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The War Powers Resolution Explained: US History Review
The War Powers Resolution Explained: US History Review
Published: 2016/01/04
Channel: Keith Hughes
Presidential Powers 2: Crash Course Government and Politics #12
Presidential Powers 2: Crash Course Government and Politics #12
Published: 2015/04/17
Channel: CrashCourse
John Stossel - War Powers
John Stossel - War Powers
Published: 2013/09/19
Channel: LibertyPen
The Constitution and the Power to "Declare War"
The Constitution and the Power to "Declare War"
Published: 2016/09/21
Channel: Tenth Amendment Center
Constitutional War Power: The Founders
Constitutional War Power: The Founders' Framework
Published: 2017/06/02
Channel: The Federalist Society
U.S. Constitution Repudiated (War Powers Clause)
U.S. Constitution Repudiated (War Powers Clause)
Published: 2016/01/30
Channel: 7th Day Truth Seeker
The Constitutional War Powers of the Executive and Legislative Branches
The Constitutional War Powers of the Executive and Legislative Branches
Published: 2017/07/12
Channel: The Federalist Society
A Brief History of War Powers
A Brief History of War Powers
Published: 2016/06/15
Channel: FORA.tv
The Phony Case for Presidential War Powers
The Phony Case for Presidential War Powers
Published: 2011/03/25
Channel: TomWoodsTV
How Are The War Powers Divided Between The President And Congress?
How Are The War Powers Divided Between The President And Congress?
Published: 2017/10/07
Channel: Pin Pin 1
War Powers in Practice (1 of 5)
War Powers in Practice (1 of 5)
Published: 2009/11/09
Channel: David Swanson
DeFazio: Congress should keep war powers in check with Trump in charge
DeFazio: Congress should keep war powers in check with Trump in charge
Published: 2017/10/12
Channel: The Oregonian
American War Powers
American War Powers
Published: 2017/06/09
Channel: A Platform 4 Pueblo
Republicans Want To Give Obama Martial Law Powers
Republicans Want To Give Obama Martial Law Powers
Published: 2016/01/29
Channel: The Alex Jones Channel
War Powers in the 21st Century, John Yoo
War Powers in the 21st Century, John Yoo
Published: 2017/04/21
Channel: Claremont McKenna College
War Powers Clause
War Powers Clause
Published: 2016/07/30
Channel: Erick Sbastian
The President
The President's Use of War Power
Published: 2013/08/21
Channel: JoeRyanCivilWar
Congressional War Powers
Congressional War Powers
Published: 2012/09/27
Channel: TheLibertyReporter
War Powers and the Constitution
War Powers and the Constitution
Published: 2017/09/13
Channel: National Constitution Center
Schiff on Whether Congress Has Abdicated War Powers: Absolutely
Schiff on Whether Congress Has Abdicated War Powers: Absolutely
Published: 2014/09/21
Channel: National Review
War Powers: Judging Constitutional Authority
War Powers: Judging Constitutional Authority
Published: 2014/01/28
Channel: Centre for International Policy Studies uOttawa
George Washington on the Power to Declare War
George Washington on the Power to Declare War
Published: 2017/04/22
Channel: Tenth Amendment Center
War Powers Act and more...
War Powers Act and more...
Published: 2015/02/10
Channel: EyeontheTigers
Obama Usurps U.S.  War Powers
Obama Usurps U.S. War Powers
Published: 2016/01/27
Channel: The Alex Jones Channel
U.S. War Powers Clarke Forum
U.S. War Powers Clarke Forum
Published: 2015/02/13
Channel: Clarke Forum for Contemporary Issues
The Pres Unlimited War Powers
The Pres Unlimited War Powers
Published: 2016/01/24
Channel: mike morales
Lawsuit on Congressional War Powers
Lawsuit on Congressional War Powers
Published: 2016/05/09
Channel: Our Hidden History
Lincoln
Lincoln's War Powers
Published: 2017/03/09
Channel: Samantha Riehbrandt
War Powers Movie1
War Powers Movie1
Published: 2017/05/08
Channel: Cooper_ Sly
War Powers
War Powers
Published: 2017/04/24
Channel: Eric Rader
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln's Invention of Presidential War Powers
Published: 2010/09/30
Channel: UChannel
U.S. Senator Says The President Will Be Granted Unlimited War Powers With No Expiration Date!
U.S. Senator Says The President Will Be Granted Unlimited War Powers With No Expiration Date!
Published: 2016/01/26
Channel: NehemiYAH
Obama
Obama's Unprecedented War Powers Claims
Published: 2011/06/23
Channel: The Cato Institute
The Constitution still matters people. War Powers Clause.  Bombing Syria was Unconstitutional.
The Constitution still matters people. War Powers Clause. Bombing Syria was Unconstitutional.
Published: 2017/04/08
Channel: SEC's Youtube Circus
Presidential War Powers: The Truth and the Lies
Presidential War Powers: The Truth and the Lies
Published: 2015/04/17
Channel: TomWoodsTV
Who Has The Power To Declare War?
Who Has The Power To Declare War?
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Question Bank
Who Has The Power To Declare War
Who Has The Power To Declare War
Published: 2017/09/06
Channel: Question Around
NSL PROJECT- War Powers Act
NSL PROJECT- War Powers Act
Published: 2017/06/08
Channel: Mike Feeney
One Minute For Liberty - War Powers and Congress
One Minute For Liberty - War Powers and Congress
Published: 2013/10/13
Channel: American Daily Herald
What Is The War Powers Act?
What Is The War Powers Act?
Published: 2017/09/11
Channel: Question Me
Senator Graham, Congress ALONE May Declare War!
Senator Graham, Congress ALONE May Declare War!
Published: 2016/02/05
Channel: Mason Chandler
Resolved: That the President
Resolved: That the President's War Powers are (Nearly) Absolute 9-15-11
Published: 2011/09/23
Channel: The Federalist Society
THE WAR POWERS ACT (Part I)[Vyzygoth hosts The Informer]
THE WAR POWERS ACT (Part I)[Vyzygoth hosts The Informer]
Published: 2011/02/15
Channel: wind0wninja
WH Open to Negotiating War Powers with Congress
WH Open to Negotiating War Powers with Congress
Published: 2015/02/23
Channel: CBN News
Eric Cantor Thinks President has Power to Declare War not Congress
Eric Cantor Thinks President has Power to Declare War not Congress
Published: 2010/10/15
Channel: The Liberty Activist
War Powers Principles: Constitution, Laws, and the Will of the People (2 of 8)
War Powers Principles: Constitution, Laws, and the Will of the People (2 of 8)
Published: 2009/11/06
Channel: David Swanson
Who Has The Power To Declare War
Who Has The Power To Declare War
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: Tip Tip 2
War Powers Principles: Constitution, Laws, and the Will of the People (1 of 8)
War Powers Principles: Constitution, Laws, and the Will of the People (1 of 8)
Published: 2009/11/06
Channel: David Swanson
War Powers Act
War Powers Act
Published: 2017/04/08
Channel: The Discernment Channel
Coco Gee - Declare War Clause
Coco Gee - Declare War Clause
Published: 2013/11/25
Channel: Ronnoc Realm
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Article I, Section 8, Clause 11 of the United States Constitution, sometimes referred to as the War Powers Clause, vests in the Congress the power to declare war, in the following wording:

[The Congress shall have Power...] To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

A number of wars have been declared under the United States Constitution, although there is some controversy as to the exact number, as the Constitution does not specify the form of such a declaration.

History and usage[edit]

Five wars have been declared by Congress under their constitutional power to do so: the War of 1812, the Mexican–American War, the Spanish–American War, World War I, and World War II.[1]

In a message to Congress on May 11, 1846, the president, James K. Polk, announced that Texas was about to become a state. Consequentially, Mexico then threatened to invade Texas, upon which the President amassed troops in the area of Corpus Christi. Texas then became a state, and US troops moved into an area in which the new international boundary was disputed. Mexican troops moved into the same area, and the two forces clashed. The President then stated "after reiterated menaces, Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil. She has proclaimed that hostilities have commenced and that the two nations are now at war."[2] Some in Congress wondered if this were so, including Abraham Lincoln. He wrote in a letter to his law partner:

"Let me first state what I understand to be your position. It is, that if it shall become necessary, to repel invasion, the President may, without violation of the Constitution, cross the line and invade the territory of another country; and that whether such necessity exists in any given case, the President is to be the sole judge. ... But Allow the President to invade a neighboring nation, whenever he shall deem it necessary to repel an invasion, and you allow him to do so, whenever he may choose to say he deems it necessary for such purpose—and allow him to make war at pleasure. … If, to-day, he should choose to say he thinks it necessary to invade Canada, to prevent the British from invading us, how could you stop him? You may say to him, 'I see no probability of the British invading us' but he will say to you 'be silent; I see it, if you don't.'

"The provision of the Constitution giving the war-making power to Congress, was dictated, as I understand it, by the following reasons. Kings had always been involving and impoverishing their people in wars, pretending generally, if not always, that the good of the people was the object. This our Convention understood to be the most oppressive of all Kingly oppressions; and they resolved to so frame the Constitution that no one man should hold the power of bringing this oppression upon us. But your view destroys the whole matter, and places our President where kings have always stood."[3][4]

Then-congress member Lincoln moved for a Resolution issuing the President interrogatories (questions) so that Congress could determine for itself the exact "spot" of the conflict and whether the Congress believed it to be inside the United States.[5] Regardless, Congress did, by roll-call vote, declare war.[6]

If it was true that the war was ongoing, because the President had to repel a sudden attack, this was contemplated by the framers of the Constitution, in Philadelphia, during August of the summer of 1787, when the wording of the proposed Constitution was being finalized, the draft read that Congress could "make war." This was changed to "declare war" specifically in order to allow the President to defend the country from sudden attacks. "Mr. Madison and Mr. Gerry moved to insert "declare," striking out "make" war; leaving to the Executive the power to repel sudden attacks."[7]

American Presidents often have not sought formal declarations of war, instead maintaining that they have the Constitutional authority, as commander in chief (Article Two, Section Two) to use the military for "police actions".

The Korean War was the first modern example of the U.S. being taken to war without a formal declaration,[8] and this has been repeated in every armed conflict since. Beginning with the Vietnam War, however, Congress has given other various forms of authorization to do so. Some debate continues as to the appropriateness of these, as well as the tendency of the Executive Branch to engage in the origination of such a push, its marketing, and even propagandizing or related activities to generate such support.

Thus in light of the speculation concerning the Gulf of Tonkin Incident and the possible abuse of the authorization that followed, in 1973 Congress passed the War Powers Resolution, which requires the President to obtain either a declaration of war or a resolution authorizing the use of force from Congress within 60 days of initiating hostilities with a full disclosure of facts in the process. Its constitutionality has never been settled, and some Presidents have criticized it as an unconstitutional encroachment upon the President. In 2007, University of Virginia professor Larry J. Sabato proposed a Constitutional amendment in his book A More Perfect Constitution that would settle the issue by spelling out the exact powers of each branch in the Constitution itself. One counter-argument is that the Constitution is a "living document" which has survived for over 200 years because not everything is "spelled out." In the area of the War Powers Clause, the flexibility provided by the requirement for a Congressional statute permitting war (a declaration of war) and Constitutional interpretation could be sufficient. The President could defend the country, but not—by himself—use the military offensively. This would not require a Constitutional amendment or a statute like the War Powers Resolution; it has been with us since 1787.

Some legal scholars maintain that offensive, non-police military actions, while a Quorum can still be convened (see Continuity of Government), taken without a formal Congressional declaration of war is unconstitutional since no amendment with two-thirds majority of states has changed the original intent to make the War Powers Resolution legally binding. However, the Supreme Court has never ruled directly on the matter and to date no counter-resolutions have come to a vote. In the absence of a determination by the US Supreme Court, the Separation of Powers produces a stalemate on this issue.

Constitutional convention debate[edit]

Pierce Butler of South Carolina was only delegate to the Philadelphia Convention who suggested giving the Executive the power to take offensive military action.[9] He suggested the President should be able to, but in practice would have the character not to do so without mass support. Elbridge Gerry, a delegate from Massachusetts, summed up the majority viewpoint saying he "never expected to hear in a republic a motion to empower the Executive alone to declare war." George Mason, Thomas Jefferson, and others voiced similar sentiments.[10]

Supreme Court cases[edit]

Other Court cases[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Congressional Power to Declare War". The people's Guide to the United States Constitution. The people's Guide to the United States Constitution. Retrieved 28 August 2013. 
  2. ^ WETA last visited 1/22/2011
  3. ^ Abraham Lincoln: a Documentary Portrait Through His Speeches and Writings. Don E. Fehrenbacher, editor., Stanford University Press, Stanford. CA (1996)
  4. ^ Lincoln on Democracy, Mario M. Cuomo and Harold Holzer (Fordham University Press, 2004) pp. 36–37.
  5. ^ http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mal&fileName=mal1/000/0007000/malpage.db&recNum=0 last visited 1/21/2011
  6. ^ Image of page of The Congressional Globe newspaper, May 12, 1846, p. 804, illustrating the Senate roll-call vote
  7. ^ 2 Farrand Records 317
  8. ^ "The Constitution & War: Congress Declares & President Wages". PonderPost. Retrieved 1 September 2013. 
  9. ^ Fisher, Louis (April 10, 2008). "“War Powers for the 21st Century: The Constitutional Perspective”- Statement presented in appearance before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs" (PDF). Library of Congress. Retrieved 2013-08-27. 
  10. ^ Max Rerrand, The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 (rev. ed. 1937) at 318-219

Further reading[edit]

  • Fisher, Louis (2004) Presidential War Power, 2d Rev. Edition. University Press of Kansas
  • Hendrickson, Ryan C. The Clinton Wars: Congress, the Constitution and War Powers. Vanderbilt University Press, 2002
  • Lawson, Gary, "Delegation and Original Meaning" (October 2, 2001). Virginia Law Review, Vol. 88, April 2002
  • Madison, James. Federalist No. 45, The Federalist Papers
  • Woods, Thomas. Presidential War Powers, LewRockwell.com
  • Yoo, John C., "War and the Constitutional Text" . University of Chicago Law Review, Vol. 69, No. 4, Fall 2002
  • 2 Records of the Federal Convention of 1787, at 318-19 (Max Farrand ed. 1937).

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