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The Amazing Spider-Man 2 - Virtual Cinematography
The Amazing Spider-Man 2 - Virtual Cinematography
Published: 2015/04/23
Channel: ImageworksVFX
VFX of The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug - Virtual Cinematography
VFX of The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug - Virtual Cinematography
Published: 2014/04/18
Channel: Weta Digital
GCI Course Spotlight: "Virtual Cinematography"
GCI Course Spotlight: "Virtual Cinematography"
Published: 2014/07/03
Channel: Global Cinematography Institute
The Amazing Spider-Man 2 - Virtual Cinematography
The Amazing Spider-Man 2 - Virtual Cinematography
Published: 2016/08/18
Channel: dschaub1015
NewTek LightWave 10 Virtual Cinematography
NewTek LightWave 10 Virtual Cinematography
Published: 2010/07/29
Channel: NewTek
Virtual Cinematography Tools Plugin for Maya v2.0 Alpha
Virtual Cinematography Tools Plugin for Maya v2.0 Alpha
Published: 2014/08/12
Channel: Matt Workman
Testing the Optitrack Insight Virtual Camera System
Testing the Optitrack Insight Virtual Camera System
Published: 2014/09/20
Channel: Artanim Foundation
Virtual Cinematography Tools - Maya Plug-In Alpha v.01
Virtual Cinematography Tools - Maya Plug-In Alpha v.01
Published: 2014/05/06
Channel: Matt Workman
Introducing Realtime Cinematography | Hellblade | Siggraph 2016| Award Winner
Introducing Realtime Cinematography | Hellblade | Siggraph 2016| Award Winner
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: Ninja Theory
Unite Austin 2017 - Disruptive Virtual Cinematography on a Budget
Unite Austin 2017 - Disruptive Virtual Cinematography on a Budget
Published: 2017/10/27
Channel: Unity
FRES | Directing a Scene & Run and Gun Cinematography
FRES | Directing a Scene & Run and Gun Cinematography
Published: 2015/06/29
Channel: Film Riot
Trick of the Light: Cinematography in Silent Films (1896-1927)
Trick of the Light: Cinematography in Silent Films (1896-1927)
Published: 2014/08/15
Channel: dvtvrich
A Personal Philosophy on VR Cinematography
A Personal Philosophy on VR Cinematography
Published: 2016/10/31
Channel: SignedVisuals
PhaseSpace Virtual Cinematography Reel
PhaseSpace Virtual Cinematography Reel
Published: 2016/07/25
Channel: PhaseSpace Demo
How to Light a Sci-Fi Urban Night Exterior
How to Light a Sci-Fi Urban Night Exterior
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: Cinematography Database
The Amazing Spider-Man: Virtual Cinematography
The Amazing Spider-Man: Virtual Cinematography
Published: 2016/08/18
Channel: dschaub1015
Paul Debevec - A Pioneer in Virtual Cinematography
Paul Debevec - A Pioneer in Virtual Cinematography
Published: 2012/09/08
Channel: paloaltofestival
Virtual Reality World
Virtual Reality World
Published: 2014/10/16
Channel: 7ART UNIVERSITY
Virtual cinematography
Virtual cinematography
Published: 2017/08/10
Channel: Search Engine
GCS3® Virtual Cinematography System
GCS3® Virtual Cinematography System
Published: 2009/10/26
Channel: GMCSTR
Virtual Cinematography - Previs & Lighting Diagram "Mega Millions Commercial"
Virtual Cinematography - Previs & Lighting Diagram "Mega Millions Commercial"
Published: 2014/03/21
Channel: Matt Workman
Global Cinematography Institute.  Preparing for the Future
Global Cinematography Institute. Preparing for the Future
Published: 2013/08/30
Channel: FILMCASTLIVE
RollBots™ GCS3® Virtual Cinematography
RollBots™ GCS3® Virtual Cinematography
Published: 2010/10/09
Channel: GMCSTR
How to Film A Wedding | Job Shadow
How to Film A Wedding | Job Shadow
Published: 2017/04/26
Channel: Parker Walbeck
Visual Effects(VFX) - Match Moving & Virtual Cinematography by Outsource3danimation.com
Visual Effects(VFX) - Match Moving & Virtual Cinematography by Outsource3danimation.com
Published: 2010/11/02
Channel: outsource3danimation
VES Awards 2013 - The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey - Outstanding Virtual Cinematography
VES Awards 2013 - The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey - Outstanding Virtual Cinematography
Published: 2013/02/07
Channel: snponline
How Avatar changed filmmaking
How Avatar changed filmmaking
Published: 2012/05/05
Channel: CHCHTelevision
PANORAMA virtual cinematography (introduction)
PANORAMA virtual cinematography (introduction)
Published: 2013/07/18
Channel: Panorama V.C.
GCI Course Spotlight: "Virtual Lighting"
GCI Course Spotlight: "Virtual Lighting"
Published: 2014/07/31
Channel: Global Cinematography Institute
Visual Effects(VFX) - Match Moving & Virtual Cinematography by Outsource3danimation.com
Visual Effects(VFX) - Match Moving & Virtual Cinematography by Outsource3danimation.com
Published: 2010/10/03
Channel: outsource3danimation
Virtual Cinematography Director for Interactive Storytelling
Virtual Cinematography Director for Interactive Storytelling
Published: 2010/03/14
Channel: Edirlei Soares de Lima
time slice 47 GoPro array with chroma key film lighting -  bullet time effect
time slice 47 GoPro array with chroma key film lighting - bullet time effect
Published: 2017/04/10
Channel: Lumos by DMLite
Virtual Location Scouting with Cine Designer
Virtual Location Scouting with Cine Designer
Published: 2017/10/12
Channel: Cinematography Database
Autodesk Virtual Cinematography Exhibit
Autodesk Virtual Cinematography Exhibit
Published: 2008/10/05
Channel: Damon Hernandez
Amazing Demonstration of the virtual camera invented for AVATAR
Amazing Demonstration of the virtual camera invented for AVATAR
Published: 2010/10/21
Channel: Scot Rubin
Global Cinematography Institute.  Teaching Expanded Cinematography 1
Global Cinematography Institute. Teaching Expanded Cinematography 1
Published: 2013/08/30
Channel: FILMCASTLIVE
Sterling Infinity - #Hypnotized - #SexDrone Remix
Sterling Infinity - #Hypnotized - #SexDrone Remix
Published: 2016/10/31
Channel: SterlingInfinityVEVO
The Director
The Director's Lens (ACM Multimedia 2011): A Smart Assistant for Shooting Virtual Cinematography
Published: 2011/11/30
Channel: Christophe Lino
3D Virtual Camera from Gamecaster, Inc.
3D Virtual Camera from Gamecaster, Inc.
Published: 2010/09/16
Channel: James Jacobs
Can You Measure the SOFTNESS of a Light? Solid Angle
Can You Measure the SOFTNESS of a Light? Solid Angle
Published: 2017/09/18
Channel: Cinematography Database
BTS: Filming the Rick and Morty Virtual Rick-ality Trailer
BTS: Filming the Rick and Morty Virtual Rick-ality Trailer
Published: 2017/04/20
Channel: Kert Gartner
CGI Realtime DEMO BTS HD: "Virtual Production Pipeline"  by - Pendulum Studios
CGI Realtime DEMO BTS HD: "Virtual Production Pipeline" by - Pendulum Studios
Published: 2014/01/16
Channel: The CGBros
360 Video Cinematography Tips - IFH Film School - Indie Film Hustle
360 Video Cinematography Tips - IFH Film School - Indie Film Hustle
Published: 2017/11/01
Channel: Indie Film Hustle
The Hangout On Whiteside Mountain - Cinematography Virtual Tour
The Hangout On Whiteside Mountain - Cinematography Virtual Tour
Published: 2016/07/20
Channel: Ringlever Images
Hellblade: Diary 21 - Making a Virtual Human | Real-time performance capture
Hellblade: Diary 21 - Making a Virtual Human | Real-time performance capture
Published: 2016/03/18
Channel: Ninja Theory
chrome0001 0100 NEW
chrome0001 0100 NEW
Published: 2017/11/07
Channel: Bartholomew Rambiert
Shot Orientation Controls for Interactive Cinematography with 360 Video
Shot Orientation Controls for Interactive Cinematography with 360 Video
Published: 2017/09/01
Channel: Amy Pavel
Joshua Lamberty VR Reel
Joshua Lamberty VR Reel
Published: 2016/09/20
Channel: Joshua Lamberty
Lighting Dozen - Natural Light Cinematography Tutorials
Lighting Dozen - Natural Light Cinematography Tutorials
Published: 2016/01/12
Channel: Tom Antos
Drone waypoint planning in virtual reality with Skywand for DJI Phantom, Inspire 1 and Matrice
Drone waypoint planning in virtual reality with Skywand for DJI Phantom, Inspire 1 and Matrice
Published: 2016/04/21
Channel: Carbon Flight Productions
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Virtual cinematography is the set of cinematographic techniques performed in a computer graphics environment. This includes a wide variety of subjects like photographing real objects, often with stereo or multi-camera setup, for the purpose of recreating them as three-dimensional objects and algorithms for automated creation of real and simulated camera angles.

Virtual cinematography allows among other things physically impossible camera movements, in example the so-called bullet time scenes in The Matrix films, the flow-motion camera movements in David Fincher films, the camera runs and the crowd simulations as can be seen in The Lord of the Rings and the airport terminal that doesn't exist looking very real and existing in the Pan Am that aired in 2011–2012.

History[edit]

Matrix trilogy[edit]

Virtual Cinematography came into prominence following the release of The Matrix trilogy especially the last two, The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions. The directors, Andy and Larry Wachowski, tasked visual effects supervisor John Gaeta (who coined the phrase) with developing techniques to allow for virtual "filming" of realistic computer-generated imagery. Gaeta, along with George Borshukov, Kim Libreri and his crew at ESC Entertainment succeeded in creating photo-realistic CGI versions of performers, sets, and action. Their work was based on the findings of Paul Debevec et al. of the acquisition and subsequent simulation of the reflectance field over the human face which was acquired using the simplest of light stages in 2000.[1] Famous scenes that would have been impossible or exceedingly time consuming to do within traditional cinematography include the burly brawl in The Matrix Reloaded where Neo fights up-to-100 Agent Smiths and at the start of the end showdown in The Matrix Revolutions where Agent Smith's cheekbone gets punched in by Neo [2]leaving the digital look-alike unhurt.

David Fincher films[edit]

In the Matrix trilogy, filmmakers used virtual cinematography to heavily attract the audience, David Fincher uses this tool in a much more subtle manner. However these scenes are also attractive, and most of them reach a quite high level of realism, thus the audience usually don't notice that they are actually watching a shot which was created entirely by visual effects artists using 3D computer graphics tools[3].

Other films[edit]

Another series of films of the same era that utilizes virtual cinematography heavily with trademark typical virtual camera runs that could not be achieved with conventional cinematography is The Lord of the Rings filmatization. Other studios and graphics houses with ability or near the ability to do digital look-alikes are in the early 2000s include: Sony Pictures Imageworks (Spider-Man 2 and 3 2004, 2007), Square Pictures (Animatrix - Final Flight of the Osiris prequel to Matrix Reloaded 2003), Image Metrics (Digital Emily 2009) and then later on in 2010s Disney (the antagonist CLU in movie Tron: Legacy 2010) and Activision (Digital Ira 2013)

Virtual Cinematography has evolved greatly since this time and can be found in use prolifically across a spectrum of digital media formats. Subsets technology components of Virtual Cinematography include "computational photography, machine vision, sensor based volumetric video and image based rendering.

Methods[edit]

Once the 3D geometry, textures, reflectance field and motion capture are done and an adequate capture and simulation of the BSDF over all needed surfaces and the virtual content has been assembled into a scene within a 3D engine, it can then be creatively composed, relighted and re-photographed from other angles by a virtual camera as if the action was happening for the first time.

Geometry can be acquired from a 3D scanner or from multiple photographs using machine vision technology called photogrammetry. The people at ESC entertainment used Arius3D scanner in the making of the Matrix sequels to acquire details of size of 100 µm such as fine wrinkles and skin pores.[1] Textures can be captured easily from photographs. Reflectance field is captured into BSDF's over the surface of the XYZRGB object using a light stage. Dense aka. markerless motion capture and multi-camera setup (similar to the bullet time rig) photogrammetric capture technique called optical flow was used in making digital look-alikes for the Matrix movies.[4]

Modification, re-direction and enhancements to the scene are possible as well. The rendered result can appear highly realistic, or rather, "photo-realistic". Virtual cinematography is the creation process. Virtual effects are stylistic modifications being applied within this format. Virtual cinema is the result. Its main applications are in movie, video game, leisure and disinformation industries.

The art of "photographing" any computer-generated imagery content with a virtual camera is still virtual cinematography by means of taking a 2D photo of a three-dimensional model, where as virtual cinematography is a capturing process of four-dimensional (XYZT) events into higher dimension functions such as a bidirectional texture function (7D) or a collection of BSDF over the target.

The advent of virtual worlds has given a new push to this concept since they allow the creation of real-time animation by using camera moves and avatar control techniques that are not possible by using traditional film-making methods.

Retroactively obtaining camera movement data from the captured footage is known as match moving or camera tracking. It is a form of motion estimation.

Software[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Debevec, Paul; Tim Hawkins; Chris Tchou; Haarm-Pieter Duiker; Westley Sarokin; Mark Sagar (2000). "Acquiring the reflectance field of a human face". ACM. doi:10.1145/344779.344855. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 
  2. ^ George Borshukov, Presented at Imagina’04. "Making of The Superpunch" (PDF). 
  3. ^ kaptainkristian. "David Fincher - Invisible Details". 
  4. ^ Debevec, Paul; J. P. Lewis (2005). "Realistic human face rendering for "The Matrix Reloaded"". ACM. doi:10.1145/1198555.1198593. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 

Further reading[edit]

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