon., Pt. I. iii. 3) as follows: 'Quantum ad notitiam habitualem sive virtualem, primo expono quid intelligo per terminos. Habitualem notitiam voco, quando obiectum sic est praesens intellectui [i.e. to the thought] in ratione intelligibilis actua ut intellectus statim possit habere actum elicitum circa illud obiectum. Voco virtualem, quando aliquid intelligitur in aliquo, ut pars intellecti primi, non autem ut primum intellectum sive ut totale terminans intellectionem; sicut cum intelligitur homo intelligitur animal in nomine, ut pars intellecti, non ut intellectum primum, sive totale terminans intellectionem. Hoc satis proprie vocatur intellectum virtualiter, quia est satis proximum intellecto in actu. Non enim posset esse actualius intellectum, nisi esset propria intellectione intellectum, quae esse ipsius primi, ut termini totalis.' Virtual difference: a term of the doctrine of formalities set forth by Scotus, Opus Oxon. Pt. I. ii. 7. (C.S.P)
  2. ^ The long quote in Latin embedded in Note a is translated by John van den Bercken into English in On being and cognition : Ordinatio 1.3, Fordham University Press, 2016

References[edit]

  1. ^ Peirce, C.S. "Virtual." Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. James Mark Baldwin. New York: Macmillan, 1902 (Vol. II, pp. 763-764).
  2. ^ Deleuze (1966, 43).
  3. ^ Deleuze (1966, 96-98).
  4. ^ Deleuze (1966, 42-43, 81) and Deleuze (2002a, 44).
  5. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". 
  6. ^ Shields, Rob The Virtual Routledge 2003.

Sources[edit]

  • Deleuze, Gilles. 1966. Bergsonism. Trans. Hugh Tomlinson and Barbara Habberjam. NY: Zone, 1991. ISBN 0-942299-07-8.
  • ---. 2002a. Desert Islands and Other Texts 1953-1974. Trans. David Lapoujade. Ed. Michael Taormina. Semiotext(e) Foreign Agents ser. Los Angeles and New York: Semiotext(e), 2004. ISBN 1-58435-018-0.
  • ---. 2002b. "The Actual and the Virtual." In Dialogues II. Rev. ed. Trans. Eliot Ross Albert. New York and Chichester: Columbia UP. 148-152. ISBN 0-8264-9077-8.
  • Christine Buci-Glucksmann, La folie du voir: Une esthétique du virtuel, Galilée, 2002
  • Massumi, Brian. 2002. Parables for the Virtual: Movement, Affect, Sensation. Post-Contemporary Interventions ser. Durham and London: Duke UP. ISBN 0-8223-2897-6.
  • "Origins of Virtualism: An Interview with Frank Popper conducted by Joseph Nechvatal", CAA Art Journal, Spring 2004, pp. 62–77
  • Frank Popper, From Technological to Virtual Art, Leonardo Books, MIT Press, 2007
  • Rob Shields, The Virtual Routledge 2003.
  • Rob Shields "Virtualities", Theory Culture and Society 23:2-3. 2006. pp. 284-86.

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