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EU Withdrawal Bill Debate (Day One): David Davis vs Keir Starmer plus some Q and A
EU Withdrawal Bill Debate (Day One): David Davis vs Keir Starmer plus some Q and A
Published: 2017/09/07
Channel: I Am Incorrigible
Withdrawal from the European Union
Withdrawal from the European Union
Published: 2017/08/28
Channel: AFP news agency
LIVE: MPs debate Brexit Bill in Parliament (Day 1)
LIVE: MPs debate Brexit Bill in Parliament (Day 1)
Published: 2017/09/07
Channel: RT UK
The United Kingdom is leaving the EU. Here
The United Kingdom is leaving the EU. Here's what that means.
Published: 2016/06/24
Channel: Vox
European Union (Withdrawal) Bill/ Henry VIII Powers
European Union (Withdrawal) Bill/ Henry VIII Powers
Published: 2017/09/07
Channel: Adam Wordsworth
WATCH Shock as Labour MP backing Brexit bill is heckled by her own party
WATCH Shock as Labour MP backing Brexit bill is heckled by her own party
Published: 2017/09/11
Channel: Philip Hunt
Ministerial Statement: European Union Withdrawal Bill - 12 September 2017
Ministerial Statement: European Union Withdrawal Bill - 12 September 2017
Published: 2017/09/12
Channel: The Scottish Parliament
Withdrawal from the European Union
Withdrawal from the European Union
Published: 2017/01/02
Channel: Arab News
European Union Notification of Withdrawal Bill : The Vote 1 Feb 17
European Union Notification of Withdrawal Bill : The Vote 1 Feb 17
Published: 2017/02/02
Channel: Philip Hunt
UK Votes to Withdraw From European Union
UK Votes to Withdraw From European Union
Published: 2016/06/24
Channel: ABC News
Brexit Secretary David Davis on the EU (Withdrawal) Bill
Brexit Secretary David Davis on the EU (Withdrawal) Bill
Published: 2017/07/13
Channel: BrexitCentral
EU Notification of Withdrawal Bill Committee and Remaining Stages
EU Notification of Withdrawal Bill Committee and Remaining Stages
Published: 2017/02/09
Channel: Philip Hunt
MLAs discuss the United Kingdom
MLAs discuss the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union
Published: 2016/06/28
Channel: Northern Ireland Assembly
Ken Clarke
Ken Clarke's full speech on the European Union withdrawal bill 07/09/2017
Published: 2017/09/07
Channel: Joe Smoker
BrExit: Repeal Bill - European Union (Withdrawal) Bill
BrExit: Repeal Bill - European Union (Withdrawal) Bill
Published: 2017/08/09
Channel: SkyEcho7
Britain LEAVING the EU: EXPLAINED (mostly)
Britain LEAVING the EU: EXPLAINED (mostly)
Published: 2016/06/25
Channel: ETC Show
EU (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill: Lords Amendment 1-2 Motions to disagree
EU (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill: Lords Amendment 1-2 Motions to disagree
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: Philip Hunt
[WATCH] UK Government wins vote on EU withdrawal bill
[WATCH] UK Government wins vote on EU withdrawal bill
Published: 2017/09/12
Channel: Eyewitness News
'Get on with it!' - Conor Burns full speech - EU Withdrawal bill
Published: 2017/09/11
Channel: BrexitCentral
European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill - Michelle Donelan MP
European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill - Michelle Donelan MP
Published: 2017/02/01
Channel: Michelle Donelan
Alex Salmond MP, second reading of the EU (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill
Alex Salmond MP, second reading of the EU (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill
Published: 2017/02/01
Channel: Indy Matters
The United Kingdom
The United Kingdom's Withdrawal from the European Union
Published: 2017/05/30
Channel: MdETours
BREAKING NEWS:    European Union (Withdrawal) Bill
BREAKING NEWS: European Union (Withdrawal) Bill
Published: 2017/07/13
Channel: Sir NIGEL FARAGE
European Union Notification of Withdrawal Bill Kate Hoey MP
European Union Notification of Withdrawal Bill Kate Hoey MP
Published: 2017/02/01
Channel: Philip Hunt
E U (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill report stage  on Tue 07 /03/17
E U (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill report stage on Tue 07 /03/17
Published: 2017/03/07
Channel: Philip Hunt
Geraint Davies speaking in the European Union (withdrawal) Bill debate 11/09/17
Geraint Davies speaking in the European Union (withdrawal) Bill debate 11/09/17
Published: 2017/09/13
Channel: Geraint Davies
If you vote down the EU withdrawal bill, you will end up with a chaotic exit from the EU
If you vote down the EU withdrawal bill, you will end up with a chaotic exit from the EU
Published: 2017/09/07
Channel: Leave Means Leave
UK govt. warns of
UK govt. warns of 'chaotic' EU withdrawal
Published: 2017/09/11
Channel: PressTV News Videos
Tim Loughton MP - European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill
Tim Loughton MP - European Union (Notification of Withdrawal) Bill
Published: 2017/02/27
Channel: Tim Loughton MP
Why Does The UK Want To Leave The EU?
Why Does The UK Want To Leave The EU?
Published: 2016/02/09
Channel: NowThis World
debate on the second reading of the European Union (Withdrawal) Bill
debate on the second reading of the European Union (Withdrawal) Bill
Published: 2017/09/12
Channel: sty zor
David Davis opens the EU withdrawal bill
David Davis opens the EU withdrawal bill
Published: 2017/09/07
Channel: Brexit Central
S5M-03858 Withdrawal from the European Union (Article 50)
S5M-03858 Withdrawal from the European Union (Article 50)
Published: 2017/02/08
Channel: Stewart Stevenson
Britain gives formal notice of withdrawal from the EU
Britain gives formal notice of withdrawal from the EU
Published: 2017/03/30
Channel: CGTN
Consequences of a British withdrawal from the EU
Consequences of a British withdrawal from the EU
Published: 2015/05/26
Channel: samuel ezerzer
Bedhadak 24 June 16 on United Kingdom withdrawal from the European Union
Bedhadak 24 June 16 on United Kingdom withdrawal from the European Union
Published: 2016/06/24
Channel: IBN Lokmat
EU Citizens Are Waiting for the Withdrawal of Several Countries
EU Citizens Are Waiting for the Withdrawal of Several Countries
Published: 2017/06/26
Channel: Vesti News
Will United Kingdom Withdraw From European Union?| Referendum In Britain This Thursday | NTV
Will United Kingdom Withdraw From European Union?| Referendum In Britain This Thursday | NTV
Published: 2016/06/21
Channel: NTV Telugu
Theresa May: The UK is leaving the EU
Theresa May: The UK is leaving the EU
Published: 2017/03/29
Channel: CNNMoney
British House of Commons passes bill on withdrawal from EU
British House of Commons passes bill on withdrawal from EU
Published: 2017/02/09
Channel: CGTN Africa
European Union Withdrawel Kate Hoey MP
European Union Withdrawel Kate Hoey MP
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Philip Hunt
Thousands call for government to rethink withdrawal from EU
Thousands call for government to rethink withdrawal from EU
Published: 2017/09/09
Channel: CGTN
Kate Hoey: MPs who vote against the EU Withdrawal Bill are betraying British people
Kate Hoey: MPs who vote against the EU Withdrawal Bill are betraying British people
Published: 2017/09/05
Channel: BrexitCentral
⚖️  Brexit - Why are Remain MPs Trying to Trash the EU Withdrawal Bill? ⚖️
⚖️ Brexit - Why are Remain MPs Trying to Trash the EU Withdrawal Bill? ⚖️
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Jeff Taylor
British EU withdrawal decision Cameron Prime Minister press conference
British EU withdrawal decision Cameron Prime Minister press conference
Published: 2016/06/24
Channel: 最新政治動画
Update about European Union (Withdrawal) Bill
Update about European Union (Withdrawal) Bill
Published: 2017/09/11
Channel: Rachel Maclean for Redditch
Will Britain benefit from leaving the EU?
Will Britain benefit from leaving the EU?
Published: 2017/03/30
Channel: Fox Business
Will United Kingdom Withdraw from European Union?| UK Votes In Decisive EU Referendum
Will United Kingdom Withdraw from European Union?| UK Votes In Decisive EU Referendum
Published: 2016/06/24
Channel: NTV Telugu
Tony Benn - Britain must Leave the EU to restore Democracy
Tony Benn - Britain must Leave the EU to restore Democracy
Published: 2016/06/13
Channel: voteleavemedia
Britain
Britain's withdrawal from the European Union
Published: 2016/07/15
Channel: 杨恒
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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European Union
Flag of the European Union

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government
of the European Union

Withdrawal from the European Union is the legal and political process whereby a member state of the European Union ceases to be a member of the union. Member states have the right to withdraw from the Union under the Treaty on European Union (TEU), Article 50, which states that: "Any Member State may decide to withdraw from the Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements."

No member state has to date withdrawn from the European Union, although constituent parts of two member states have withdrawn from its predecessor, the European Economic Community (EEC). Greenland, part of the Danish Realm, voted to leave the EEC in 1985. Algeria left upon independence in 1962, having been a part of France until then.

The United Kingdom which first joined the then European Communities on 1 January 1973 is the only full member state which voted in a referendum to leave the European Union, but remains a full member while the withdrawal process is negotiated. On 29 March 2017, the UK government gave formal notice (in accordance with Article 50) of its intent to withdraw, beginning the minimum two-year negotiation period.

Procedure[edit]

The Treaty of Lisbon introduced an exit clause for members who wish to withdraw from the Union. Under TEU Article 50, a Member State would notify the European Council of its intention to exit the Union and a withdrawal agreement would be negotiated between the Union and that State. The treaties of the European Union would cease to be applicable to that State from the date of the agreement or, failing that, within two years of the notification unless the Council, in agreement with the State, unanimously decides to extend this period. The two-year period of time in which the terms of the withdrawal agreement are negotiated is known as the sunset period.[1] The agreement is concluded on behalf of the Union by the Council and must set out the arrangements for withdrawal, including a framework for the State's future relationship with the Union, negotiated in accordance with Article 218(3) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. The agreement is to be approved by the Council, acting by qualified majority, after obtaining the consent of the European Parliament. Should a former Member State seek to rejoin the European Union, it would be subject to the same conditions as any other applicant country.[2]

This system gives a negotiated withdrawal, due to the complexities of leaving the EU (particularly concerning the euro). However it does include in it a strong implication of a unilateral right to withdraw. This is through the fact the state would decide "in accordance with its own constitutional requirements" and that the end of the treaties' application in said state is not dependent on any agreement being reached (it would occur after two years regardless).[3]

The remaining members of the EU would also need to undertake negotiations on how to make the necessary changes to the EU's budgets, voting allocations and policies.[4]

Pre-Lisbon situation[edit]

Before the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force on 1 December 2009 no provision in the treaties or law of the EU outlined the ability of a state to voluntarily withdraw from the EU. The proposed European Constitution had included such a provision and, after the failure to ratify it, that provision was later reformulated as Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union by the Lisbon Treaty.

The absence of such a provision made withdrawal technically difficult but not impossible.[3] Legally there were two interpretations of whether a state could leave. The first, that sovereign states have a right to withdraw from their international commitments;[citation needed] and the second, the treaties are for an unlimited period, with no provision for withdrawal and calling for an "ever closer union" – such commitment to unification is incompatible with a unilateral withdrawal. The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties states where a party wants to withdraw unilaterally from a treaty that is silent on secession, there are only two cases where withdrawal is allowed: where all parties recognise an informal right to do so and where the situation has changed so drastically, that the obligations of a signatory have been radically transformed.[3]

Outermost regions[edit]

TFEU Article 355(6), introduced by the Treaty of Lisbon allows the status of French, Dutch and Danish overseas territories to be changed more easily, by no longer requiring a full treaty revision. Instead, the European Council may, on the initiative of the member state concerned, change the status of an overseas country or territory (OCT) to an outermost region (OMR) or vice versa.[5]

Past withdrawals[edit]

Some former territories of European Union members broke formal links with the EU when they gained independence from their ruling country or were transferred to an EU non-member state. Most of these territories were not classed as part of the EU, but were at most associated with OCT status and EC laws were generally not in force in these countries.

Some current Special Member State territories and the European Union changed or are in the process of changing their status from such, where EU law applies fully or with limited exceptions to such, where the EU law mostly doesn't apply. The process also occurs in the opposite direction. The procedure for implementing such changes was made easier by the Treaty of Lisbon.

Algeria[edit]

French Algeria had joined the European Communities since it was not legally a colony, but a full-fledged part of France. Upon independence in 1962, Algeria left the European Communities.

Greenland[edit]

Greenland chose to leave the EU predecessor without also seceding from a member state. It initially voted against joining the EEC when Denmark joined in 1973, but because Denmark as a whole voted to join, Greenland, as a county of Denmark, joined too. When home rule for Greenland began in 1979, it held a new referendum and voted to leave the EEC. After wrangling over fishing rights, the territory left the EEC in 1985,[6] but remains subject to the EU treaties through association of Overseas Countries and Territories with the EU. This was permitted by the Greenland Treaty, a special treaty signed in 1984 to allow its withdrawal.[7]

Saint Barthélemy[edit]

Saint Martin and Saint-Barthélemy in 2007 seceded from Guadeloupe (overseas department of France and outermost region (OMR) of the EU) and became overseas collectivities of France, but at the same time remained OMRs of the European Union. Later, the elected representatives of the island of Saint-Barthélemy expressed a desire to "obtain a European status which would be better suited to its status under domestic law, particularly given its remoteness from the mainland, its small insular economy largely devoted to tourism and subject to difficulties in obtaining supplies which hamper the application of some European Union standards." France, reflecting this desire, requested at the Council of the European Union to change the status of Saint Barthélemy to an overseas country or territory (OCT) associated with the European Union.[8] The status change came into effect from 1 January 2012.[8]

Brexit[edit]

Brexit is the process by which the United Kingdom withdraws from the European Union.[9] The British government led by David Cameron held a referendum on the issue in 2016; a majority voted to leave the European Union. On 29 March 2017, Theresa May's administration invoked Article 50 of the Treaty on the European Union in a letter to the President of the European Council, Donald Tusk. The UK is set to leave by April 2019.[10]

The terms of withdrawal have not yet been negotiated, and the UK remains a full member of the European Union.[11] May said that the UK government would not seek permanent single market membership,[12] and promised a Great Repeal Bill that would repeal the European Communities Act and would incorporate existing European Union law into the domestic law of the UK.[13]

Potential future withdrawals[edit]

Several states have political parties and individuals advocating and seeking withdrawal from the EU.[14] In member states, there are political movements of varying significance campaigning for withdrawal.

Parties in the EU advocating or considering withdrawal[edit]

While no country other than the United Kingdom has voted on whether to withdraw from the EU, political parties criticizing the federative trend of the European Union and advocating its reshaping into a looser cooperation framework have gained prominence in several member states since the last European Parliament election in 2014, similarly to the rise of UKIP in the United Kingdom.

The main parties are:

The European Parliament currently includes two official groups of eurosceptic members opposing the EU institutions: Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy and Europe of Nations and Freedom.

Break-up of a member state[edit]

As Lucinda Creighton, the former Irish Minister of State for European Affairs stated, there is no precedent for the breakup of any existing EU member state, and the continued membership of all or some of the new individual states.[15]

There are numerous secessionist movements within EU member states, some of them with the explicit motivation of leaving the EU.

In some cases, the desire to leave the EU is phrased in terms of "joining Switzerland", proposed for Vorarlberg (2008),[16] Lombardy/Insubria (2010),[17][18] Franche-Comté (2010),[19] Sardinia (2014),[20] South Tyrol (2014)[21] or Swabia (2014).[22]

Scottish independence[edit]

The Scottish Government, in agreement with the British Government, held a referendum on the independence of Scotland from the United Kingdom, an EU member state, on 18 September 2014. Should a majority have voted for independence, this would have been the first time the European Union would have had to deal with the breakup of any existing EU member state. There are no clear agreements or treaties covering such a scenario. The question that would have arisen is whether one state is a successor (England, Wales & Northern Ireland; also known as RUK) and one a new applicant (Scotland) or, alternatively, both are new states which must be admitted to the European Union.[23] However the UK Government's legal advice on the issue was that 'Since the [remainder of the UK] would be the same state as the UK, its EU membership would continue',[24] while speculating that 'On the face of it, Scotland would be required to accede to the EU as a new state, which would require negotiations on the terms of its membership ...', but that 'Scotland’s position within the EU is likely to be shaped more by any agreements between the parties than by pre-existing principles of EU law.'[25]

Without any formal process for handling the breakup of any member state, the European Commission offered, if requested by a member state, to provide an official view on the EU's position on Scottish EU membership in the event of its independence from the UK. The Scottish Government requested that UK Prime Minister David Cameron place this request, but such a request was not made.[26]

The Yes campaign, led by Blair Jenkins, argued that Scotland would continue as a member state following a Yes vote as Scotland would remain compliant with all EU Principles as outlined in TEU Article 2 and there are no provisions to exclude a state in the existing EU agreements.[27] During the period between a Yes vote and formal independence, the Scottish Government could engage in negotiations, from within the EU, on the terms of their continuing membership in the EU. Several EU heads of state expressed their opinion that this position was reasonable, as did James Crawford, co-author of the UK government's legal advice on the issue.[28] In an interview on BBC Radio, asked if the timescale of 18 months for EU and other treaty organisation was possible, Crawford replied that he felt the timescale was reasonable.[29] However, there was no official comment on this view from the EU Commission. The Scottish SNP Government and the Yes Campaign both declared that continuation of membership in the EU is their preference.

The No Campaign (Better Together), led by Alistair Darling, argued that any vote for independence would have automatically placed Scotland out of the EU as a new state, and Scotland would have had to renegotiate entry.[30] There is no clear legal process for how this exit for Scotland would have been enacted. Comments by several EU officials and other heads of EU member states echoed the No Campaign view, and in mid-February 2014 Jose Manuel Barroso, the President of the European Commission, stated that it would have been 'very difficult' for an independent Scotland to join the EU, 'if not impossible', because of the difficulty of getting the approval of all member states, particularly Spain, which fears a possible secession of Catalonia and has blocked Kosovo's accession to the EU.[31] Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy, said in November 2013 that after a vote for independence, Scotland "will be left outside the EU",[32][33] while Spanish Foreign Minister José Garcia-Margallo, having said in February 2012 that Spain would not veto Scottish accession to the EU, provided Scottish independence had UK agreement (thus making it different from Catalan independence),[34] added in early February 2014 that an independent Scotland would have had many hurdles to overcome in a lengthy process of negotiations and ratifications if it was to become an EU member.[33]

Catalan independence[edit]

Catalonia, an autonomous community of Spain, held a referendum on self-determination on Sunday 9 November 2014.[35]

Spanish politician and former EU Commissioner Joaquin Almunia claimed in 2013 that Catalonia would have to apply for EU membership in the event of secession from Spain[36]. In November 2013, the Spanish Prime Minister, Mariano Rajoy, opined that an independent Scotland's entry to the EU would require the consent of all the existing members and that an independent Scotland or other regions gaining independence, taken as a reference to Catalonia, would end up outside of the EU, as with Joaquin Almunia's prior statement, this is only an opinion as there is no clear EU legislation or precedent for this.[32]

Suspension[edit]

While a state can leave, there is no provision for it to be excluded. But TEU Article 7 provides for the suspension of certain rights of a member state if a member persistently breaches the EU's founding values (respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities), outlined in TEU Article 2. The European Council can vote to suspend any rights of membership, such as voting and representation as outlined above. Identifying the breach requires unanimity (excluding the state concerned), but sanctions require only a qualified majority.[37] The state in question would still be bound by the obligations treaties and the Council acting by majority may alter or lift such sanctions.

In early 2000 Austria formed a government which included the right-wing populist[38][39] Freedom Party. Invoking Article 7 was deemed excessive so other member states threatened to cut off diplomatic contacts instead. This event led to a desire for an intermediate step to provide a warning sign without full suspension.[40][41] The Treaty of Nice provided this (termed Article 7.1) whereby the Council, acting by majority, may identify a potential breach and make recommendations to the state to rectify it before action is taken against it as outlined above.[37] In 2014 the European Commission introduced a three step mechanism to identify “systemic threats” to EU values. The mechanism must be complete before Article 7 is discussed.[42]

In June 2015 the European Parliament asked the Commission to present a proposal for starting the mechanism against Hungary over rule of law concerns in the country but in October voted down a similar proposal to begin procedures against Hungary over its treatment of migrants.[42] At the same time, a European Citizens' Initiative called for the start of Article 7 mechanisms against Hungary.[43] The following year the Polish government came under fire over its media and judicial reforms. The European Commission began its mechanism against Poland in January 2016[41] however Hungary made clear it would block any invocation of Article 7 itself against Poland.[40]

While a state can be suspended, there is no provision to expel a member state outright. The idea appeared in the drafting of the European Constitution and the Lisbon Treaty but failed to be included. There are a number of considerations which make such a provision impractical. Firstly, a member state leaving would require amendments to the treaties, and amendments require unanimity. Unanimity would be impossible to achieve if the state did not want to leave of its own free will. Secondly it is legally complicated, particularly with all the rights and privileges being withdrawn for both sides that would not be resolved by an orderly and voluntary withdrawal. Third, the concept of expulsion goes against the spirit of the treaties. Most available sanctions are conciliatory, not punitive; they do not punish a state for failing to live up to fellow states' demands, but encourage a state to fulfill its treaty obligations - expulsion would certainly not achieve that.[3]

Legal effect on EU citizenship[edit]

Citizenship of the European Union is dependent on citizenship (nationality) of a member state, and citizenship remains a competence entirely vested with the member states. Citizenship of the EU can therefore only be acquired or lost by the acquisition or loss of citizenship of a member state. A [probable but untested] consequence of a country withdrawing from the EU is that, without otherwise negotiated and then legally implemented, its citizens are no longer citizens of the EU.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Alderton, John; Kavanagh, Helen (24 June 2016). "EU Referendum Results: It’s Going To Be Brexit". The National Law Review. Squire Patton Boggs (US) LLP. Retrieved 28 June 2016. 
  2. ^ Article 50(4) of Lisbon Treaty which cites Article 49 Accession process
  3. ^ a b c d Athanassiou, Phoebus (December 2009) Withdrawal and Expulsion from the EU and EMU, Some Reflections (PDF), European Central Bank. Accessed 8 September 2011
  4. ^ Oliver, Tim. "Europe without Britain: Assessing the Impact on the European Union of a British Withdrawal". Stiftung Wissenshaft und Politik. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
  5. ^ The provision reads:

    "6. The European Council may, on the initiative of the Member State concerned, adopt a decision amending the status, with regard to the Union, of a Danish, French or Netherlands country or territory referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2. The European Council shall act unanimously after consulting the Commission."

    — Treaty of Lisbon Article 2, point 293
  6. ^ "Greenland Out of E.E.C.," New York Times (4 February 1985)
  7. ^ European law mentioning Greenland Treaty
  8. ^ a b Draft European Council Decision on amendment of the European status of the island of Saint-Barthélemy – adoption
  9. ^ Hunt, Alex; Wheeler, Brian (3 November 2016). "Brexit: All you need to know about the UK leaving the EU". BBC News. 
  10. ^ "Article 50: Theresa May to trigger Brexit process". BBC News. 20 March 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2017. 
  11. ^ "Advice for British nationals travelling and living in Europe". British Government Website. The U.K. Government. 19 January 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2017. 
  12. ^ Wilkinson, Michael (17 January 2017). "Theresa May confirms Britain will leave Single Market as she sets out 12-point Brexit plan.". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 18 January 2017. 
  13. ^ "Brexit: PM to trigger Article 50 by end of March". BBC News. 2 October 2016. Retrieved 2 October 2016. 
  14. ^ "Brussels' Fear of the True Finns: Rise of Populist Parties Pushes Europe to the Right," Spiegel (25 April 2011).
  15. ^ "Scottish independence: Irish minister says EU application 'would take time'". BBC. 25 January 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2013. 
  16. ^ "Jeder zweite Vorarlberger wäre lieber Schweizer". 20 Minuten. 23 October 2008. 
  17. ^ Coen, Leonardo (22 June 2010). "L'ultima tentazione di Como: "Vogliamo diventare svizzeri"". La Repubblica. Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  18. ^ "Domà Nunch rilancia: lavoriamo insieme per una confederazione elvetico-insubre". Retrieved 29 June 2010. 
  19. ^ "Jean-Philippe Allenbach, militant d'une Franche-Comté suisse". Retrieved 24 June 2017. 
  20. ^ Chiara Albanese and John Letzing, In Sardinia, Secessionists Want to Leave Italy and Join... Switzerland? Mediterranean island would give Alpine nation access to the sea, supporters say; ‘a natural match’, Wall Street Journal, 2 June 2015. "Italy: Campaign to sell Sardinia to Switzerland", BBC News, 28 February 2014.
  21. ^ Nicolas Saameli, Das Südtirol will Schweizer Kanton werden, 20 Minuten, 28 July 2014.
  22. ^ Yannick Dillinger, 86 Prozent der Leser wollen Schweizer werden, Schwäbische Zeitung, 4 July 2014.
  23. ^ Edward, David, "Scotland's Position in the European Union", Scottish Parliamentary Review, Vol. I, No. 2 (Jan 2014) [Edinburgh: Blacket Avenue Press]
  24. ^ Crawford, James; Boyle, Alan (10 December 2012). "Annex A - Opinion: Referendumon the Independence of Scotland – International Law Aspects" (PDF). p. 67. Retrieved 19 February 2013. Part I: Executive summary ... 6.1 Since the rUK would be the same state as the UK, its EU membership would continue. Indeed, the EU treaties implicitly preclude ‘automatic’ withdrawal by a state. There might have to be an adjustment to the UK’s terms of membership to reflect its reduction in territory and population, but this could be done without the UK ceasing to be an EU Member State. 
  25. ^ Crawford, James; Boyle, Alan (10 December 2012). "Annex A - Opinion: Referendumon the Independence of Scotland – International Law Aspects" (PDF). p. 67. Retrieved 19 February 2013. Part I: Executive summary ...6. Within the EU, there is no precedent for what happens when a metropolitan part of a current Member State becomes independent, so it is necessary to speculate. ... 6.2 On the face of it, if Scotland had voted for independence it would have been required to accede to the EU as a new state, which would require negotiations on the terms of its membership, including on the subjects of the UK’s current opt-outs. The EU treaties make no provision for succession to membership. Certain provisions of the EU treaties would require amendment. If Scotland were somehow to become an EU member in its own right automatically, it is not clear how adjustments to the relative positions of Member States could be willed into being without negotiations. Nor would it be clear on what terms it would be a member. 6.3 Some have argued that the rights conferred on individuals by EU citizenship might influence the European Court of Justice (ECJ) to somehow resist this outcome. But this is a matter for speculation and does not have a clear precedent in EU law. It would also require the issue to somehow come before the ECJ, which may be unlikely. 7. In any event, Scotland’s position within the EU is likely to be shaped more by any agreements between the parties than by pre-existing principles of EU law. 
  26. ^ "Unionists urged to sign EU letter". The Herald. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
  27. ^ "Scottish Independence: Blair Jenkins answers your questions". BBC. 18 January 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
  28. ^ Crawford, James; Boyle, Alan (10 December 2012). "Annex A - Opinion: Referendumon the Independence of Scotland – International Law Aspects" (PDF). Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  29. ^ "Sturgeon: UK 'arrogant' over Scottish independence". BBC. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  30. ^ "'Better Together' - Alistair Darling delivers the John P Mackintosh lecture". 10 November 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2013. 
  31. ^ Matthew Holehouse, Political Correspondent (16 February 2014). "Jose Manuel Barroso: nearly impossible for Scotland to join EU". Sunday Telegraph, London. Retrieved 4 September 2014. Spain, which fears the separation of the Catalonia region, has blocked the accession of Kosovo ... Jose Manuel Barroso, the president of the European Commission ... went on: 'It will be extremely difficult to get the approval of all the other member states to have a new member coming from one member state.' 'We have seen that Spain has been opposing even the recognition of Kosovo, for instance. It’s to some extent a similar case because it’s a new country, and so I believe it’s going to be extremely difficult, if not impossible.' 
  32. ^ a b Johnson, Simon (27 November 2013). "Spanish PM: Independent Scotland would be kicked out of the EU". The Daily Telegraph. London. 
  33. ^ a b "Scottish independence: Spain warning over EU entry". The Scotsman, Edinburgh. 3 February 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2014. 'They have to resolve a mountain of problems, as Better Together has explained very well,' he said.'You have to achieve candidate status. You have to negotiate 35 chapters . It has to be ratified by the institutions of the EU. It then has to be ratified by 28 national parliaments.' 
  34. ^ Graeme Murray (26 February 2012). "Spain will not veto an independent Scotland joining EU". Sunday Express, London. Retrieved 4 September 2014. 
  35. ^ Goodman, Al (12 December 2013). "Political parties announce date for vote on Catalonia independence". CNN. Madrid. 
  36. ^ Nikolaj, Nielsen (17 September 2013). "EU commission: Catalonia must leave EU if it leaves Spain". EUObserver.com. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  37. ^ a b Suspension clause, Europa glossary, accessed 1 June 2010
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  40. ^ a b EU can still block Hungary’s veto on Polish sanctions Politico 11 January 2016
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  42. ^ a b What is Article 7? Politico 13 January 2016
  43. ^ Commission registers call for EU sanctions on Hungary, EU Observer 30 November 2016

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