White Americans No Longer Majority in Many U.S. Counties
White Americans No Longer Majority in Many U.S. Counties
Published: 2016/06/23
Channel: Wall Street Journal
We've Reached the End of White Christian America
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: The Atlantic
Is This the Last Election for White America?
Is This the Last Election for White America?
Published: 2016/09/15
Channel: Fusion
Inside the mind of white America - BBC News
Inside the mind of white America - BBC News
Published: 2016/06/20
Channel: BBC News
Why Many Arab Americans Check
Why Many Arab Americans Check 'White' On The US Census
Published: 2016/07/15
Channel: Newsy
Death rate among middle-aged white Americans on the rise
Death rate among middle-aged white Americans on the rise
Published: 2015/11/04
Channel: Fox Business
How the feeling of falling behind fuels deadly distress for white Americans
How the feeling of falling behind fuels deadly distress for white Americans
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: PBS NewsHour
'Deaths of despair' are cutting life short for some white Americans
Published: 2017/02/17
Channel: PBS NewsHour
Eminem - White America
Eminem - White America
Published: 2009/06/16
Channel: EminemVEVO
Time for White Americans to Wake the Hell Up
Time for White Americans to Wake the Hell Up
Published: 2014/02/21
Channel: The Big Picture RT
Black Lives Matter Organizer Explains Movement To Older White Americans Using Sailing Metaphors
Black Lives Matter Organizer Explains Movement To Older White Americans Using Sailing Metaphors
Published: 2017/09/06
Channel: The Onion
White Americans Have No Culture
White Americans Have No Culture
Published: 2016/10/28
Channel: Apollonian Germ
Do White Americans Have White Privilege?
Do White Americans Have White Privilege?
Published: 2017/06/01
Channel: PragerU
White People | Official Full Documentary | MTV
White People | Official Full Documentary | MTV
Published: 2015/07/23
Channel: MTV
9 Questions Native Americans Have For White People
9 Questions Native Americans Have For White People
Published: 2016/01/28
Channel: Boldly
Why white Americans don’t see themselves when they hear the word ‘race’
Why white Americans don’t see themselves when they hear the word ‘race’
Published: 2017/05/18
Channel: PBS NewsHour
African Ancestry in Over 6 Million White Americans
African Ancestry in Over 6 Million White Americans
Published: 2014/12/25
Channel: TheLipTV
Published: 2015/08/25
Channel: Kenny Sebastian
Colon Cancer Deaths Rising For Young, White Americans | NBC Nightly News
Colon Cancer Deaths Rising For Young, White Americans | NBC Nightly News
Published: 2017/08/08
Channel: NBC News
Hillary Clinton:
Hillary Clinton: 'We White Americans…Need To Recognize Our Privilege' | NBC News
Published: 2016/07/18
Channel: NBC News
White People | Native Americans On
White People | Native Americans On 'White People' | MTV
Published: 2015/07/08
Channel: MTV
New Study: Police more likely to shoot white Americans than black Americans
New Study: Police more likely to shoot white Americans than black Americans
Published: 2016/07/19
Channel: RT America
Asking White People in AZ if They
Asking White People in AZ if They're Immigrants
Published: 2010/10/28
Channel: Steve Hofstetter
Study: White People See "Blacks" and "African Americans" Very Differently
Study: White People See "Blacks" and "African Americans" Very Differently
Published: 2015/01/18
Channel: ThinkTank
Are White People Racist Towards Asians?
Are White People Racist Towards Asians?
Published: 2016/05/01
Not Only Blacks Lost Their Culture In America - Morris - White Americans Lost Their Culture Too
Not Only Blacks Lost Their Culture In America - Morris - White Americans Lost Their Culture Too
Published: 2014/08/18
Channel: 108morris108
Clinton says white Americans need to
Clinton says white Americans need to 'listen up'
Published: 2016/07/11
Channel: Fox News
More White Americans Are Getting Addicted To Opioid Painkillers
More White Americans Are Getting Addicted To Opioid Painkillers
Published: 2017/02/28
Channel: CBS SF Bay Area
White Americans No Longer A Majority By 2042
White Americans No Longer A Majority By 2042
Published: 2008/08/15
Channel: NSfuture
Published: 2014/08/18
Channel: FUNG BROS.
John Heilemann: Trump
John Heilemann: Trump's cabinet picks are worrying non-white Americans
Published: 2016/11/21
Channel: CBS News
Do White Americans Have Black Friends? POLL RESULTS
Do White Americans Have Black Friends? POLL RESULTS
Published: 2013/08/12
Channel: The Young Turks
White American Racism Compilation 1
White American Racism Compilation 1
Published: 2016/03/24
Channel: The Mash Channel
Gwen Ifill asks Clinton: Do white Americans have
Gwen Ifill asks Clinton: Do white Americans have 'reason to be resentful'?
Published: 2016/02/12
Channel: PBS NewsHour
White Americans will be a minority by 2042
White Americans will be a minority by 2042
Published: 2010/05/21
Channel: Nationalism4Life
White Americans Miss The
White Americans Miss The '50s Because Of Discrimination | News House
Published: 2015/11/20
Channel: AskMen
Stomach Cancer on Rise Among Certain Young White Americans
Stomach Cancer on Rise Among Certain Young White Americans
Published: 2010/05/12
Channel: VOA News
Rebel Yell: 700,000 Americans sign secession petitions to White House
Rebel Yell: 700,000 Americans sign secession petitions to White House
Published: 2012/12/09
Channel: RT
Americans Pronounce Latino Names
Americans Pronounce Latino Names
Published: 2015/02/28
Channel: BuzzFeedVideo
White-Americans are not White, but half breed mongrels
White-Americans are not White, but half breed mongrels
Published: 2012/11/03
Channel: Howdoyoulikethisapp
White Americans as catalysts for racial justice | Carmen Henne-Ochoa | TEDxBucknellUniversity
White Americans as catalysts for racial justice | Carmen Henne-Ochoa | TEDxBucknellUniversity
Published: 2016/05/04
Channel: TEDx Talks
If Native Americans Said The Stuff White People Say
If Native Americans Said The Stuff White People Say
Published: 2015/11/24
Channel: Boldly
Why White Supremacists, African Americans Get DNA Tests To Prove Whiteness
Why White Supremacists, African Americans Get DNA Tests To Prove Whiteness
Published: 2016/10/12
Channel: Wochit News
Study: Colon Cancer Deaths On The Rise For Younger, White Americans
Study: Colon Cancer Deaths On The Rise For Younger, White Americans
Published: 2017/08/08
Channel: Wochit News - How racism harms white americans-15333 - How racism harms white americans-15333
Published: 2014/11/11
Channel: Kineticstreaming
Ebola Secret Serum Just For White Americans?
Ebola Secret Serum Just For White Americans?
Published: 2014/08/05
Channel: TheLipTV
Kenny Sebastian  NRI
Kenny Sebastian NRI's,Indian Americans and White People Problems Reaction 2
Published: 2016/09/04
Channel: Movie Community College
Korean star Psy sings death to Americans and gets White House invite
Korean star Psy sings death to Americans and gets White House invite
Published: 2012/12/10
Channel: RT America
Racism is Killing Poor White Americans...
Racism is Killing Poor White Americans...
Published: 2015/11/07
Channel: Thom Hartmann Program
Native Americans march on White House over Dakota pipeline
Native Americans march on White House over Dakota pipeline
Published: 2017/03/10
Channel: AFP news agency
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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White Americans
Map of White Americans.png
The countries from which White Americans claim their ancestry.
Total population
72.4% of total U.S. population, 2010[1]
Non-Hispanic whites
63.7% of total U.S. population, 2010[1]
White Hispanics
8.7% of total U.S. population, 2010[1]
Regions with significant populations
All areas of the United States

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Predominantly Christian (Protestantism; Roman Catholic is the largest single denomination; Significantly: Orthodoxy), Mormonism, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism
Related ethnic groups
European Americans, Europeans, Middle Eastern Americans, White Latin Americans, European Canadians, White Australians, White New Zealanders, European diasporas from other parts of the world

White Americans are Americans who are considered or reported as White. The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa."[2] Like all official U.S. racial categories, "White" has a "not Hispanic or Latino" and a "Hispanic or Latino" component,[3] the latter consisting mostly of White Mexican Americans and White Cuban Americans. The term "Caucasian" is often used interchangeably with "White", although the terms are not synonymous.[4][5][6][7][8][9]

The largest ancestries of American Whites are: German Americans (16.5%), Irish Americans (11.9%), English Americans (9.2%), Italian Americans (5.8%), French Americans (4%), Polish Americans (3%), Scottish Americans (1.9%), Scotch-Irish Americans (1.7%), Dutch Americans (1.6%), Norwegian Americans (1.5%), and Swedish Americans (1.4%).[10][11][12] However, the English-Americans and British-Americans demography is considered a serious under-count as the stock tend to self-report and identify as simply "Americans" (6.9%), due to the length of time they have inhabited America.[6][7][8][9]

Whites (including Hispanics who identify as White) constitute the majority, with a total of about 246,660,710, or 77.35% of the population as of 2014. Non-Hispanic Whites totaled about 197,870,516, or 62.06% of the U.S. population.

Historical and present definitions[edit]

Definitions of who is "White" have changed throughout the history of the United States.

Current U.S. Census definition[edit]

The term "White American" can encompass many different ethnic groups. Although the United States Census purports to reflect a social definition of race, the social dimensions of race are more complex than Census criteria. The 2000 U.S. census states that racial categories "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country. They do not conform to any biological, anthropological or genetic criteria."[13]

The Census question on race lists the categories White or European American, Black or African American, American Indian and Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, Asian, plus "Some other race", with the respondent having the ability to mark more than one racial and\or ethnic category. The Census Bureau defines White people as follows:

"White" refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East or North Africa. It includes people who indicated their race(s) as "White" or reported entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Arab, Moroccan or Caucasian.[2]

In U.S. census documents, the designation White overlaps, as do all other official racial categories, with the term Hispanic or Latino, which was introduced in the 1980 census as a category of ethnicity, separate and independent of race.[14][15] Hispanic and Latino Americans as a whole make up a racially diverse group and as a whole are the largest minority in the country.[16][17]

President Abraham Lincoln was descended from Samuel Lincoln and was of English and Welsh ancestry.
Actress Raquel Welch of Spanish (via Bolivia) and English ancestry back to the Mayflower.[18]

In cases where individuals do not self-identify, the U.S. census parameters for race give each national origin a racial value.

Additionally, people who reported Muslim (or a sect of Islam such as Shi'ite or Sunni), Jewish, Zoroastrian, or Caucasian as their "race" in the "Some other race" section, without noting a country of origin, are automatically tallied as White.[19] The US Census considers the write-in response of "Caucasian" or "Aryan" to be a synonym for White in their ancestry code listing.[20]

Social definition[edit]

In the contemporary United States, essentially anyone of European descent is considered White. However, many of the non-European ethnic groups classified as White by the U.S. Census, such as Jewish-Americans, Arab-Americans, and Hispanics or Latinos may not identify as, and may not be perceived to be, White.[21][22][23][24][25][26]

The definition of White has changed significantly over the course of American history. Among Europeans, those not considered White at some point in American history include Italians, Greeks, Spaniards, Irish, Swedes, Germans, Finns, Russians, and French.[26][27][28]

Early on in the United States, white generally referred to those of British ancestry or northern (Nordic) and northwestern (British and French) European descent.[29]

David R. Roediger argues that the construction of the white race in the United States was an effort to mentally distance slave owners from slaves.[30] The process of officially being defined as white by law often came about in court disputes over pursuit of citizenship.[31]

Critical race theory definition[edit]

Critical race theory developed in the 1970s and 1980s, influenced by the language of critical legal studies, which challenged concepts such as objective truth, rationality and judicial neutrality, and by critical theory. Academics and activists disillusioned with the outcomes of the civil African-American Civil Rights Movement pointed out that though African Americans supposedly enjoyed legal equality, white Americans continued to hold disproportionate power and still had superior living standards. Liberal ideas such as meritocracy and equal opportunity, they argued, hid and reinforced deep structural inequalities and thus serves the interests of a white elite. Critical race theorists see racism as embedded in public attitudes and institutions, and highlight institutional racism and unconscious biases. Legal scholar Derrick Bell advanced the interest convergence principle, which suggests that whites support minority rights only when doing so is also in their self-interest.[32]

As Whites, especially White Anglo-Saxon Protestants, or WASPs, are the dominant racial and cultural group, according to sociologist Steven Seidman, writing from a critical theory perspective, "White culture constitutes the general cultural mainstream, causing non-White culture to be seen as deviant, in either a positive or negative manner. Moreover, Whites tend to be disproportionately represented in powerful positions, controlling almost all political, economic, and cultural institutions."

Yet, according to Seidman, Whites are most commonly unaware of their privilege and the manner in which their culture has always been dominant in the US, as they do not identify as members of a specific racial group but rather incorrectly perceive their views and culture as "raceless", when in fact it is ethno-national (ethnic/cultural) specific, with a racial base component.[33]

Demographic information[edit]

White Americans 1790–2010[34][35]
Year Population % of
the US
% change
(10 yr)
Year Population % of
the US
% change
(10 yr)
1790 3,172,006 80.7 1910 81,731,957 88.9 22.3%
1800 4,306,446 81.1 35.8% 1920 94,820,915 89.7 16.0%
1810 5,862,073 81.0 36.1% 1930 110,286,740 89.8 16.3%
1820 7,866,797 81.6 34.2% 1940 118,214,870 89.8 (highest) 7.2%
1830 10,532,060 81.9 33.9% 1950 134,942,028 89.5 14.1%
1840 14,189,705 83.2 34.7% 1960 158,831,732 88.6 17.7%
1850 19,553,068 84.3 37.8% 1970 178,119,221 87.5 12.1%
1860 26,922,537 85.6 37.7% 1980 188,371,622 83.1 5.8%
1870 33,589,377 87.1 24.8% 1990 199,686,070 80.3 6.0%
1880 43,402,970 86.5 29.2% 2000 211,460,626 75.1[36] 5.9%
1890 55,101,258 87.5 26.9% 2010 223,553,265 72.4[37] (lowest) 5.7%
1900 66,809,196 87.9 21.2%

Whites (non-Hispanic and Hispanic) made up 79.8% or 75% of the American population in 2008.[16][17][38][39] This latter number is sometimes recorded as 77.1% when it includes about 2% of the population who are identified as white in combination with one or more other races. The largest ethnic groups (by ancestry) among White Americans were Germans, followed by Irish and English.[40] In the 1980 census 49,598,035 Americans cited that they were of English ancestry, making them 26% of the country and the largest group at the time, and in fact larger than the population of England itself.[41] Slightly more than half of these people would cite that they were of "American" ancestry on subsequent censuses and virtually everywhere that "American" ancestry predominates on the 2000 census corresponds to places where "English" predominated on the 1980 census.[42][43]

White Americans are projected to remain the majority, though with their percentage decreasing to 72% of the total population by 2050. However, projections state that non-Hispanic Whites of that group will become less than 50% of the population by 2042 because Non-Hispanic Whites have the lowest fertility rate of any major racial group in the United States,[44] mass-immigration of other ethnic groups with higher birth rates, and because of intermarriage with Hispanic Whites.

While over ten million White people can trace part of their ancestry back to the Pilgrims who arrived on the Mayflower in 1620 (this common statistic overlooks the Jamestown, Virginia foundations of America and roots of even earlier colonist-descended Americans, such as Spanish Americans in St. Augustine, Florida), over 35 million whites have at least one ancestor who passed through the Ellis Island immigration station, which processed arriving immigrants from 1892 until 1954. See also: European Americans.

Geographic distribution[edit]

According to the Census definition, White Americans are the majority racial group in almost all of the United States. They are not the majority in Hawaii, many American Indian reservations, parts of the South known as the Black Belt, the District of Columbia, all US territories, and in many urban areas throughout the country. Non-Hispanic whites are also not the majority in several southwestern states.

Overall the highest concentration of those referred to as "White alone" by the Census Bureau was found in the Midwest, New England, the Rocky Mountain states, Kentucky, and West Virginia. The lowest concentration of whites was found in southern and mid-Atlantic states.[3][45][46]

Although all large geographical areas are dominated by White Americans, much larger differences can be seen between specific parts of large cities.

States with the highest percentages of White Americans, as of 2007:[47]

States with the highest percentages of non-Hispanic Whites, as of 2007:[48]

Income and educational attainment[edit]

White Americans have the second highest median household income and personal income levels in the nation, by cultural background. The median income per household member was also the highest, since White Americans had the smallest households of any racial demographic in the nation. In 2006, the median individual income of a White American age 25 or older was $33,030, with those who were full-time employed, and of age 25 to 64, earning $34,432. Since 42% of all households had two income earners, the median household income was considerably higher than the median personal income, which was $48,554 in 2005. Jewish Americans rank first in household income, personal income, and educational attainment among White Americans.[49] In 2005, White households had a median household income of $48,977, which is 10.3% above the national median of $44,389. Among Cuban Americans, with 86% classifying as White, those persons born in the US have a higher median income and educational attainment level than most other Whites.[50]

The poverty rates for White Americans are the second-lowest of any racial group, with 10.8% of white individuals living below the poverty line, 3% lower than the national average.[51] However, due to Whites' majority status, 48% of Americans living in poverty are white.[52]

White Americans' educational attainment is the second-highest in the country, after Asian Americans'. Overall, nearly one-third of White Americans had a Bachelor's degree, with the educational attainment for Whites being higher for those born outside the United States: 37.6% of foreign born, and 29.7% of native born Whites had a college degree. Both figures are above the national average of 27.2%.[53]

Gender income inequality was the greatest among Whites, with White men outearning White women by 48%. Census Bureau data for 2005 reveals that the median income of White females was lower than that of males of all races. In 2005, the median income for White American females was only slightly higher than that of African American females.[54]

White Americans are more likely to live in suburbs and small cities than their black counterparts.[55]

Population by state[edit]

Percentage of population self-reported as White American by state in 2010 :
   less than 50 %
   50 - 60 %
   60 - 70 %
   70 - 80 %
   80 - 90 %
   more than 90 %

2000 and 2010 censuses[edit]

White American population as of 2000 and 2010 censuses[56]
State Pop. 2000 % 2000 Pop. 2010 % 2010 % growth
Alabama Alabama 3,162,808 71.1% 3,275,394 68.5% +3.6%
Alaska Alaska 434,534 69.3% 473,576 66.7% +9.0%
Arizona Arizona 3,873,611 75.5% 4,667,121 73.0% +20.5%
Arkansas Arkansas 2,138,598 80.0% 2,245,229 77.0% +5.0%
California California 20,170,059 79.7% 21,453,934 74.0% +6.4%
Colorado Colorado 3,560,005 82.8% 4,089,202 81.3% +14.9%
Connecticut Connecticut 2,780,355 81.6% 2,772,410 77.6% -0.3%
Delaware Delaware 584,773 74.6% 618,617 68.9% +5.8%
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia 176,101 30.8% 231,471 38.5% +31.4%
Florida Florida 12,465,029 78.0% 14,109,162 75.0% +13.2%
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 5,327,281 65.1% 5,787,440 59.7% +8.6%
Hawaii Hawaii 294,102 24.3% 336,599 24.7% +14.4%
Idaho Idaho 1,177,304 91.0% 1,396,487 89.1% +18.6%
Illinois Illinois 9,125,471 73.5% 9,177,877 71.5% +0.6%
Indiana Indiana 5,320,022 87.5% 5,467,906 84.3% +2.8%
Iowa Iowa 2,748,640 93.9% 2,781,561 91.3% +1.2%
Kansas Kansas 2,313,944 86.1% 2,391,044 83.8% +3.3%
Kentucky Kentucky 3,640,889 90.1% 3,809,537 87.8% +4.6%
Louisiana Louisiana 2,856,161 63.9% 2,836,192 62.6% -0.7%
Maine Maine 1,236,014 96.9% 1,264,971 95.2% +2.3%
Maryland Maryland 3,391,308 64.0% 3,359,284 58.2% -0.9%
Massachusetts Massachusetts 5,367,286 84.5% 5,265,236 80.4% -1.9%
Michigan Michigan 7,966,053 80.2% 7,803,120 78.9% -2.0%
Minnesota Minnesota 4,400,282 89.4% 4,524,062 85.3% +2.8%
Mississippi Mississippi 1,746,099 61.4% 1,754,684 59.1% +0.5%
Missouri Missouri 4,748,083 84.9% 4,958,770 82.8% +4.4%
Montana Montana 817,229 90.6% 884,961 89.4% +8.3%
Nebraska Nebraska 1,533,261 89.6% 1,572,838 86.1% +2.6%
Nevada Nevada 1,501,886 75.2% 1,786,688 66.2% +19.0%
New Hampshire New Hampshire 1,186,851 96.0% 1,236,050 92.3% +4.1%
New Jersey New Jersey 6,104,705 72.6% 6,029,248 68.6% -1.2%
New Mexico New Mexico 1,214,253 66.8% 1,407,876 68.4% +15.9%
New York (state) New York 12,893,689 67.9% 12,740,974 65.7% -1.2%
North Carolina North Carolina 5,804,656 72.1% 6,528,950 68.5% +12.5%
North Dakota North Dakota 593,181 92.4% 605,449 90.0% +2.1%
Ohio Ohio 9,645,453 85.0% 9,539,437 82.7% -1.1%
Oklahoma Oklahoma 2,628,434 76.2% 2,706,845 72.2% +3.0%
Oregon Oregon 2,961,623 86.6% 3,204,614 83.6% +8.2%
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 10,484,203 85.4% 10,406,288 81.9% -0.7%
Rhode Island Rhode Island 891,191 85.0% 856,869 81.4% -3.8%
South Carolina South Carolina 2,695,560 67.2% 3,060,000 66.2% +13.5%
South Dakota South Dakota 669,404 88.7% 699,392 85.9% +4.5%
Tennessee Tennessee 4,563,310 80.2% 4,921,948 77.6% +7.9%
Texas Texas 14,799,505 71.0% 17,701,552 70.4% +19.6%
Utah Utah 1,992,975 89.2% 2,379,560 86.1% +19.4%
Vermont Vermont 589,208 96.8% 596,292 95.3% +1.2%
Virginia Virginia 5,120,110 72.3% 5,486,852 68.6% +7.2%
Washington (state) Washington 4,821,823 81.8% 5,196,362 77.3% +7.8%
West Virginia West Virginia 1,718,777 95.0% 1,739,988 93.9% +1.2%
Wisconsin Wisconsin 4,769,857 88.9% 4,902,067 86.2% +2.8%
Wyoming Wyoming 454,670 92.1% 511,279 90.7% +12.4%
United States United States of America 211,460,626 75.1% 223,553,265 72.4% +5.7%

2015 and 2016 estimates[edit]

White population by state[57]
State Pop. 2015 % 2015 Pop. 2016 % 2016 percentage
Alabama Alabama 3,373,302 69.5% 3,372,524 69.3% -0.2% -778
Alaska Alaska 490,380 66.5% 490,389 66.1% -0.4% +9
Arizona Arizona 5,696,106 83.5% 5,772,667 83.3% -0.2% +76,561
Arkansas Arkansas 2,369,986 79.6% 2,373,726 79.4% -0.2% +3,740
California California 28,467,494 73.0% 28,539,253 72.7% -0.3% +71,759
Colorado Colorado 4,776,140 87.6% 4,846,441 87.5% -0.1% +70,301
Connecticut Connecticut 2,900,643 80.9% 2,882,093 80.6% -0.3% -18,550
Delaware Delaware 664,555 70.4% 667,809 70.1% -0.3% +3,254
Washington, D.C. District of Columbia 295,756 44.1% 303,813 44.6% +0.5% +8,057
Florida Florida 15,735,811 77.7% 15,996,473 77.6% -0.1% +260,662
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 6,280,677 61.6% 6,311,001 61.2% -0.4% +30,324
Hawaii Hawaii 370,398 26.0% 369,064 25.8% -0.2% -1,334
Idaho Idaho 1,545,433 93.5% 1,571,098 93.3% -0.2% +25,665
Illinois Illinois 9,933,221 77.4% 9,885,382 77.2% -0.2% -47,839
Indiana Indiana 5,677,021 85.8% 5,678,630 85.6% -0.2% +1,609
Iowa Iowa 2,861,917 91.6% 2,864,884 91.4% -0.2% +2,967
Kansas Kansas 2,522,857 86.8% 2,518,720 86.6% -0.2% -4,137
Kentucky Kentucky 3,900,103 88.1% 3,903,419 88.0% -0.1% +3,316
Louisiana Louisiana 2,953,830 63.2% 2,956,505 63.1% -0.1% +2,675
Maine Maine 1,262,043 94.9% 1,262,168 94.8% -0.1% +125
Maryland Maryland 3,574,645 59.6% 3,567,397 59.3% -0.3% -7,248
Massachusetts Massachusetts 5,575,530 82.2% 5,570,872 81.8% -0.4% -4,658
Michigan Michigan 7,909,528 79.7% 7,902,903 79.6% -0.1% -6,625
Minnesota Minnesota 4,678,791 85.3% 4,691,265 85.0% -0.3% +12,474
Mississippi Mississippi 1,777,735 59.4% 1,772,995 59.3% -0.1% -4,740
Missouri Missouri 5,065,735 83.3% 5,071,682 83.2% -0.1% +5,947
Montana Montana 921,719 89.3% 929,802 89.2% -0.1% +8,083
Nebraska Nebraska 1,687,415 89.1% 1,694,976 88.9% -0.2% +7,561
Nevada Nevada 2,183,208 75.7% 2,209,037 75.1% -0.6% +25,289
New Hampshire New Hampshire 1,249,796 93.9% 1,251,893 93.8% -0.1% +2,097
New Jersey New Jersey 6,496,420 72.7% 6,473,721 72.3% -0.4% -22,699
New Mexico New Mexico 1,717,860 82.6% 1,718,307 82.6% 0.0 +447
New York (state) New York 13,860,222 70.2% 13,797,556 69.9% -0.3% -62,666
North Carolina North Carolina 7,144,627 71.2% 7,206,071 71.0% -0.2% +61,444
North Dakota North Dakota 669,125 88.4% 665,977 87.9% -0.5% -3,148
Ohio Ohio 9,594,996 82.7% 9,576,321 82.4% -0.3% -18,675
Oklahoma Oklahoma 2,922,871 74.8% 2,925,602 74.5% -0.3% +2,731
Oregon Oregon 3,529,292 87.7% 3,578,285 87.4% -0.3% +48,993
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania 10,567,168 82.6% 10,531,113 82.4% -0.2% -36,055
Rhode Island Rhode Island 894,570 84.7% 892,045 84.4% -0.3% -2,525
South Carolina South Carolina 3,348,754 68.4% 3,396,931 68.5% +0.1% +48,177
South Dakota South Dakota 732,532 85.4% 737,070 85.1% -0.3% +4,538
Tennessee Tennessee 5,196,817 78.8% 5,234,030 78.7% -0.1% +37,213
Texas Texas 21,874,482 79.7% 22,135,668 79.4% -0.3% +261,186
Utah Utah 2,730,389 91.3% 2,778,175 91.0% -0.3% +47,786
Vermont Vermont 593,577 94.8% 590,869 94.6% -0.2% -2,708
Virginia Virginia 5,884,689 70.3% 5,891,553 70.0% -0.3% +6,864
Washington (state) Washington 5,756,563 80.4% 5,830,144 80.0% -0.4% +73,581
West Virginia West Virginia 1,725,045 93.7% 1,713,756 93.6% -0.1% -11,289
Wisconsin Wisconsin 5,056,456 87.6% 5,057,070 87.5% -0.1% +614
Wyoming Wyoming 544,777 92.8% 543,387 92.8% 0.0 -1,390
United States United States 247,543,007 77.1% 248,502,532 76.9% -0.2% +959,525
Non-hispanic population[edit]


From their earliest presence in North America, White Americans have contributed literature, art, cinema, religion, agricultural skills, foods, science and technology, fashion and clothing styles, music, language, legal system, political system, and social and technological innovation to American culture. White American culture derived its earliest influences from English, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish settlers and is quantitatively the largest proportion of American culture.[58] The overall American culture reflects White American culture. The culture has been developing since long before the United States formed a separate country. Much of American culture shows influences from English culture. Colonial ties to Great Britain spread the English language, legal system and other cultural attributes.[59]

Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America[edit]

Three members of the Kennedy political dynasty, John, Robert and Edward. All eight of their great-grandparents emigrated from Ireland.

In his 1989 book Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, David Hackett Fischer explores the details of the folkways of four groups of settlers from the British Isles that came to the American colonies during the 17th and 18th centuries from distinct regions of Britain and Ireland. His thesis is that the culture of each group persisted (albeit in modified form), providing the basis for the modern United States.[60]

According to Fischer, the foundation of America's four regional cultures was formed from four mass migrations from four regions of the British Isles by four distinct ethno-cultural groups. New England's formative period occurred between 1629 and 1640 when Puritans, mostly from East Anglia, settled there, thus forming the basis for the New England regional culture.[61] The next mass migration was of southern English Cavaliers and their working class English servants to the Chesapeake Bay region between 1640 and 1675. This spawned the creation of the American Southern culture.[62]

Then, between 1675 and 1725, thousands of Irish, Cornish, English and Welsh Quakers plus many Germans sympathetic to Quaker ideas, led by William Penn, settled the Delaware Valley. This resulted in the formation of the General American culture, although, according to Fischer, this is really a "regional culture", even if it does today encompass most of the U.S. from the mid-Atlantic states to the Pacific Coast.[63] Finally, a huge number of settlers from the borderlands between England and Scotland, and from northern Ireland, migrated to Appalachia between 1717 and 1775. This resulted in the formation of the Upland South regional culture, which has since expanded to the west to West Texas and parts of the American Southwest.[64]

In his book, Fischer brings up several points. He states that the U.S. is not a country with one "general" culture and several "regional" culture, as is commonly thought. Rather, there are only four regional cultures as described above, and understanding this helps one to more clearly understand American history as well as contemporary American life. Fischer asserts that it is not only important to understand where different groups came from, but when. All population groups have, at different times, their own unique set of beliefs, fears, hopes and prejudices. When different groups came to America and brought certain beliefs and values with them, these ideas became, according to Fischer, more or less frozen in time, even if they eventually changed in their original place of origin.[65]


Admixture in Non-Hispanic Whites[edit]

Some White Americans have varying amounts of American Indian and Sub-Saharan African ancestry. In a recent study, Gonçalves et al. 2007 reported Sub-Saharan and Amerindian mtDna lineages at a frequency of 3.1% (respectively 0.9% and 2.2%) in American Caucasians (Please note that in the USA, "Caucasian" includes people from North Africa and Western Asia as well as Europeans).[66] Recent research on Y-chromosomes and mtDNA detected no African admixture in European-Americans. The sample included 628 European-American Y-chromosomes and mtDNA from 922 European-Americans[67]

DNA analysis on White Americans by geneticist Mark D. Shriver showed an average of 0.7% Sub-Saharan African admixture and 3.2% Native American admixture.[68] The same author, in another study, claimed that about 30% of all White Americans, approximately 66 million people, have a median of 2.3% of Black African admixture.[69] Shriver discovered his ancestry is 10 percent African, and Shriver's partner in DNA Print Genomics, J.T. Frudacas, contradicted him two years later stating "Five percent of European Americans exhibit some detectable level of African ancestry."[70]

From the 23andMe database, about 5 to at least 13 percent of self-identified White American Southerners have greater than 1 percent African ancestry.[71] Southern states with the highest African American populations, tended to have the highest percentages of self-identified White Americans unknowingly carrying hidden African ancestry.[72] White Americans (European Americans) on average are: “98.6 percent European, 0.19 percent African and 0.18 percent Native American.” Inferred British/Irish ancestry is found in European Americans from all states at mean proportions of above 20%, and represents a majority of ancestry, above 50% mean proportion, in states such as Mississippi, Arkansas, and Tennessee. Scandinavian ancestry in European Americans is highly localized; most states show only trace mean proportions of Scandinavian ancestry, while it comprises a significant proportion, upwards of 10%, of ancestry in European Americans from Minnesota and the Dakotas.[71][72]

Admixture in Hispanic Whites[edit]

Although most Hispanic Americans self-identify in the white racial category of the US Census and/or other official government data collecting, an overwhelming majority of them would in their personal lives consider themselves as ethnically mestizo (of mixed European and Amerindian background) or mulatto (of mixed European and sub-Saharan African background).[citation needed]

Thus, only a minority of those Hispanic Americans who self-identified in their personal lives as mestizo or mulatto actually selected "multiracial" as their race on the U.S. census, with 9 out of every 10 of them preferring to pick white, one of the five single race categories available on the U.S. census.[73]

In contrast to non-Hispanic European Americans, whose average European ancestry ranges about 98.6%,[71][74] genetic research has found that the average European admixture among self-identified Hispanic White Americans is 73% European, while the average European admixture for Hispanic Americans overall (regardless of their self-identified race) is 65.1% European admixture.

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