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How to measure the wheelbase of your vehicle
How to measure the wheelbase of your vehicle
Published: 2012/06/11
Channel: Airtex/ASC Performance Pumps
Why is wheelbase important on skateboards?
Why is wheelbase important on skateboards?
Published: 2011/01/21
Channel: SkateboardCalifornia
Range Rover Autobiography Long Wheelbase - Magnificent
Range Rover Autobiography Long Wheelbase - Magnificent
Published: 2014/02/04
Channel: TheSmokingTire
2017 Bentley Mulsanne Extended Wheelbase (EWB) Limousine FIRST DRIVE REVIEW (3 of 4)
2017 Bentley Mulsanne Extended Wheelbase (EWB) Limousine FIRST DRIVE REVIEW (3 of 4)
Published: 2016/06/25
Channel: MotoManTV
2017 Bentley Mulsanne Extended Wheelbase (EWB) Review
2017 Bentley Mulsanne Extended Wheelbase (EWB) Review
Published: 2017/03/07
Channel: Ben Wayne
[4k] For Sale Range Rover SV Autobiography V8 Supercharged Long Wheelbase at Premium Cars Stockholm
[4k] For Sale Range Rover SV Autobiography V8 Supercharged Long Wheelbase at Premium Cars Stockholm
Published: 2016/12/07
Channel: GTBOARD.com
2004 Flat Top Peterbilt 379, 475 Cat Motor, 280" Wheelbase
2004 Flat Top Peterbilt 379, 475 Cat Motor, 280" Wheelbase
Published: 2014/09/28
Channel: Smart-Trucking.com
Top Gear:  Long Wheel Base Cars
Top Gear: Long Wheel Base Cars
Published: 2016/04/01
Channel: Bridger987
Handyman Corner Variable Wheelbase
Handyman Corner Variable Wheelbase
Published: 2017/02/03
Channel: RedGreenTV
long wheelbase Kenworth K100
long wheelbase Kenworth K100
Published: 2012/10/01
Channel: LargeCarMag
WHEELBASE ALTURA MGD BC Elite team – 2017 launch
WHEELBASE ALTURA MGD BC Elite team – 2017 launch
Published: 2017/03/11
Channel: wheelbaseuk
1978 Peterbilt 359, 3408 Cat, 325" Wheelbase
1978 Peterbilt 359, 3408 Cat, 325" Wheelbase
Published: 2014/09/20
Channel: Smart-Trucking.com
2017 Bentley Mulsanne Extended Wheelbase Rear Seats | Autoblog Short Cuts
2017 Bentley Mulsanne Extended Wheelbase Rear Seats | Autoblog Short Cuts
Published: 2016/02/24
Channel: Autoblog
Fanatec Clubsport Wheelbase V2.5 full review by The Simpit
Fanatec Clubsport Wheelbase V2.5 full review by The Simpit
Published: 2017/04/01
Channel: The Simpit
Fanatec CSL Elite Wheel Base Review + Comparison to Thrustmaster TX and Fanatec CSW V2
Fanatec CSL Elite Wheel Base Review + Comparison to Thrustmaster TX and Fanatec CSW V2
Published: 2016/10/12
Channel: Inside Sim Racing
2017 Mercedes-Benz E-Class long-wheelbase Overview
2017 Mercedes-Benz E-Class long-wheelbase Overview
Published: 2016/04/28
Channel: Auto News
HaylettRV - How does Wheel Base affect Towing? with Josh the RV Nerd
HaylettRV - How does Wheel Base affect Towing? with Josh the RV Nerd
Published: 2017/06/05
Channel: Haylett RV
2017 Bentley Mulsanne Speed & Bentley Mulsanne Extended Wheelbase - TECH REVIEW (1 of 4)
2017 Bentley Mulsanne Speed & Bentley Mulsanne Extended Wheelbase - TECH REVIEW (1 of 4)
Published: 2016/06/21
Channel: MotoManTV
Fanatec Clubsport Wheelbase V2 Review
Fanatec Clubsport Wheelbase V2 Review
Published: 2014/09/03
Channel: The Simpit
2015 Rolls-Royce Serenity Phantom Extended Wheelbase - Walkaround - 2015 Geneva Motor Show
2015 Rolls-Royce Serenity Phantom Extended Wheelbase - Walkaround - 2015 Geneva Motor Show
Published: 2015/03/11
Channel: AutoMotoTube
Mercedes-Benz E-Class (Long Wheelbase V213) - First Drive Review
Mercedes-Benz E-Class (Long Wheelbase V213) - First Drive Review
Published: 2017/02/28
Channel: OVERDRIVE
2018 Volkswagen Tiguan Long-wheelbase - 2017 Detroit Auto Show
2018 Volkswagen Tiguan Long-wheelbase - 2017 Detroit Auto Show
Published: 2017/01/10
Channel: Kelley Blue Book
Peterbilt 325 wheel base yard switching lol
Peterbilt 325 wheel base yard switching lol
Published: 2016/10/09
Channel: SPYDER MIKE
2015 Rolls-Royce Ghost Series II Extended Wheelbase - Exterior, Interior Walkaround
2015 Rolls-Royce Ghost Series II Extended Wheelbase - Exterior, Interior Walkaround
Published: 2015/03/29
Channel: AutoMotoTube
Fanatec ClubSport Wheel Base V2 Review on PC and PS4
Fanatec ClubSport Wheel Base V2 Review on PC and PS4
Published: 2015/11/28
Channel: Inside Sim Racing
Range Rover Autobiography Long Wheel Base Review
Range Rover Autobiography Long Wheel Base Review
Published: 2014/08/30
Channel: CarAdvice.com
Bentley Mulsanne Extended Wheelbase 2017
Bentley Mulsanne Extended Wheelbase 2017
Published: 2016/02/23
Channel: AutoBlog.gr
New Mercedes E-Class LWB E320 4MATIC L sedan long wheel base E-Klasse lang
New Mercedes E-Class LWB E320 4MATIC L sedan long wheel base E-Klasse lang
Published: 2016/04/24
Channel: Autogefühl
2015 Rolls-Royce Phantom Extended Wheelbase -  Exterior and Interior Walkaround
2015 Rolls-Royce Phantom Extended Wheelbase - Exterior and Interior Walkaround
Published: 2015/08/21
Channel: AutoXan
2017 Bentley Mulsanne Extended Wheelbase - Interior and Exterior Design
2017 Bentley Mulsanne Extended Wheelbase - Interior and Exterior Design
Published: 2016/02/24
Channel: YOUCAR
Fanatec Clubsport V2 Wheelbase & Porsche 918 Wheel REVIEW
Fanatec Clubsport V2 Wheelbase & Porsche 918 Wheel REVIEW
Published: 2015/04/22
Channel: Dan Phillippi
2016 389 Peterbilt 337" Wheelbase Heavy Haul Every Option Monster Energy Green
2016 389 Peterbilt 337" Wheelbase Heavy Haul Every Option Monster Energy Green
Published: 2015/12/30
Channel: Peterbilt Steve
2014 Range Rover Autobiography SC Long Wheelbase  - Review, Start up, Exhaust Sound, and Test Drive
2014 Range Rover Autobiography SC Long Wheelbase - Review, Start up, Exhaust Sound, and Test Drive
Published: 2014/10/22
Channel: Motorcar File
Audi A8 2016: Introducing the A8 Long Wheelbase
Audi A8 2016: Introducing the A8 Long Wheelbase
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: Audi UK
ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM extended wheelbase EWB limousine serie II 2015 geneva motor show premium [HD]
ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOM extended wheelbase EWB limousine serie II 2015 geneva motor show premium [HD]
Published: 2013/03/17
Channel: PRESTIGE et RALLYE
Product Review - Orangatang "Onsens" - Wheelbase Magazine
Product Review - Orangatang "Onsens" - Wheelbase Magazine
Published: 2015/12/10
Channel: wheelbasemag
2017 BMW 750Ld - BMW Individual - 7 Series Long Wheelbase
2017 BMW 750Ld - BMW Individual - 7 Series Long Wheelbase
Published: 2016/10/02
Channel: YOUCAR
Amazing! マジェスティロンホイ。Special tune up! Long wheelbase Majesty4D9.
Amazing! マジェスティロンホイ。Special tune up! Long wheelbase Majesty4D9.
Published: 2012/01/15
Channel: sandabee
Rolls Royce Phantom Extended Wheel Base
Rolls Royce Phantom Extended Wheel Base
Published: 2015/12/04
Channel: Signature Car Hire
Fanatec CSL Elite Wheelbase CSL Elite Load Cell Pedals and CSL P1 Review
Fanatec CSL Elite Wheelbase CSL Elite Load Cell Pedals and CSL P1 Review
Published: 2016/11/17
Channel: SimRacingGirl
2008 Lexus LS600h L (Long-Wheelbase Hybrid) in review - Village Luxury Cars Toronto
2008 Lexus LS600h L (Long-Wheelbase Hybrid) in review - Village Luxury Cars Toronto
Published: 2013/06/13
Channel: Village Luxury Cars
THE MAKING OF OUR 30 HIGHLY BESPOKE EXTENDED WHEELBASE ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOMS
THE MAKING OF OUR 30 HIGHLY BESPOKE EXTENDED WHEELBASE ROLLS-ROYCE PHANTOMS
Published: 2017/01/18
Channel: The 13
Product Review - Hawgs "Street Hawgs" Wheels - Wheelbase Magazine
Product Review - Hawgs "Street Hawgs" Wheels - Wheelbase Magazine
Published: 2015/01/31
Channel: wheelbasemag
Focus on Phantom Extended Wheelbase Series II at Ascari
Focus on Phantom Extended Wheelbase Series II at Ascari
Published: 2012/05/24
Channel: Rolls-Royce Motor Cars
SHE
SHE'S A GOLD DIGGER! WHEELSTANDING '65 CORONET ALTERED WHEELBASE! 572 INJECTED HEMI! RT66 CLASSIC!
Published: 2016/10/01
Channel: victoryredcolorado
Sim Racing Review - Fanatec ClubSport V2 Wheel Base Initial Review
Sim Racing Review - Fanatec ClubSport V2 Wheel Base Initial Review
Published: 2014/09/04
Channel: SimRacingReview
OFFICIAL: 2017 Mercedes E-Class Long-Wheelbase
OFFICIAL: 2017 Mercedes E-Class Long-Wheelbase
Published: 2016/04/24
Channel: YOUCAR
2017 Mercedes-Benz E-Class Extended Wheelbase | First Drive Review
2017 Mercedes-Benz E-Class Extended Wheelbase | First Drive Review
Published: 2017/02/13
Channel: News18 Digital
Review - Fanatec CSL Elite Wheel Base + Loadcell Brake Kit [GER] [HD] - Fakten und Eindrücke
Review - Fanatec CSL Elite Wheel Base + Loadcell Brake Kit [GER] [HD] - Fakten und Eindrücke
Published: 2016/12/11
Channel: Abgefahren!
2017 Mercedes-Benz Long Wheel Base E-Class E 350d | First Drive | Motown India
2017 Mercedes-Benz Long Wheel Base E-Class E 350d | First Drive | Motown India
Published: 2017/02/22
Channel: Motown India
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels. For road vehicles with more than two axles (e.g. some trucks), the wheelbase is defined as the distance between the steering (front) axle and the centerpoint of the driving axle group. In the case of a tri-axle truck, the wheelbase would be the distance between the steering axle and a point midway between the two rear axles.

Wheelbase (measured between rotational centers of wheels)

Vehicles[edit]

The wheelbase of a vehicle equals the distance between its front and rear wheels. At equilibrium, the total torque of the forces acting on a vehicle is zero. Therefore, the wheelbase is related to the force on each pair of tires by the following formula:

where is the force on the front tires, is the force on the rear tires, is the wheelbase, is the distance from the center of mass (CM) to the rear wheels, is the distance from the center of gravity to the front wheels ( + = ), is the mass of the vehicle, and is the gravity constant. So, for example, when a truck is loaded, its center of gravity shifts rearward and the force on the rear tire increases. The vehicle will ride lower. The amount the vehicle sinks will depend on counter acting forces like the size of the tires, tire pressure, and the stiffness of the suspension. If the vehicle is accelerating or decelerating, extra torque is placed on the rear or front tire respectively. The equation relating the wheelbase, height above the ground of the CM, and the force on each pair of tires becomes:

where is the force on the front tires, is the force on the rear tires, is the distance from the CM to the rear wheels, is the distance from the CM to the front wheels, is the wheelbase, is the mass of the vehicle, is the acceleration of gravity (approx. 9.8 m/s2), is the height of the CM above the ground, is the acceleration (or deceleration if the value is negative). So, as is common experience, when the vehicle accelerates, the rear usually sinks and the front rises depending on the suspension. Likewise, when braking the front noses down and the rear rises.:[1]

Because of the effect the wheelbase has on the weight distribution of the vehicle, wheelbase dimensions are crucial to the balance and steering. For example, a car with a much greater weight load on the rear tends to understeer due to the lack of the load (force) on the front tires and therefore the grip (friction) from them. This is why it is crucial, when towing a single-axle caravan, to distribute the caravan's weight so that down-thrust on the tow-hook is about 100 pounds force (400 N). Likewise, a car may oversteer or even "spin out" if there is too much force on the front tires and not enough on the rear tires. Also, when turning there is lateral torque placed upon the tires which imparts a turning force that depends upon the length of the tire distances from the CM. Thus, in a car with a short wheelbase, the short lever arm from the CM to the rear wheel will result in a greater lateral force on the rear tire which means greater acceleration and less time for the driver to adjust and prevent a spin out or worse.

Wheelbases provide the basis for one of the most common vehicle size class systems.

Varying wheelbases within nameplate[edit]

Some luxury vehicles are offered with long-wheelbase variants to increase the spaciousness and therefore the luxury of the vehicle. This practice can often be found on full-size cars like the Mercedes-Benz S-Class, but ultra-luxury vehicles such as the Rolls-Royce Phantom and even large family cars like the Rover 75 came with 'limousine' versions. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair was given a long-wheelbase version of the Rover 75 for official use.[2]

In contrast, coupé varieties of some vehicles such as the Honda Accord are usually built on shorter wheelbases than the sedans they are derived from.

Bikes[edit]

The wheelbase on many commercially available bicycles and motorcycles is so short, relative to the height of their centers of mass, that they are able to perform stoppies and wheelies.

Skateboards[edit]

In skateboarding the word 'wheelbase' is used for the distance between the two inner pairs of mounting holes on the deck. This is different from the distance between the rotational centers of the two wheel pairs. A reason for this alternative use is that decks are sold with prefabricated holes, but usually without trucks and wheels. It is therefore easier to use the prefabricated holes for measuring and describing this characteristic of the deck.

A common misconception is that the choice of wheelbase is influenced by the height of the skateboarder. However, the length of the deck would then be a better candidate, because the wheelbase affects characteristics useful in different speeds or terrains regardless of the height of the skateboarder. For example, a deck with a long wheelbase, say 22 inches (55.9 cm), will respond slowly to turns, which is often desirable in high speeds. A deck with a short wheelbase, say 14 inches (35.6 cm), will respond quickly to turns, which is often desirable when skating backyard pools or other terrains requiring quick or intense turns.

Rail[edit]

In rail vehicles, the wheelbase follows a similar concept. However, since the wheels may be of different sizes (for example, on a steam locomotive), the measurement is taken between the points where the wheels contact the rail, and not between the centers of the wheels.

On vehicles where the wheelsets (axles) are mounted inside the vehicle frame (mostly in steam locomotives), the wheelbase is the distance between the front-most and rear-most wheelsets.

On vehicles where the wheelsets are mounted on bogies (amer.: trucks), three wheelbase measurements can be distinguished:

  • the distance between the pivot points of the front-most and rear-most bogie;
  • the distance between the front-most and rear-most wheelsets of the vehicle;
  • the distance between the front-most and rear-most wheelsets of each bogie.

The wheelbase affects the rail vehicle's capability to negotiate curves. Short-wheelbased vehicles can negotiate sharper curves. On some larger wheelbase locomotives, inner wheels may lack flanges in order to pass curves.

The wheelbase also affects the load the vehicle poses to the track, track infrastructure and bridges. All other conditions being equal, a shorter wheelbase vehicle represents a more concentrated load to the track than a longer wheelbase vehicle. As railway lines are designed to take a pre-determined maximum load per unit of length (tonnes per meter, or pounds per foot), the rail vehicles' wheelbase is designed according to their intended gross weight. The higher the gross weight, the longer the wheelbase must be.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ruina, Andy; Rudra Pratap (2002). Introduction to Statics and Dynamics (PDF). Oxford University Press. p. 350. Retrieved 2007-03-23. 
  2. ^ Biggs, Henry (October 27, 2004). "Rover 75". autoexpress.co.uk. Auto Express. Retrieved May 8, 2017. 

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