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Lycium barbarum berries (Ningxia goji).
Lycium chinense berries (Chinese wolfberry).

Goji, goji berry, or wolfberry, is the fruit of either Lycium barbarum or Lycium chinense, two closely related species of boxthorn in the nightshade family, Solanaceae. Both species are native to Asia.[1]

Etymology and naming[edit]

The common English name, "wolfberry",[2] has unknown origin. It may have arisen from the mistaken assumption that a previous Latin name, lycii fructus, was derived from Greek λύκος (lycos) meaning "wolf",[3][4] when in fact it derived from λυκιον (lykion), referring to the ancient region of Lycia (Λυκία) in Anatolia.[5][6]

In the English-speaking world, the name "goji berry" has been used since around 2000.[7][8][9] The word "goji" is an approximation of the pronunciation of gǒu qǐ (pinyin for 枸杞), the name for the berry producing plant L. chinense in several Chinese dialects, including Hokkien and Shanghainese.[4][10] This name possibly derives from the same roots as the Persian language term gojeh (گوجه), which means "plum" or "berry".[citation needed]

In technical botanical nomenclature, L. barbarum is called matrimony vine while L. chinese is Chinese desert-thorn.[11]

Uses[edit]

Fresh goji berries (The wrinkling is due to postharvest dehydration.)
Dried goji berries

Traditional Asian cuisine[edit]

In traditional Asian cuisine, dried wolfberries are traditionally cooked before consumption, such as for rice congee and almond jelly, as well as tonic soups in combination with chicken or pork, vegetables, and other herbs.[citation needed] Young wolfberry shoots and leaves are also harvested commercially as a leaf vegetable.[12][13]

Health food[edit]

Wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) seed oil in a clear glass vial

Since the early 21st century, the dried fruit has been marketed in the Western world as a health food, amidst scientifically unsupported claims regarding such benefits.[4][10][4] [14][15][16][self-published source][8] In the wake of those claims, dried and fresh goji berries were included in many snack foods and food supplements, such as granola bars[17], yogurt, tea blends, fruit juices and juice concentrates, whole fruit purées, and dried pulp flour. There have been also commercial products of whole and ground wolfberry seeds, and seed oil.

Marketing controversies[edit]

Among the extreme claims used to market the product, often referred to as a "superfruit", is the unsupported story that a Chinese man named Li Qing Yuen, who was said to have consumed wolfberries daily, lived to the age of 256 years (1677–1933). This claim apparently originated in a 2003 booklet by Earl Mindell, who claimed also that goji had anti-cancer properties.[18] The booklet contained false and unverified claims.[4][19] Such exaggerated claims about the health benefits of goji berry and derived products triggered strong reactions, including from government regulatory agencies. In 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) placed two goji juice distributors on notice with warning letters about unproven therapeutic benefits.[20][21] These statements were in violation of the United States Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act [21 USC/321 (g)(1)][22] because they "establish the product as a drug intended for use in the cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease" when wolfberries or juice have had no such scientific evaluation. Additionally stated by the FDA, the goji juice was "not generally recognized as safe and effective for the referenced conditions" and therefore must be treated as a "new drug" under Section 21(p) of the Act. New drugs may not be legally marketed in the United States without prior approval of the FDA.

In January 2007, marketing statements for a goji juice product were the subject of an investigative report by consumer advocacy program Marketplace produced by the Canadian television network, CBC.[19] In the interview, Earl Mindell (then working for direct-marketing company FreeLife International, Inc.) falsely claimed the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York had completed clinical studies showing that use of wolfberry juice would prevent 75% of human breast cancer cases.[19]

On May 29, 2009, a class action lawsuit was filed against FreeLife in the United States District Court of Arizona. This lawsuit alleged false claims, misrepresentations, false and deceptive advertising and other issues regarding FreeLife’s Himalayan Goji Juice, GoChi, and TaiSlim products. This lawsuit sought remedies for consumers who had purchased the products over years.[23][24] A settlement agreement was reached on April 28, 2010, where FreeLife took steps to ensure that its goji products were not marketed as "unheated" or "raw", and made a contribution to an educational organization.

As with many other novel "health" foods and supplements, the lack of clinical evidence and poor quality control in the manufacture of consumer products prevent goji from being clinically recommended or applied.[25] In traditional medicine, the whole fruit or its extracts are said to have numerous effects, which has spurred some basic research to investigate possible medicinal uses of substances contained in the fruit. However, such uses were still scientifically unconfirmed as of 2018.[7][10]

Safety[edit]

Interaction with other drugs[edit]

In vitro testing suggests that unidentified wolfberry phytochemicals in goji tea may inhibit metabolism of other medications, such as those processed by the cytochrome P450 liver enzymes.[7] Such drugs include warfarin, or drugs for diabetes or hypertension.[7]

Pesticide and fungicide residues[edit]

Organochlorine pesticides are conventionally used in commercial wolfberry cultivation to mitigate infestation by insects. China's Green Food Standard, administered by the Chinese Ministry of Agriculture's China Green Food Development Center, does permit some amount of pesticide and herbicide use.[26][27][28] Agriculture in the Tibetan plateau (where many "Himalayan" or "Tibetan"-branded berries supposedly originate) conventionally uses fertilizers and pesticides, making organic claims for berries originating here dubious.[29]

Since the early 21st century, high levels of insecticide residues (including fenvalerate, cypermethrin, and acetamiprid) and fungicide residues (such as triadimenol and isoprothiolane), have been detected by the United States Food and Drug Administration in some imported wolfberries and wolfberry products of Chinese origin, leading to the seizure of these products.[30]

Cultivation and commercialization[edit]

Dried goji berries on sale in a market in France
Defrosted goji berries

Wolfberries are most often sold in dried form.

When ripe, the oblong, red berries are tender and must be picked carefully or shaken from the vine into trays to avoid spoiling. The fruits are preserved by drying them in full sun on open trays or by mechanical dehydration employing a progressively increasing series of heat exposure over 48 hours.[16][self-published source]

China[edit]

China is the main supplier of wolfberry products in the world, with total exports generating US$120 million in 2004. This production derived from 82,000 hectares farmed nationwide, yielding 95,000 tons of wolfberries.[31]

The majority of commercially produced wolfberry (50,000 tons in 2013, accounting for 45% of China's total yield) comes from L. barbarum plantations in the Ningxia and Xinjiang in Northwestern China, totaling 200,000 acres as of 2005.[16][self-published source]. The cutivation is centered in Zhongning County, Ningxia, where wolfberry plantations typically range between 40 and 400 hectares (100–1000 acres or 500–6000 mu) in area.

Ningxia goji has been cultivated along the fertile floodplains of the Yellow River for more than 700 years. They are sometimes described commercially as "red diamonds".[31][32] The region has developed an industrial association of growers, processors, marketers, and scholars of wolfberry cultivation to promote the berry's commercial and export potential.[33] Ningxia goji is the variety used by practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine.[33]

Wolfberries are celebrated each August in Ningxia with an annual festival coinciding with the berry harvest.[34] Originally held in Ningxia's capital, Yinchuan, the festival has been based since 2000 in Zhongning County.[34]

Besides Ningxia, commercial volumes of wolfberries grow in the Chinese regions of Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Gansu, Shaanxi, Shanxi, and Hebei.

United Kingdom[edit]

Lycium barbarum had been introduced in the United Kingdom in the 1730s by The Duke of Argyll, but the plant was mostly used for hedges and decorative gardening.[35]

The UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) had initially placed goji berry in the Novel Foods list.[36] That classification would have required authorisation from the European Council and Parliament for marketing.[citation needed] However, on June 18, 2007, the FSA concluded that there was a significant history of consumption of the fruit before 1997, indicating its safety, and thus removed it from the list.[9]

Canada and United States[edit]

In the first decade of the 21st century, farmers in Canada and the United States began cultivating goji on a commercial scale to meet potential markets for fresh berries, juice, and processed products.[37][38]

See also[edit]

Goji
Chinese 枸杞

References[edit]

  1. ^ Flint, Harrison Leigh (1997). "Lycium barbarum". Landscape plants for eastern North America: exclusive of Florida and the immediate Gulf Coast. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. p. 326. ISBN 978-0-471-59919-7. 
  2. ^ "Scientific classification for Lycium barbarum L". Natural Resources Conservation Service. US Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 13 April 2013. 
  3. ^ Smal, Ernest (2012). Top 100 Exotic Food Plants. CRC Press. p. 249. Retrieved September 12, 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Gross PM (2007). "Goji: what it is... and isn't". NewHope Network, Penton Media Inc. 
  5. ^ Austin, D. F. (2004). Florida Ethnobotany. CRC Press. p. 677. ISBN 9780849323324. 
  6. ^ Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  7. ^ a b c d NIH (January 2013). "Lycium". MedlinePlus. US National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 13 April 2013. 
  8. ^ a b "Goji Berries" (PDF). UK Food Standards Agency, Novel Foods, Additives and Supplements Division. June 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2013. 
  9. ^ a b Responses on goji berries reviewed, UK Food Standards Agency, June 2007
  10. ^ a b c Dharmananda S (2007). "Lycium fruit: food and medicine". Institute for Traditional Medicine. 
  11. ^ "Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Genus Lycium L". US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Services. 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017. 
  12. ^ Isabelle, M.; Lee, B.L.; Lim, M.T.; Koh, W.-P.; Huang, D.; Ong, C.N. (2010). "Antioxidant activity and profiles of common vegetables in Singapore". Food Chemistry. 120 (4): 993–1003. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.11.038. 
  13. ^ Dong, J.; Lu, D.; Wang, Y. (2009). "Analysis of flavonoids from leaves of cultivated Lycium barbarum L". Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 64 (3): 199–204. doi:10.1007/s11130-009-0128-x. 
  14. ^ McNally A. Superfoods market set to double by 2011, NutraIngredients.com-Europe, October 8, 2007
  15. ^ Runestad T. Functional Ingredients market overview, Functional Ingredients, October 2007 Archived 2007-10-13 at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ a b c Fouch S, Hanson E. "Potential for saskatoon and goji berry production in the Great Lakes region" (PDF). Michigan State University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 November 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2014. 
  17. ^ Baltazar A (January 2010). "Raising the Bar (on Chocolate)". Nutraceuticals World. Rodman Media. Retrieved 13 April 2013. 
  18. ^ Earl Mindell and Rick Handel (2003), "Goji: The Himalyan Health Secret". Momentum Media, 58 pages. ISBN 978-0967285528
  19. ^ a b c "Getting Juiced". CBC News. January 17, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-02-02. Retrieved 2015-02-06. 
  20. ^ US FDA Letter to Dynamic Health Laboratories, Inc.
  21. ^ US FDA, Letter to Healthsuperstore.com
  22. ^ "Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act)". 
  23. ^ United States District Court for the District of Arizona (May 29, 2009). "Class action lawsuit against FreeLife International, Inc" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 1, 2010. Retrieved 2009-10-31. 
  24. ^ Class-Action Suit Filed against FreeLife and Earl Mindel
  25. ^ Potterat O (January 2010). "Goji (Lycium barbarum and L. chinense): Phytochemistry, pharmacology and safety in the perspective of traditional uses and recent popularity". Planta Med. 76 (1): 7–19. doi:10.1055/s-0029-1186218. PMID 19844860. 
  26. ^ Pathbreaking Newsletter Promotes Development of Organic Sector in China Archived 2006-12-31 at the Wayback Machine. Lila Buckley. Worldwatch Institute. 28 February 2006.
  27. ^ GAIN Report #CH1072. Dueling Standards for Organic Foods 2001 Ralph Bean and Xiang Qing. USDA Global Agriculture Information Network Foreign Agricultural Service. 12 Dec 2001.
  28. ^ The Movement Toward Organic Herb Cultivation in China Subhuti Dharmananda. Institute for Traditional Medicine. January 2004.
  29. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-10-19. Retrieved 2012-11-01.  Staff Reporter. The commercial legend of goji. Selling a Chinese crop under the Tibetan flag. TibetInfoNet, July 29, 2007.
  30. ^ "IMPORT ALERT IA9908". fda.gov. Archived from the original on 6 January 2008. 
  31. ^ a b "Wolfberry festival to be held in Ningxia". China Daily. 2004-07-19. Retrieved 2015-02-05. 
  32. ^ "Harvest and trade for Chinese Wolfberry in Ningxia". China Daily USA. 28 October 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  33. ^ a b "China's First Provincial-level Wolfberry Association Established". People's Daily - English. 19 August 2001. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  34. ^ a b [1] Xinhua News Agency, Opening ceremonies of Ningxia wolfberry festival, August 3, 2005.
  35. ^ "Goji". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 
  36. ^ The Novel Foods and Novel Food Ingredients Regulations 1997
  37. ^ Boutin, N (July 30, 2008). "Fairground family first to gamble on gojis". Woodstock Sentinel Review. Sun Media. Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  38. ^ Karp, D (August 5, 2009). "Goji taunts North American farmers". Los Angeles Times - Food. LA Times. Retrieved 14 April 2013. 

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