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Slavoj Zizek | The Reality of the Virtual | Full Film
Slavoj Zizek | The Reality of the Virtual | Full Film
Published: 2015/06/19
Channel: Zizekian Studies
Rameses B -  Virtuality
Rameses B - Virtuality
Published: 2017/02/03
Channel: Rameses B
Slavoj Zizek - Deleuze And The Virtual In Reality
Slavoj Zizek - Deleuze And The Virtual In Reality
Published: 2017/05/05
Channel: Tuigen Heim
Pitch philosophy of virtuality. Hyperrealiteit - een illustratie
Pitch philosophy of virtuality. Hyperrealiteit - een illustratie
Published: 2014/04/06
Channel: Werner van rossum
Why Elon Musk says we
Why Elon Musk says we're living in a simulation
Published: 2016/08/15
Channel: Vox
Rameses B - Virtuality
Rameses B - Virtuality
Published: 2017/05/02
Channel: Music Wish
Three Minute Theory: What is Intra-Action?
Three Minute Theory: What is Intra-Action?
Published: 2014/11/19
Channel: Stacey Kerr
UNREAL VIRTUALITY: The "Educational" Assault on Zetetic Thought...
UNREAL VIRTUALITY: The "Educational" Assault on Zetetic Thought...
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: the Truth is stranger than fiction...
Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 1/11
Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 1/11
Published: 2007/10/17
Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
Virtuality and the (Real) Humanities
Virtuality and the (Real) Humanities
Published: 2010/10/18
Channel: Penn Arts & Sciences
PCG2013 - Stephan Gunzel - Antinomies of Space: Philosophy – Culture – Games
PCG2013 - Stephan Gunzel - Antinomies of Space: Philosophy – Culture – Games
Published: 2015/02/09
Channel: PCG Lectures
Is life a video game? | Elon Musk | Code Conference 2016
Is life a video game? | Elon Musk | Code Conference 2016
Published: 2016/06/02
Channel: Recode
David Chalmers: Spatial Experience and Virtual Reality
David Chalmers: Spatial Experience and Virtual Reality
Published: 2015/10/08
Channel: Rotman Institute of Philosophy
Philosophical conversations
Philosophical conversations
Published: 2009/04/17
Channel: OneOpenSpace
Choosing History: A Philosophy of the Past
Choosing History: A Philosophy of the Past
Published: 2011/09/16
Channel: Penn Arts & Sciences
PCG2013 - Rune Klevjer - Representation and Virtuality in Computer Games
PCG2013 - Rune Klevjer - Representation and Virtuality in Computer Games
Published: 2015/02/09
Channel: PCG Lectures
What virtuality means to architecture
What virtuality means to architecture
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: Arch2O
Todd May fortæller her om Gilles Deleuze
Todd May fortæller her om Gilles Deleuze's filosofi
Published: 2013/05/23
Channel: DISPUK Uddannelsescenter
Manuel De Landa. Metaphysics As Ontology: Aristotle and Deleuze
Manuel De Landa. Metaphysics As Ontology: Aristotle and Deleuze's Realism. 2011
Published: 2011/10/13
Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
The SOLAR SYSTEM is a construct of KABBALAH... (Flat Earth cosmology)
The SOLAR SYSTEM is a construct of KABBALAH... (Flat Earth cosmology)
Published: 2017/06/08
Channel: the Truth is stranger than fiction...
Elon Musk - We Might Be Living In A Video Game Simulation
Elon Musk - We Might Be Living In A Video Game Simulation
Published: 2017/02/25
Channel: UniCommonKnowledge
Virtuality, the Force of Art
Virtuality, the Force of Art
Published: 2009/05/27
Channel: OneOpenSpace
Flat Earth: The Kabbalistic Fraud of Quantum Roger Rabbit Land
Flat Earth: The Kabbalistic Fraud of Quantum Roger Rabbit Land
Published: 2017/07/07
Channel: the Truth is stranger than fiction...
Philosophy of Art Pt 1
Philosophy of Art Pt 1
Published: 2009/01/26
Channel: rwrudeen
Trekosophy s04e05 The Virtuality Man (2015-03-25)
Trekosophy s04e05 The Virtuality Man (2015-03-25)
Published: 2015/04/04
Channel: Trekosophy
Physics of Babylon: The Quantum Mystery School for the Coming One-World Religion...
Physics of Babylon: The Quantum Mystery School for the Coming One-World Religion...
Published: 2017/06/29
Channel: the Truth is stranger than fiction...
Virtuality
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Published: 2015/10/13
Channel: Shawn Stack
Inductivism II: Problems of Inductivism
Inductivism II: Problems of Inductivism
Published: 2014/05/17
Channel: PHoyningen
Virtuality - Short Movie
Virtuality - Short Movie
Published: 2010/07/09
Channel: yiochukangsecondary
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Everyone Is Being 'Astral-Projected'... [FLAT EARTH]
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: the Truth is stranger than fiction...
Simon Critchley. Politics, Nihilism, and the Philosophy of Disappointment. 2010
Simon Critchley. Politics, Nihilism, and the Philosophy of Disappointment. 2010
Published: 2011/03/31
Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
Flat Earth: "Red-Planet Hollywood": NASA
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Published: 2017/06/13
Channel: the Truth is stranger than fiction...
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Published: 2017/06/15
Channel: Zuza Banasińska
Alain Badiou. Toward A Positive Definition of The Infinite. 2011
Alain Badiou. Toward A Positive Definition of The Infinite. 2011
Published: 2011/12/16
Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
Dr. Sundar Sarukkai - "Science, Philosophy, & Non-western Traditions of Knowledge"
Dr. Sundar Sarukkai - "Science, Philosophy, & Non-western Traditions of Knowledge"
Published: 2017/05/01
Channel: Cosmopolitanism and the Local
The Oxford Handbook of Virtuality | Ebook
The Oxford Handbook of Virtuality | Ebook
Published: 2017/02/05
Channel: Avery Jung
Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 7/11
Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 7/11
Published: 2007/10/19
Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
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Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 11/11
Published: 2007/10/21
Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
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Trekosophy s03e03: Klingon Philosophy Redux (02/19/2014)
Published: 2014/03/31
Channel: Trekosophy
Dhruv Raina - Rewriting the History of Science and Philosophy in Late Colonial India
Dhruv Raina - Rewriting the History of Science and Philosophy in Late Colonial India
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Channel: Cosmopolitanism and the Local
At Home: Curatorial Philosophy
At Home: Curatorial Philosophy
Published: 2016/12/23
Channel: National Trust of Australia
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Danish Philosophy of Rain
Published: 2010/06/03
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Kenneth Surin - Was Deleuze a Materialist?
Kenneth Surin - Was Deleuze a Materialist?
Published: 2015/01/04
Channel: Actual Virtual Journal
Slavoj Žižek: Masterclass on Jacques Lacan: A Lateral Introduction - Day 1, 25th May 2006
Slavoj Žižek: Masterclass on Jacques Lacan: A Lateral Introduction - Day 1, 25th May 2006
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Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 9/11
Published: 2007/10/20
Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
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Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 8/11
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Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
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Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 6/11
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Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
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Greg Lynn. The Future of Architecture and Philosophy. 2004 10/11
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Channel: European Graduate School Video Lectures
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Virtuality is a concept in philosophy, particularly that of French thinker Gilles Deleuze[citation needed].

Deleuze used the term virtual to refer to an aspect of reality that is ideal, but nonetheless real. An example of this is the meaning, or sense, of a proposition that is not a material aspect of that proposition (whether written or spoken) but is nonetheless an attribute of that proposition.[citation needed] Both Henri Bergson, who strongly influenced Deleuze, and Deleuze himself build their conception of the virtual in reference to a quotation in which writer Marcel Proust defines a virtuality, memory as "real but not actual, ideal but not abstract". A dictionary definition written by Charles Sanders Peirce supports this understanding of the virtual as something that is "as if" it were real, and the everyday use of the term to indicate what is "virtually" so, but not so in fact.[1]

Deleuze's concept[edit]

Deleuze's concept of the virtual has two aspects: first, the virtual is a kind of surface effect produced by actual causal interactions at the material level.[citation needed] When one uses a computer, the monitor displays an image that depends on physical interactions happening at the level of hardware. The window is nowhere in actuality, but is nonetheless real and can be interacted with. This example actually leads to the second aspect of the virtual that Deleuze insists upon: its generative nature. This virtual is a kind of potentiality that becomes fulfilled in the actual. It is still not material, but it is real.

Deleuze argues that Henri Bergson developed "the notion of the virtual to its highest degree" and that he based his entire philosophy on it.[2] In Bergsonism, Deleuze writes that "virtual" is not opposed to "real" but opposed to "actual", whereas "real" is opposed to "possible".[3] This definition, which is almost indistinguishable from potential, originates in medieval Scholastics and the pseudo-Latin "virtualis". Deleuze identifies the virtual, considered as a continuous multiplicity, with Bergson's "duration": "it is the virtual insofar as it is actualized, in the course of being actualized, it is inseparable from the movement of its actualization."[4]

Other concepts[edit]

Recently this conception of the virtual has been challenged and another core meaning has been elicited by (Denis Berthier, "Meditations on the real and the virtual"—in French), based on uses in science (virtual image), technology (virtual world), and etymology (derivation from virtue—Latin virtus[5]). At the same ontological level as "the possible (ie. ideally-possible) abstractions, representations, or imagined "fictions", the actually-real "material", or the actually-possible "probable", the "virtual" is "ideal-real". It is what is not real, but displays the full qualities of the real—in a plainly actual (i.e., not potential)—way. The prototypical case is a reflection in a mirror: it is already there, whether or not one can see it; it is not waiting for any kind of actualization. This definition allows one to understand that real effects may be issued from a virtual object, so that our perception of it and our whole relation to it, are fully real, even if it is not. This explains how virtual reality can be used to cure phobias. Brian Massumi shows the political implications of this.

However, note that the writers above all use terms such as "possible", "potential" and "real" in different ways and relate the virtual to these other terms differently. Deleuze regards the opposite of the virtual as the actual. Rob Shields argues that the opposite of the virtual is the material for there are other actualities such as a probability (e.g., "risks" are actual dangers that have not yet materialized but there is a "probability" that they will).[6]

The virtual is far more than a technical or communications term. Martin Luther argued in his writing The Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ—Against the Fanatics with other Protestants, most notably Zwingli, over the virtualism of the Christian Eucharist, in allignment with Catholic tradition, that the Eucharist was actually and not virtually the body and blood of Christ.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Peirce, C.S. "Virtual." Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, ed. James Mark Baldwin. New York: Macmillan, 1902.
  2. ^ Deleuze (1966, 43).
  3. ^ Deleuze (1966, 96-98).
  4. ^ Deleuze (1966, 42-43, 81) and Deleuze (2002a, 44).
  5. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". 
  6. ^ Shields, Rob The Virtual Routledge 2003.

Sources[edit]

  • Deleuze, Gilles. 1966. Bergsonism. Trans. Hugh Tomlinson and Barbara Habberjam. NY: Zone, 1991. ISBN 0-942299-07-8.
  • ---. 2002a. Desert Islands and Other Texts 1953-1974. Trans. David Lapoujade. Ed. Michael Taormina. Semiotext(e) Foreign Agents ser. Los Angeles and New York: Semiotext(e), 2004. ISBN 1-58435-018-0.
  • ---. 2002b. "The Actual and the Virtual." In Dialogues II. Rev. ed. Trans. Eliot Ross Albert. New York and Chichester: Columbia UP. 148-152. ISBN 0-8264-9077-8.
  • Christine Buci-Glucksmann, La folie du voir: Une esthétique du virtuel, Galilée, 2002
  • Massumi, Brian. 2002. Parables for the Virtual: Movement, Affect, Sensation. Post-Contemporary Interventions ser. Durham and London: Duke UP. ISBN 0-8223-2897-6.
  • Origins of Virtualism: An Interview with Frank Popper conducted by Joseph Nechvatal", CAA Art Journal, Spring 2004, pp. 62–77
  • Frank Popper, From Technological to Virtual Art, Leonardo Books, MIT Press, 2007
  • Rob Shields, The Virtual Routledge 2003.
  • Rob Shields "Virtualities", Theory Culture and Society 23:2-3. 2006. pp. 284-86.

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