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W3C: The World Wide Web Consortium
W3C: The World Wide Web Consortium
Published: 2011/11/16
Channel: Cole Creative - Boston
The World Wide Web Consortium
The World Wide Web Consortium
Published: 2012/11/20
Channel: Coursewell
What is the world wide web? - Twila Camp
What is the world wide web? - Twila Camp
Published: 2014/05/12
Channel: TED-Ed
World Wide Web Consortium
World Wide Web Consortium
Published: 2016/09/16
Channel: WikiWikiup
Tim Berners-Lee ~ The World Wide Web
Tim Berners-Lee ~ The World Wide Web
Published: 2013/04/28
Channel: Dap Dapple
W3C  The World Wide Web Consortium
W3C The World Wide Web Consortium
Published: 2016/11/14
Channel: OHM Hz
The Internet : The World Wide Web Part 2 (04:04)
The Internet : The World Wide Web Part 2 (04:04)
Published: 2014/06/08
Channel: Mr. Ford's Class
How the World Wide Web just happened - Tim Berners-Lee
How the World Wide Web just happened - Tim Berners-Lee
Published: 2012/06/24
Channel: Do Lectures
The World Wide Web in Plain English
The World Wide Web in Plain English
Published: 2013/06/19
Channel: jpoole0003
Difference between Internet and World Wide Web
Difference between Internet and World Wide Web
Published: 2016/07/29
Channel: Difference Between
World Wide Web: Ten Year Anniversary (2004)
World Wide Web: Ten Year Anniversary (2004)
Published: 2014/06/25
Channel: WGBHForum
World Wide Web Creator Worries About Internet Control
World Wide Web Creator Worries About Internet Control
Published: 2009/10/26
Channel: FORA.tv
01 08 Web standards and the W3C
01 08 Web standards and the W3C
Published: 2015/06/04
Channel: Fjellape100
Who Is The World Wide Web Consortium?
Who Is The World Wide Web Consortium?
Published: 2017/11/08
Channel: Kloot Kubw
Birth of the World Wide Web
Birth of the World Wide Web
Published: 2014/11/17
Channel: Computer History Museum
Who Is The World Wide Web Consortium?
Who Is The World Wide Web Consortium?
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: Oakley Oakley
Making the World Wide Web More Usable to a Wider World
Making the World Wide Web More Usable to a Wider World
Published: 2010/12/14
Channel: VOA Learning English
world wide wed en español
world wide wed en español
Published: 2013/03/29
Channel: alfonso martinez
Tim Berners-Lee (M.I.T.), father of the World Wide Web...
Tim Berners-Lee (M.I.T.), father of the World Wide Web...
Published: 2006/08/20
Channel: heikoxxxxxx
What Is The World Wide Web?
What Is The World Wide Web?
Published: 2017/11/28
Channel: Sri Rise
The Internet versus The World Wide Web
The Internet versus The World Wide Web
Published: 2013/05/01
Channel: Dexter Erntwistle
What is the W3C Standard?
What is the W3C Standard?
Published: 2009/02/02
Channel: greenedeveloper
CSS Introduction on edX.org from Microsoft and the W3C
CSS Introduction on edX.org from Microsoft and the W3C
Published: 2016/09/15
Channel: Microsoft Virtual Academy
MIT Media Lab - Bitcoin Development Fund - World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
MIT Media Lab - Bitcoin Development Fund - World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
Published: 2016/08/23
Channel: Bitcoin Criptomonedas
What Is The Internet or World Wide Web Really
What Is The Internet or World Wide Web Really
Published: 2017/07/25
Channel: Dave M
Inventor of WWW on the Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web (1999)
Inventor of WWW on the Original Design and Ultimate Destiny of the World Wide Web (1999)
Published: 2016/08/26
Channel: Way Back
HTML5 and CSS3 Beginner Tutorial 10 - W3C and Validating your code
HTML5 and CSS3 Beginner Tutorial 10 - W3C and Validating your code
Published: 2013/02/16
Channel: Quentin Watt Tutorials
When Was The World Wide Web Invented?
When Was The World Wide Web Invented?
Published: 2017/11/08
Channel: Cwerd Ceel
"W3C Talks EME/DRM with Lunduke" - Lunduke Hour - July 14, 2017
"W3C Talks EME/DRM with Lunduke" - Lunduke Hour - July 14, 2017
Published: 2017/07/14
Channel: Bryan Lunduke
Free learning free downloading code w3.org and w3schools ( Online Web Tutorials )
Free learning free downloading code w3.org and w3schools ( Online Web Tutorials )
Published: 2014/05/12
Channel: Tharanga Niroshana
La World Wide Web
La World Wide Web
Published: 2014/04/02
Channel: daniela valdebenito
#FIBEREDUP Interview w/ Harry Halpin of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
#FIBEREDUP Interview w/ Harry Halpin of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
Published: 2014/04/03
Channel: Len Raleigh
Richard Ishida (W3C): New Internationalization Developments at the World Wide Web Consortium (MLW 7)
Richard Ishida (W3C): New Internationalization Developments at the World Wide Web Consortium (MLW 7)
Published: 2014/07/28
Channel: MultilingualWeb
Inventor Talks How World Wide Web was Created
Inventor Talks How World Wide Web was Created
Published: 2014/03/12
Channel: The More We Know
Timothy Berners Lee
Timothy Berners Lee
Published: 2016/03/08
Channel: InfiniteHistoryProject MIT
Tim Berners Lee 2009 La próxima Web spanish
Tim Berners Lee 2009 La próxima Web spanish
Published: 2009/06/03
Channel: Joaquin Rueda
What Is The World Wide Web?
What Is The World Wide Web?
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: wise sparky
Who Is The Owner Of The World Wide Web?
Who Is The Owner Of The World Wide Web?
Published: 2017/11/08
Channel: Kloot Kubw
El futuro de la Web 1/2: Tim Berners-Lee en TED 2009
El futuro de la Web 1/2: Tim Berners-Lee en TED 2009
Published: 2009/05/31
Channel: AjmmeKajros
World Wide Web in Plain English
World Wide Web in Plain English
Published: 2010/09/07
Channel: comunicazioneattiva
How Was The World Wide Web Created
How Was The World Wide Web Created
Published: 2017/11/04
Channel: Aluem Alam
Full Form Of WWWC
Full Form Of WWWC
Published: 2016/08/10
Channel: Genius Today
When Was The World Wide Web Created?
When Was The World Wide Web Created?
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: kanishk kanishk
Tim Berners-Lee, Inventor of World Wide Web, wins $1 million A. M. Turing Award | QPT
Tim Berners-Lee, Inventor of World Wide Web, wins $1 million A. M. Turing Award | QPT
Published: 2017/04/05
Channel: Rajamanickam Antonimuthu
Jeff Jaffe, W3C - Driving Adoption of Open Web Standards (10/13/2015)
Jeff Jaffe, W3C - Driving Adoption of Open Web Standards (10/13/2015)
Published: 2015/10/30
Channel: Open edX
World Wide Web Definitions
World Wide Web Definitions
Published: 2013/09/07
Channel: Trevor Dean
How Does The World Wide Web Work
How Does The World Wide Web Work
Published: 2017/11/04
Channel: Bestry Belo
When Did Tim Berners Lee Create The World Wide Web?
When Did Tim Berners Lee Create The World Wide Web?
Published: 2017/07/04
Channel: sparky markett
What Is The Meaning Of W3c?
What Is The Meaning Of W3c?
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: Til Til
When Was The World Wide Web Invented?
When Was The World Wide Web Invented?
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: Oakley Oakley
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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World Wide Web Consortium
W3C® Icon.svg
Abbreviation W3C
Motto Leading the Web to Its Full Potential
Formation 1 October 1994; 23 years ago (1994-10-01)
Type Standards organization
Purpose Developing protocols and guidelines that ensure long-term growth for the Web.
Headquarters Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S.
Location
Region served
Worldwide
Membership
463 member organizations[2]
Director
Tim Berners-Lee
Staff
62
Website www.w3.org

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3).

Founded and currently led by Tim Berners-Lee,[3] the consortium is made up of member organizations which maintain full-time staff for the purpose of working together in the development of standards for the World Wide Web. As of 24 September 2017, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has 463 members.[2]

The W3C also engages in education and outreach, develops software and serves as an open forum for discussion about the Web.

History[edit]

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) was founded by Tim Berners-Lee after he left the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) (Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire) in October, 1994. It was founded at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Computer Science (MIT/LCS) with support from the European Commission and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA),[3] which had pioneered the Internet and its predecessor ARPANET.

The organization tries to foster compatibility and agreement among industry members in the adoption of new standards defined by the W3C. Incompatible versions of HTML are offered by different vendors, causing inconsistency in how web pages are displayed. The consortium tries to get all those vendors to implement a set of core principles and components which are chosen by the consortium.

It was originally intended that CERN host the European branch of W3C; however, CERN wished to focus on particle physics, not information technology. In April 1995, the French Institute for Research in Computer Science and Automation (INRIA) became the European host of W3C, with Keio University Research Institute at SFC (KRIS) becoming the Asian host in September 1996[4]. Starting in 1997, W3C created regional offices around the world. As of September 2009, it had eighteen World Offices covering Australia, the Benelux countries (Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Belgium), Brazil, China, Finland, Germany, Austria, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Israel, Italy, South Korea, Morocco, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, and, as of 2016, the United Kingdom and Ireland.[5]

In October 2012, W3C convened a community of major web players and publishers to establish a MediaWiki wiki that seeks to document open web standards called the WebPlatform and WebPlatform Docs.

In January 2013, Beihang University became the Chinese host.

Specification maturation[edit]

Sometimes, when a specification becomes too large, it is split into independent modules which can mature at their own pace. Subsequent editions of a module or specification are known as levels and are denoted by the first integer in the title (e.g. CSS3 = Level 3). Subsequent revisions on each level are denoted by an integer following a decimal point (e.g. CSS2.1 = Revision 1).

The W3C standard formation process is defined within the W3C process document, outlining four maturity levels through which each new standard or recommendation must progress.[6]

Working draft (WD)[edit]

After enough content has been gathered from 'editor drafts' and discussion, it may be published as a working draft (WD) for review by the community. A WD document is the first form of a standard that is publicly available. Commentary by virtually anyone is accepted, though no promises are made with regard to action on any particular element commented upon.[6]

At this stage, the standard document may have significant differences from its final form. As such, anyone who implements WD standards should be ready to significantly modify their implementations as the standard matures.[6]

Candidate recommendation (CR)[edit]

A candidate recommendation is a version of a standard that is more mature than the WD. At this point, the group responsible for the standard is satisfied that the standard meets its goal. The purpose of the CR is to elicit aid from the development community as to how implementable the standard is.[6]

The standard document may change further, but at this point, significant features are mostly decided. The design of those features can still change due to feedback from implementors.[6]

Proposed recommendation (PR)[edit]

A proposed recommendation is the version of a standard that has passed the prior two levels. The users of the standard provide input. At this stage, the document is submitted to the W3C Advisory Council for final approval.[6]

While this step is important, it rarely causes any significant changes to a standard as it passes to the next phase.[6]

Both candidates and proposals may enter "last call" to signal that any further feedback must be provided.[citation needed]

W3C recommendation (REC)[edit]

This is the most mature stage of development. At this point, the standard has undergone extensive review and testing, under both theoretical and practical conditions. The standard is now endorsed by the W3C, indicating its readiness for deployment to the public, and encouraging more widespread support among implementors and authors.[6]

Recommendations can sometimes be implemented incorrectly, partially, or not at all, but many standards define two or more levels of conformance that developers must follow if they wish to label their product as W3C-compliant.[6]

Later revisions[edit]

A recommendation may be updated or extended by separately-published, non-technical errata or editor drafts until sufficient substantial edits accumulate for producing a new edition or level of the recommendation. Additionally, the W3C publishes various kinds of informative notes which are to be used as references.[6]

Certification[edit]

Unlike the ISOC and other international standards bodies, the W3C does not have a certification program. The W3C has decided, for now, that it is not suitable to start such a program, owing to the risk of creating more drawbacks for the community than benefits.[6]

Administration[edit]

The Consortium is jointly administered by the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL, located in Stata Center[7]) in the USA, the European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics (ERCIM) (in Sophia Antipolis, France), Keio University (in Japan) and Beihang University (in China).[8] The W3C also has World Offices in sixteen regions around the world. The W3C Offices work with their regional web communities to promote W3C technologies in local languages, broaden the W3C's geographical base and encourage international participation in W3C Activities.[citation needed]

The W3C has a staff team of 70–80 worldwide as of 2015.[9] W3C is run by a management team which allocates resources and designs strategy, led by CEO Jeffrey Jaffe (as of March 2010),[10] former CTO of Novell. It also includes an advisory board which supports in strategy and legal matters and helps resolve conflicts.[11] The majority of standardization work is done by external experts in the W3C's various working groups.[citation needed]

Membership[edit]

The Consortium is governed by its membership. The list of members is available to the public.[2] Members include businesses, nonprofit organizations, universities, governmental entities, and individuals.[12]

Membership requirements are transparent except for one requirement: An application for membership must be reviewed and approved by the W3C. Many guidelines and requirements are stated in detail, but there is no final guideline about the process or standards by which membership might be finally approved or denied.[13]

The cost of membership is given on a sliding scale, depending on the character of the organization applying and the country in which it is located.[14] Countries are categorized by the World Bank's most recent grouping by GNI ("Gross National Income") per capita.[15]

Criticism[edit]

In 2012 and 2013, the W3C started considering adding DRM-specific Encrypted Media Extensions (EME) to HTML5, which was criticised as being against the openness, interoperability, and vendor neutrality that distinguished websites built using only W3C standards from those requiring proprietary plug-ins like Flash.[16][17][18][19][20]

On September 18, 2017, the W3C published the EME specification as a Recommendation, leading to Electronic Frontier Foundation's resignation from W3C.[21][22]

Standards[edit]

W3C/IETF standards (over Internet protocol suite):

References[edit]

  1. ^ "W3C Invites Chinese Web Developers, Industry, Academia to Assume Greater Role in Global Web Innovation". W3.org. 2013-01-20. Retrieved 2013-11-30. 
  2. ^ a b c "World Wide Web Consortium – current Members". World Wide Web Consortium. 29 March 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2017. 
  3. ^ a b W3C (September 2009). "World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) About the Consortium". Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  4. ^ "Press Release: Keio University joins MIT and INRIA in hosting W3C". www.w3.org. Retrieved 2017-07-13. 
  5. ^ Jacobs, Ian (June 2009). "W3C Offices". Retrieved 14 September 2009. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "World Wide Web Consortium | Development Process". W3.org. 2005-04-12. Retrieved 2012-04-03. 
  7. ^ "W3C Contact". W3.org. 2006-10-31. Retrieved 2012-04-03. 
  8. ^ "Facts About W3C". W3C. Retrieved 7 November 2015. 
  9. ^ "W3C people list". W3.org. Retrieved 2012-04-03. 
  10. ^ "W3C pulls former Novell CTO for CEO spot". Itworld.com. 2010-03-08. Retrieved 2012-04-03. 
  11. ^ "The World Wide Web Consortium: Building a Better Internet". Mays Digital. Retrieved 7 November 2015. 
  12. ^ W3C (2010). "Membership FAQ – W3C". Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  13. ^ Jacobs, Ian (2008). "Join W3C". Retrieved 14 September 2008. 
  14. ^ W3C Membership Fee Calculator
  15. ^ "World Bank Country Classification". Web.worldbank.org. Retrieved 3 July 2010. 
  16. ^ Cory Doctorow (12 March 2013). "What I wish Tim Berners-Lee understood about DRM". Technology blog at guardian.co.uk. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  17. ^ Glyn Moody (13 February 2013). "BBC Attacks the Open Web, GNU/Linux in Danger". Open Enterprise blog at ComputerworldUK.com. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2013. 
  18. ^ Scott Gilbertson (12 February 2013). "DRM for the Web? Say It Ain't So". Webmonkey. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  19. ^ "Tell W3C: We don't want the Hollyweb". Defective by Design. Free Software Foundation. March 2013. Archived from the original on 6 April 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2013. 
  20. ^ Danny O'Brien (October 2013). "Lowering Your Standards: DRM and the Future of the W3C". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 2013-10-03. 
  21. ^ Peter Bright (2017-09-18). "HTML5 DRM finally makes it as an official W3C Recommendation". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  22. ^ Cory Doctorow (2017-09-18). "An open letter to the W3C Director, CEO, team and membership". Blog at Electronic Frontier Foundation. Retrieved 2017-09-18. 
  23. ^ Groth, Paul; Moreau, Luc (April 30, 2013). "PROV-Overview: An Overview of the PROV Family of Documents". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved April 8, 2016. 

External links[edit]

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