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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Willow
Willow movie.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Ron Howard
Produced by George Lucas
Joe Johnston
Nigel Wooll
Screenplay by Bob Dolman
Story by George Lucas
Starring Val Kilmer
Joanne Whalley
Warwick Davis
Billy Barty
Jean Marsh
Music by James Horner
Cinematography Adrian Biddle
Edited by Daniel P. Hanley
Mike Hill
Richard Hiscott
Production
company
Distributed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Release dates
  • May 20, 1988 (1988-05-20)
Running time 126 minutes[1]
Country United States
Language English
Budget $35 million[2]
Box office $57,269,863 (United States)

Willow is a 1988 American fantasy film directed by Ron Howard, produced and with a story by George Lucas, and starring Warwick Davis, Val Kilmer, Joanne Whalley, Jean Marsh, and Billy Barty. Davis plays the eponymous lead character and hero: a reluctant farmer who plays a critical role in protecting a special baby from a tyrannical queen in a sword and sorcery setting.

Lucas conceived the idea for Willow in 1972, approaching Howard to direct during the post-production phase of Cocoon in 1985. Bob Dolman was brought in to write the screenplay, coming up with seven drafts before finishing in late 1986. Willow was then set up at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and principal photography began in April 1987, finishing the following October.

The majority of filming took place at Elstree Studios in Hertfordshire, England, as well as Wales and New Zealand. Industrial Light & Magic created the visual effects sequences, which led to a revolutionary breakthrough with digital morphing technology. Willow was released in 1988 to mixed reviews from critics, but was a modest financial success and received two Academy Award nominations.

Plot[edit]

Fearful of a prophecy stating that a girl child will be born to bring about her downfall, the evil Queen Bavmorda imprisons all the pregnant women of her realm in the formidable stronghold of Nockmaar. A child is born in the Nockmaar dungeons and identified as the prophesied child by a birthmark on her arm.

Before the black sorceress arrives to claim the child, the mother convinces her reluctant midwife to escape with the baby. Bavmorda sends her daughter Sorsha and General Kael, the leader of her army, after the midwife to retrieve the baby. After a long pursuit, Nockmaar hounds finally catch up with the midwife. Knowing she can't escape, she puts the baby on a makeshift raft and sends her downstream, trusting fate to run its course, just before she is caught and torn apart by the hounds. The child washes up on shore near a village inhabited by a race of hobbit-like people called Nelwyns and is found by the children of Willow Ufgood, a farmer and amateur conjurer with latent magical abilities. Willow is at first reluctant to take in the baby, but eventually comes to care for her.

The next day, Willow and his children attend a celebration in their village and Willow takes part in a 'test of magic' to become the apprentice to the village's wizard. During the celebration, a Nockmaar hound that was tracking the baby attacks the village. Once the cause of the attack is found, Willow is chosen by the town council to return the child to the world of the Daikini (humans). The first Daikini that Willow comes upon is a boastful warrior named Madmartigan, being held captive in a "crow's cage" by the side of the road for theft. Seeing a way to escape his cage, Madmartigan offers to take care of the baby. During their interaction, they meet the retreating army of the kingdom of Galladoorn, which was recently destroyed by Bavmorda, under the leadership of Madmartigan's old friend and rival Airk Thaughbaer. Willow entrusts the baby to Madmartigan, but on his way home, Willow is attacked by a clan of brownies, who steal the baby from Madmartigan. Willow is taken to the fairy queen of the forest, Cherlindrea, who tells him that the baby, Elora Danan, has chosen Willow to be her guardian. She gives Willow her magic wand and commissions him to find the sorceress Fin Raziel, with two of her brownies, Franjean and Rool, acting as his guides. Along the way, they bump into Madmartigan again, who helps them escape from Sorsha.

Willow and the rest of the group finally meet Fin Raziel, only to find that the sorceress has been turned into a possum by Bavmorda. Soon afterwards Sorsha captures Willow and the others, and they start the long trek to Nockmaar castle. In a mountain camp, Willow attempts to use magic to turn Fin Raziel back into her human form, but transforms her into a Rook instead. Franjean and Rool cause further mayhem when they accidentally expose Madmartigan to a fairy love dust they are carrying, which makes him become infatuated with Sorsha, but eventually they manage to escape.

The group arrives at the castle of Tir Asleen, which has been put under Bavmorda's spell; all its inhabitants are frozen in ice. Madmartigan, refusing to give up hope, prepares for Sorsha's attack while Willow once again fails to transform Raziel into human form, this time turning her into a goat. Sorsha, Kael, and their army arrive and give battle. Willow attempts a botched magic spell an attacking troll, causing it to transform into a giant, two-headed monster (the "Eborsisk"). Luckily, the remnants of the Army of Galladoorn arrive just in time to help their friends. Amidst the melee, Sorsha finally realizes her love for Madmartigan. Kael, however, seizes Elora and takes her to Nockmaar.

The heroes set up camp at Nockmaar, preparing to storm the castle in a final attempt to rescue Elora. Bavmorda turns most of the soldiers (including Madmartigan and Sorsha) into pigs, but Raziel teaches Willow how to protect himself from the spell. Willow finally returns Raziel to human form, and the sorceress is able to transform the soldiers back to people. Since Nockmaar's walls seem impenetrable, all despair until Willow proposes a trick to get them inside. In the morning, Raziel and Willow alone provoke the Nockmaar army into attacking them. As the Nockmaar army abandons the security of the castle, Airk's army ambushes them and gains access to the castle.

While Madmartigan, Airk, and his soldiers battle Kael and the Nockmaar army in the courtyard, Willow, Raziel and Sorsha ascend the castle's main tower trying to locate Elora. They find Bavmorda in the process of initiating an evil ritual that will banish Elora's body and soul to a nether-realm. Below, Kael kills Airk, then engages Madmartigan in a lengthy battle, which ends with Madmartigan killing the General. After a lengthy magical battle between Raziel and Bavmorda, Willow defeats Bavmorda by performing a "disappearing pig trick" to hide Elora while claiming to have sent her to a realm where she can't be harmed by evil; fooled, Bavmorda stumbles into her own ritual, thus banishing her own body and soul to the nether realm. Willow leaves the baby in the care of Madmartigan and Sorsha at the castle of Tir Asleen and returns home to his beloved family with a special gift: a spellbook from Raziel, which helps him develop his own magical abilities.

Cast[edit]

  • Warwick Davis as Willow Ufgood, a reluctant Nelwyn dwarf and aspiring sorcerer who plays a critical role in protecting infant Elora Danan from the evil queen Bavmorda. He has a fatherly love for Elora as much as his own children and is a devoted family man. Often forsaking risk for safety he is a hesitant adventurer, but is endlessly optimistic.
  • Val Kilmer as Madmartigan, a boasting mercenary swordsman who helps Willow on his quest. In the film (further explained in the film's novelization) it is partly revealed that he is a disgraced knight from the kingdom of Galladoorn. He is crude and crass, and a bit of a womanizer his lust gets him into trouble on more than one occasion, but he becomes equally devoted to saving Elora as Willow does and eventually falls in love with Sorsha, Bavmorda's daughter.
  • Kate and Ruth Greenfield/Rebecca Bearman as Elora Danan, an infant princess that prophecy says will bring about Queen Bavmorda's downfall.
  • Joanne Whalley as Sorsha, Bavmorda's warrior daughter. In the film's novelization, her father is revealed as the king of Tir Asleen, which becomes a further factor for Sorsha to turn against her mother. Independent and strong, Sorsha proves to be a powerful warrior on the battlefield, and eventually falls in love with Madmartigan during a battle between him, Willow and the Nockmaar army.
  • Jean Marsh as Queen Bavmorda, tillainous ruler of Nockmaar and mother of Sorsha. Evil and bent on conquest, she seeks Elora Danan; whose prophecied to end her rule, by banishing her into another realm and excising her spirit to prevent her from being reborn. She is a powerful sorceress whose magic is often deadly, as well as a source of amusement when she turns the heroes (save Willow) into pigs.
  • Patricia Hayes as Fin Raziel, the aging sorceress who is turned into a possum[3][4] due to a curse by Bavmorda. She is the guide that Willow is sent to find and to protect Elora, but having changed into a possum, she is unable to use her magic until Willow successfully changes her back into her human form.
  • Billy Barty as The High Aldwin, the Nelwyn wizard who commissions Willow to go on his journey. He sees the potential that Willow possesses in magic, and regrets rejecting him for apprenticeship due to Willow's own misgivings about the answer to a riddle. He is also quick to provide a solution when his magic will not do.
  • Pat Roach as General Kael, the villainous associate to Queen Bavmorda and high commander of her army.
  • Gavan O'Herlihy as Airk Thaughbaer, the military commander of the (destroyed) kingdom of Galladoorn who shares a mixed friendship with Madmartigan. A proud warrior, Airk makes his final stand with Kael, going down in the heat of battle opposing all odds.
  • Maria Holvöe as Cherlindrea, the fairy queen who resides in the forest and updates Willow on the importance of his quest.
  • Kevin Pollak and Rick Overton as Rool and Franjean, a Brownie duo who also serve as comic reliefs in Willow's journey. Franjean is the more level headed of the two, but often gives into Rool's more roudy nature, often providing sarcastic commentary when needed. Rool is more of a drunkard, and often finds his way through dumb luck. Both are committed to Cherlindrea's cause and do their best to help when they can.
  • David J. Steinberg as Meegosh, Willow's closest friend who accompanies Willow partway on his journey. He leaves Willow, only hesitantly after he is given his mission and promises to return home and care for his family.
  • Mark Northover as Burglekutt, the leader of the Nelwyn village council who maintains a running enmity with Willow. Loud, obnoxious and a know-it-all, Burglekutt is inserted as leader of Willow's expedition by the High Aldwin in order to facilitate Vohnkar's request to volunteer (which would leave the village without its strongest warrior).
  • Phil Fondacaro as Vohnkar, a Nelwyn warrior who also accompanies Willow partway on his journey. Proclaimed by Burglekutt as the best warrior in the village, he is refused his volunteering to accompany Willow and Meegosh on their journey to return Elora to the Daikini. This is recended however when the cowardly Burglekutt is volunteered by Aldwin to be the leader of the expedition.
  • Julie Peters as Kaiya Ufgood, Willow's wife; a loving mother and enthusiastic in caring for Elora.
  • Tony Cox as a Nelwyn warrior.

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

George Lucas conceived the idea for Willow (originally titled Munchkins) in 1972. Lucas' desire for Willow was similar to Star Wars, and created "a number of well-known mythological situations for a young audience".[5][6] During the production of Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi in 1982, Lucas approached Warwick Davis, who was portraying Wicket the Ewok, about playing Willow Ufgood. Five years passed before he was actually cast in the role. Lucas "thought it would be great to use a little person in a lead role. A lot of my movies are about a little guy against the system, and this was just a more literal interpretation of that idea."[5]

Lucas explained that he had to wait until the mid-1980s to make Willow because visual effects technology was finally advanced enough to execute his vision.[6] Meanwhile, actor-turned-director Ron Howard was looking to do a fantasy film. Howard was at Industrial Light & Magic during the post-production phase of Cocoon, when he was first approached by Lucas to direct Willow. Howard had previously starred in Lucas' American Graffiti,[7] and Lucas felt that he and Howard shared a symbiotic relationship similar to the one Lucas enjoyed with Steven Spielberg. Howard nominated Bob Dolman to write the screenplay based on Lucas' story. Dolman had worked with Howard on a 1983 television pilot called Little Shots that had not resulted in a series, and Lucas admired Dolman's work on the sitcom WKRP in Cincinnati.[8]

Dolman joined Howard and Lucas at Skywalker Ranch for a series of lengthy story conferences, and wrote seven drafts of his script between the spring and fall of 1986.[8] Pre-production began in late 1986. Various major film studios turned down the chance to distribute and co-finance Willow with Lucasfilm because they believed the fantasy genre was unsuccessful. This was largely due to films such as Krull, Legend, Dragonslayer, and Labyrinth.[9] Lucas took Willow to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM), which was headed by Alan Ladd, Jr. Ladd and Lucas shared a relationship as far back as the mid-1970s, when Ladd, running 20th Century Fox, greenlighted Lucas' idea for Star Wars.[10] However, in 1986, MGM was facing financial troubles, and major investment in a fantasy film was perceived as a risk. Ladd advanced half the $35 million budget for Willow in return for theatrical and television rights, leaving Lucasfilm with home video and pay television rights to offer in exchange for the other half.[10]

Lucas based the character of General Kael (Pat Roach) on the film critic Pauline Kael, a fact that was not lost on Kael in her printed interview of the film. She referred to General Kael as an "homage a moi".[11] On a similar route, the two-headed dragon was named "Sispert" ("Eborsisk" in the novelization) after film critics Roger Ebert and Gene Siskel.[2]

Filming[edit]

Principal photography began on April 2, 1987 and ended that following October. Interior footage took place at Elstree Studios in Hertfordshire, England, while location shooting took place in Wales and New Zealand.[10] Lucas initially visualized shooting Willow similar to Return of the Jedi, with studio scenes at Elstree and locations in Northern California, but the idea eventually faded. However, some exteriors were done around Skywalker Ranch and on location at Burney Falls, near Mount Shasta.[12] The Chinese government refused Lucas the chance for a brief location shoot. He then sent a group of photographers to South China to photograph specific scenery, which was then used for background blue screen footage. Tongariro National Park in New Zealand was chosen to house Bavmorda's castle.[12]

Visual effects[edit]

A little man in a hooded cloak with his back to the camera holds a lightening wand toward a two-legged animal that appears to be part goat and part ostrich.
Willow attempts to restore Fin Raziel into human form.

Lucas' Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) created the visual effects sequences. The script called for Willow to restore Fin Raziel (Patricia Hayes) from a goat to her original human form. Willow recites what he thinks is the appropriate spell, but turns the goat into an ostrich, a peacock, a tortoise, and finally a tiger, before returning Raziel to her human body. ILM supervisor Dennis Muren considered using stop motion animation for the scene.[13] He also explained that another traditional and practical way in the late-1980s to execute this sequence would have been through the use of an optical dissolve with cutaways at various stages.[10]

Muren found both stop motion and optical effects to be too technically challenging and decided that the transformation scene would be a perfect opportunity for ILM to create advances with digital morphing technology. Muren proposed filming each animal, and the actress doubling for Patricia Hayes, and then feeding the images into a computer program developed by Doug Smythe (Terminator 2: Judgment Day, Iron Man).[10] The program would then create a smooth transition from one stage to another before outputting the result back onto film. Smythe began development of the necessary software in September 1987. By March 1988, the impressive result Muren and fellow designer David Allen (Young Sherlock Holmes, Ghostbusters II) achieved what would represent a breakthrough for computer-generated imagery (CGI).[10]

Soundtrack[edit]

Willow
Soundtrack album by James Horner
Released 1988
Genre Film music
Length 69:23
Label Virgin
Producer James Horner, Shawn Murphy

The film score was written by James Horner and performed by the London Symphony Orchestra.[14]

"I am a musicologist, a doctor of music. Therefore I listened to, studied and analysed a lot of music. I also enjoy metaphors, the art of quoting and of cycles. The harmonic draft of the Willow score, and most particularly its spiritual side, came from such a cycle, from such mythology and music history that I was taught, and that I myself convey with my own emotions and compositions."[15]

Eclectic influences on the score include Leos Janacek's "Glagolitic Mass", Mozart's "Requiem", "The Nine Splendid Stags" from Béla Bartók, Edvard Grieg's "Arabian Dance" for the theater play Peer Gynt, and compositions by Sergei Prokofiev.[15]

"Willow's Theme" purposefully (see Horner's quote above) contains a reworking/alteration of part of the theme of the first movement ("Lebhaft") of Robert Schumann's Symphony No 3 referencing it, while "Elora Danan's Theme" shows a reference to the Bulgarian folk song "Mir Stanke Le" (Мир Станке ле), also known as the "Harvest Song from Thrace".

Track listing[14]
  1. "Elora Danan" – 9:45
  2. "Escape from the Tavern" – 5:04
  3. "Willow's Journey Begins" – 5:26
  4. "Canyon of Mazes" – 7:52
  5. "Tir Asleen" – 10:47
  6. "Willow's Theme" – 3:54
  7. "Bavmorda's Spell is Cast" – 18:11
  8. "Willow the Sorcerer" – 11:55

Reception[edit]

Commercial analysis[edit]

Willow was shown and promoted at the 1988 Cannes Film Festival.[16][17] The film was released on May 20, 1988 in 1,209 theaters, earning $8,300,169 in its opening weekend opening at #1. Making over $57 million at the North American box office,[18] Willow was not the blockbuster hit insiders had anticipated.[19] Lucas had hoped Willow would earn as much money as E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial,[17] but the film faced early competition with Crocodile Dundee II, Big and Rambo III.[20] However, the film was not a financial flop; with strong foreign, home video, and television sales, Willow did make a profit.[21]

Critical analysis[edit]

Willow was released to mixed reviews from critics.[17] Based on 29 reviews collected by Rotten Tomatoes, 48% of the critics enjoyed Willow with an average score of 5.6/10.[22]

Janet Maslin from The New York Times praised Lucas' storytelling, but was critical of Ron Howard's direction. "Howard appears to have had his hands full in simply harnessing the special effects," Maslin said.[23]

Desson Thomson, writing in The Washington Post, explained "Rob Reiner's similar fairytale adventure The Princess Bride (which Willow cinematographer Adrian Biddle also shot) managed to evoke volumes more without razzle-dazzle. It's a sad thing to be faulting Lucas, maker of the Star Wars trilogy and Raiders of the Lost Ark, for forgetting the tricks of entertainment."[24] Mike Clark in USA Today wrote that "the rainstorm wrap-up, in which Good edges Evil is like Led Zeppelin Meets The Wild Bunch. Willow is probably too much for young children and possibly too much of the same for cynics. But any 6–13-year-old who sees this may be bitten by the "movie bug" for life."[10]

Awards[edit]

At the Academy Awards, the film was nominated for Sound Editing and Visual Effects, but lost both to Who Framed Roger Rabbit, which was similarly done by Industrial Light & Magic.[25] The film won Best Costume Design at the Saturn Awards, where it was also nominated for Warwick Davis for Best Performance by a Younger Actor (lost to Fred Savage for Vice Versa) and Jean Marsh for Best Supporting Actress (lost to Sylvia Sidney for Beetlejuice). Willow also lost Best Fantasy Film[26] and the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation to Roger Rabbit.[27] Willow was also nominated for two Golden Raspberry Awards including Worst Screenplay, which lost to Cocktail and Worst Supporting Actor for Billy Barty, who lost to Dan Aykroyd for Caddyshack II.[28]

Legacy[edit]

The film was released on DVD as a "special edition" in November 2001 by 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment. The release included an audio commentary by Warwick Davis and two "making of" featurettes. In the commentary, Davis confirms that there were a number of "lost scenes" previously rumored to have been deleted from the film including a battle in the valley, Willow battling a boy who transforms into a shark in a lake while retrieving Fin Raziel, and an extended sorceress duel at the climax.[29] (Though removed from the theatrical version, the battle with the lake monster was retained for both Marvel Comics' adaptation and Wayland Drew's novelization of the film.)[30] Willow made its Blu-ray debut on March 12, 2013, with an all-new transfer supervised by George Lucas.[31]

Board game[edit]

In 1988, Tor Books released The Willow Game,[32] a two to six player adventure board game based on the film designed by Greg Costikyan.

Video games[edit]

Main article: Willow (video game)

Three video games based on the film were released. Mindscape published an action game in 1988 for Amiga, Atari ST, Commodore 64, and DOS.[33] Capcom published two different games in 1989, a platform game for the arcades and a role-playing game for the Nintendo Entertainment System.[34][35]

Novels[edit]

Lucas outlined the Chronicles of the Shadow War trilogy to follow the film and hired comic book writer/novelist Chris Claremont to adapt them into a series of books. They take place about fifteen years after the original film and feature the now teenage Elora Danan as a central character.

  1. Shadow Moon (1995) ISBN 0-553-57285-7
  2. Shadow Dawn (1996) ISBN 0-553-57289-X
  3. Shadow Star (2000) ISBN 0-553-57288-1

Sequel[edit]

In April 2005, Lucas and Davis commented that a television series acting as a sequel was under consideration.[36] In June 2008, Davis reiterated his hopes to return for a theatrically-released second installment of Willow.[37] On February 15, 2013 Val Kilmer posted a photo via Twitter implying that Willow 2 was "Right around the corner!".[38] However, this coincided with a Life's Too Short mockumentary featuring Davis and Kilmer, and is likely to have been a hoax. In March 2013, Davis indicated an interest in seeing a sequel (perhaps as a TV series), but gave no indication that any development was ongoing.[39]

In popular culture[edit]

  • The film (and its reputed commercial failure) is widely referenced in the 2011 BBC Two TV comedy, Life's Too Short, which also stars Warwick Davis.
  • In Eastbound and Down Series 3 Episode 2 the belligerent Kenny Powers sets his infant son afloat on a creek and directly compares him to "The baby in Willow"
  • In a third series episode of An Idiot Abroad that co-starred Warwick Davis, a seemingly irritated Karl Pilkington states in an on-camera interview that people on the street recognized Davis and would reference his movies, saying "Somebody shouted 'Willow!' at him... I don't know what he played in that!"
  • In the Glee episode "Silly Love Songs," after Santana insults Finn, Rachel says - in a reference to her own short stature - "Maybe I am destined to play the title role in the Broadway musical version of Willow, but the only job you're going to have is working on a pole!"

References[edit]

  1. ^ "WILLOW (PG)". British Board of Film Classification. November 17, 1988. Retrieved November 4, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b Gray, Beverly. Ron Howard: from Mayberry to the moon-and beyond, page 134. Rutledge Hill Press, Nashville, Tennessee (2003). ISBN 1-55853-970-0.
  3. ^ Shannon, Jody Duncan (August 1988). "Willow". Cinefex, p. 178
  4. ^ Vinge, Joan D.; & Lucas, George (1988). Willow: The Novel Based on the Motion Picture. London: Piper. ISBN 0-330-30631-6
  5. ^ a b Hearn, Marcus (2005). The Cinema of George Lucas. New York City: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. p. 153. ISBN 0-8109-4968-7. 
  6. ^ a b Aljean Harmetz (May 21, 1987). "'Star Wars' Is 10, And Lucas Reflects". The New York Times. 
  7. ^ Ron Howard (2005). "Forward". The Cinema of George Lucas. New York City: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ISBN 0-8109-4968-7. 
  8. ^ a b Hearn, p.154-155
  9. ^ Aljean Harmetz (June 9, 1988). "A Pained Lucas Ponders Attacks on 'Willow'". The New York Times. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Hearn, p.156-157
  11. ^ Lawrence Van Gelder (September 4, 2001). "Pauline Kael, Provocative and Widely Imitated New Yorker Film Critic, Dies at 82". The New York Times. Retrieved July 13, 2008. 
  12. ^ a b John Baxter (October 1999). Mythmaker: The Life and Work of George Lucas. New York City: Avon. pp. 365–366. ISBN 0-380-97833-4. 
  13. ^ Baxter, p.367
  14. ^ a b Hobart, Tavia. "Willow [Original Score]". Allmusic. Retrieved January 20, 2009. 
  15. ^ a b http://jameshorner-filmmusic.com/willow-between-quotes/
  16. ^ "Festival de Cannes: Willow". festival-cannes.com. Retrieved July 31, 2009. 
  17. ^ a b c Baxter, p.372
  18. ^ "Willow". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 23, 2008. 
  19. ^ Wasko, Janet. Hollywood in the information age: beyond the silver screen, page 198. Polity Press/Blackwell Publishers, UK (1994). ISBN 0-292-79093-7.
  20. ^ Staff (1988-06-09). "'Crocodile Dundee II' Top Film at Box Office". The New York Times. 
  21. ^ Maltby, Richard. Hollywood cinema: second edition, page 198. Blackwell Publishing, UK (1994). ISBN 0-631-21614-6.
  22. ^ "Willow". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved December 23, 2008. 
  23. ^ Janet Maslin (May 20, 1988). "'Willow,' a George Lucas Production". The New York Times. 
  24. ^ Desson Thomson (May 20, 1988). "Willow". The Washington Post. 
  25. ^ "Willow". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved December 23, 2008. 
  26. ^ "Past Saturn Awards". Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films. Retrieved December 23, 2008. 
  27. ^ "1989 Hugo Awards". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2008-12-23. 
  28. ^ "Ninth Annual RAZZIE Awards (for 1988)". Golden Raspberry Award Foundation. Retrieved December 23, 2008. 
  29. ^ "Willow (Special Edition) (1988)". Amazon.com. Retrieved December 23, 2008. 
  30. ^ Drew, Wayland (1988). Willow: A Novel. Del Ray Books. ISBN 978-0-345-35195-1. 
  31. ^ Webb, Charles. "Forget 'The Hobbit' - 'Willow' Is Coming To DVD And Blu-ray". Retrieved January 30, 2013. 
  32. ^ "The Willow Game (1988)". BoardGameGeek. Retrieved 25 November 2014. 
  33. ^ "Willow for Amiga (1989)". MobyGames. Retrieved 30 October 2012. 
  34. ^ "Willow - Videogame by Capcom". Killer List of Videogames. Retrieved October 30, 2012. 
  35. ^ "Willow for NES (1989)". MobyGames. Retrieved October 30, 2012. 
  36. ^ Eric "Quint" Vespe (April 24, 2005). "CELEBRATION is had by many a STAR WARS geek! Lucas talks! Footage shown! Details here!". Ain't It Cool News. Retrieved December 23, 2008. 
  37. ^ Shawn Adler (June 13, 2008). "Warwick Davis Enthusiastic About Possibility For ‘Willow 2′". MTV News. Retrieved December 23, 2008. 
  38. ^ https://twitter.com/ValEKilmer/status/302418561392070656/photo/1
  39. ^ http://news.moviefone.com/2013/03/12/warwick-davis-willow-interview_n_2861838.html?utm_hp_ref=moviefone&just_reloaded=1

External links[edit]

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