|White House Communications Director|
|Executive Office of the President
White House Office of the Press Secretary
|Reports to||White House Chief of Staff|
|Formation||1969 (White House Office)
1974 (White House Office of the Press Secretary)
|First holder||Herbert G. Klein|
The White House Communications Director or White House Director of Communications, also known as Assistant to the President for Communications, is part of the senior staff of the President of the United States, and is responsible for developing and promoting the agenda of the President and leading its media campaign. The director, along with his or her staff, works on speeches such as the inaugural address and the State of the Union Address. The Communications Director, who is appointed by and serves at the pleasure of the President without the need for Senate confirmation, is usually given an office in the West Wing of the White House.
The White House Office of Communications was established by Herbert G. Klein in January 1969 during the Nixon administration. It was separate from the Office of the Press Secretary from 1969 to 1974.
Historically, the position of White House Communications Director is given to a senior public relations staff member of the candidate's campaign staff. Often this is either the deputy campaign manager or the campaign communications director. The communications director works closely with the White House Press Secretary, who is typically a co-worker in the President's campaign.
As the President's voice and vision must be understood, the communications director ensures that all aspects of communications are covered to ensure that the administration's message has been delivered clearly and successfully. A communications strategy must be devised to promote the president's agenda throughout all media outlets. This can include, but certainly is not limited to, the State of the Union address, televised press conferences, statements to the press, and radio addresses. The communications office also works closely with cabinet-level departments and other executive agencies in order to create a coherent strategy, through which the president's message can be disseminated.
With the growing importance of the internet and new media in terms of presidential communication, the communications office has branched out to utilize the internet, and more specifically social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter, in order to reach out and convey the President's vision to a larger percentage of the public.
|Officeholder||Term start||Term end||Term duration||President|
|Herb Klein||January 20, 1969||July 1, 1973||4 years, 162 days||Richard Nixon|
|Ken Clawson||January 30, 1974||November 4, 1974||278 days|
|Jerry Warren||November 4, 1974||August 15, 1975||284 days|
|Margita White||August 15, 1975||July 12, 1976||332 days|
|David Gergen||July 12, 1976||January 20, 1977||192 days|
|Gerald Rafshoon||July 1, 1978||August 14, 1979||1 year, 44 days||Jimmy Carter|
|Frank Ursomarso||February 23, 1981||June 17, 1981||114 days||Ronald Reagan|
|David Gergen||June 17, 1981||January 15, 1984||2 years, 212 days|
|Michael A. McManus Jr.||January 15, 1984||February 6, 1985||1 year, 22 days|
|Pat Buchanan||February 6, 1985||March 1, 1987||2 years, 23 days|
|Jack Koehler||March 1, 1987||March 13, 1987||11 days|
|Tom Griscom||April 2, 1987||July 1, 1988||1 year, 90 days|
|Mari Maseng||July 1, 1988||January 20, 1989||203 days|
|David Demarest||January 20, 1989||August 23, 1992||3 years, 216 days||George H. W. Bush|
|Margaret Tutwiler||August 23, 1992||January 20, 1993||150 days|
|George Stephanopoulos||January 20, 1993||June 7, 1993||138 days||Bill Clinton|
|Mark Gearan||June 7, 1993||August 14, 1995||2 years, 68 days|
|Don Baer||August 14, 1995||July 31, 1997||1 year, 351 days|
|Ann Lewis||July 31, 1997||March 10, 1999||1 year, 222 days|
|Loretta Ucelli||March 10, 1999||January 20, 2001||1 year, 316 days|
|Karen Hughes||January 20, 2001||October 2, 2001||255 days||George W. Bush|
|Dan Bartlett||October 2, 2001||January 5, 2005||3 years, 95 days|
|Nicolle Wallace||January 5, 2005||July 24, 2006||1 year, 200 days|
|Kevin Sullivan||July 24, 2006||January 20, 2009||2 years, 180 days|
|Ellen Moran||January 20, 2009||April 21, 2009||91 days||Barack Obama|
|April 21, 2009||November 30, 2009||223 days|
|Dan Pfeiffer||November 30, 2009||January 25, 2013||3 years, 56 days|
|Jennifer Palmieri||January 25, 2013||April 1, 2015||2 years, 66 days|
|Jen Psaki||April 1, 2015||January 20, 2017||1 year, 294 days|
|Sean Spicer||January 20, 2017||March 6, 2017||45 days||Donald Trump|
|Mike Dubke||March 6, 2017||June 2, 2017||88 days|
|June 2, 2017||July 21, 2017||49 days|
|Anthony Scaramucci||July 21, 2017||July 31, 2017||10 days|
|Hope Hicks||August 16, 2017
Acting: August 16 – September 12, 2017
Anthony Scaramucci had not yet made it to his official start date before he was fired
Though President Donald Trump appointed Scaramucci to the role 10 days ago, he only held the position for six days thanks to an official start date of July 25.
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