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Rich Homie Quan - Word Of Mouth
Rich Homie Quan - Word Of Mouth
Published: 2017/04/14
Channel: RichHomieQuanVEVO
Shakey Graves - Word of Mouth - Audiotree Live
Shakey Graves - Word of Mouth - Audiotree Live
Published: 2013/07/22
Channel: Audiotreetv
Shakey Graves - Word of Mouth
Shakey Graves - Word of Mouth
Published: 2012/07/24
Channel: BE LIE ALL
Mike and the Mechanics - Word of Mouth - Lyrics - HD
Mike and the Mechanics - Word of Mouth - Lyrics - HD
Published: 2013/03/08
Channel: AmblerA
Word of Mouth   Mike + the Mechanics   Official Music Video 1991   YouTube
Word of Mouth Mike + the Mechanics Official Music Video 1991 YouTube
Published: 2012/06/13
Channel: gina mcgarry
Doug Stanhope - Word of Mouth [Русские субтитры]
Doug Stanhope - Word of Mouth [Русские субтитры]
Published: 2012/04/10
Channel: Artyom Ionov
OMB Peezy - Word Of Mouth Documentary
OMB Peezy - Word Of Mouth Documentary
Published: 2017/05/26
Channel: 300 Entertainment
Word Of Mouth
Word Of Mouth
Published: 2007/02/13
Channel: JohnnyReubonic
How word of mouth really works | Chris Cowan | TEDxLondonBusinessSchool
How word of mouth really works | Chris Cowan | TEDxLondonBusinessSchool
Published: 2016/05/31
Channel: TEDx Talks
Word Of Mouth Feat. DJ Cheese - Coast To Coast
Word Of Mouth Feat. DJ Cheese - Coast To Coast
Published: 2008/03/27
Channel: njbadfella
Word of Mouth f. DJ Cheese- King Kut
Word of Mouth f. DJ Cheese- King Kut
Published: 2007/10/06
Channel: njbadfella
Shakey Graves - Word Of Mouth (Live in Lubbock)
Shakey Graves - Word Of Mouth (Live in Lubbock)
Published: 2013/04/09
Channel: LiveandBreathing
Mike And The Mechanics- Word Of Mouth.
Mike And The Mechanics- Word Of Mouth.
Published: 2010/10/03
Channel: Nicolas Nova
WORD of MOUTH ft. Εισβολέας & Ματούλα Ζαμάνη | "Απ
WORD of MOUTH ft. Εισβολέας & Ματούλα Ζαμάνη | "Απ' τη γειτονιά" | Official Video Clip
Published: 2014/05/30
Channel: Word of Mouth BeatboxTeam
WOMMA | 5 Principles of Word of Mouth Marketing
WOMMA | 5 Principles of Word of Mouth Marketing
Published: 2011/11/16
Channel: Room 214
Jaco Pastorius- Word Of Mouth
Jaco Pastorius- Word Of Mouth
Published: 2011/01/08
Channel: Thezone4422
The Wanted - Word of Mouth (Deluxe Album)
The Wanted - Word of Mouth (Deluxe Album)
Published: 2013/11/03
Channel: sevi stefanou
Getting Word of Mouth - #BookVideos
Getting Word of Mouth - #BookVideos
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: Evan Carmichael
Sold 24 Millions From No Advertising - Word Of Mouth Only! - Shark Tank
Sold 24 Millions From No Advertising - Word Of Mouth Only! - Shark Tank
Published: 2017/06/17
Channel: Viral YouTube
" ΜΙΑ ΦΟΡΑ ΗΣΟΥΝ ΕΔΩ" | Word of Mouth ft. Δημήτρης Καρράς & Ταφ Λάθος |Official Video|
" ΜΙΑ ΦΟΡΑ ΗΣΟΥΝ ΕΔΩ" | Word of Mouth ft. Δημήτρης Καρράς & Ταφ Λάθος |Official Video|
Published: 2015/01/12
Channel: Word of Mouth BeatboxTeam
Allan Rayman | Word Of Mouth (Acoustic) | Live In Concert
Allan Rayman | Word Of Mouth (Acoustic) | Live In Concert
Published: 2017/04/12
Channel: CBC Music
Word of Mouth Marketing
Word of Mouth Marketing
Published: 2014/03/21
Channel: Richard Wilkinson Brennan
Word of Mouth
Word of Mouth
Published: 2015/12/02
Channel: ODB Films
How to Build Organic "Word of Mouth" by Working with Celebrities and Influencers
How to Build Organic "Word of Mouth" by Working with Celebrities and Influencers
Published: 2016/11/30
Channel: L2inc
Mike And The Mechanics Live 2011  Avo Sessions " Word Of Mouth"
Mike And The Mechanics Live 2011 Avo Sessions " Word Of Mouth"
Published: 2012/12/10
Channel: illegalalien2
Word Of Mouth - Mike & The Mechanics
Word Of Mouth - Mike & The Mechanics
Published: 2014/04/18
Channel: Serdar Yaşar
Shakey Graves  - "Word of Mouth" (Live In Sun King Studio 92 Powered By Klpsch Audio)
Shakey Graves - "Word of Mouth" (Live In Sun King Studio 92 Powered By Klpsch Audio)
Published: 2015/04/09
Channel: WTTSFM
Word of Mouth Tour w/ RDGLDGRN onsale NOW!
Word of Mouth Tour w/ RDGLDGRN onsale NOW!
Published: 2013/12/02
Channel: Aer
Whitney Peyton feat. Kung Fu Vampire - Word of Mouth (Official Lyric Video)
Whitney Peyton feat. Kung Fu Vampire - Word of Mouth (Official Lyric Video)
Published: 2016/05/31
Channel: Whitney Peyton
Doug Stanhope   Word of Mouth - Official
Doug Stanhope Word of Mouth - Official
Published: 2015/07/02
Channel: Lonti. She
Shakey Graves - Word Of Mouth | Sofar Austin
Shakey Graves - Word Of Mouth | Sofar Austin
Published: 2012/05/12
Channel: Sofar Sounds
Word of Mouth  -  Reach Out
Word of Mouth - Reach Out
Published: 2016/10/17
Channel: Free Is In Da House
Shakey Graves | "Word Of Mouth" Live at Telluride Blues & Brews Festival
Shakey Graves | "Word Of Mouth" Live at Telluride Blues & Brews Festival
Published: 2016/11/18
Channel: Telluride Blues
Mike and The Mechanics - Word of Mouth TOTP
Mike and The Mechanics - Word of Mouth TOTP
Published: 2008/10/29
Channel: robet76
What is WORD OF MOUTH? What does WORD OF MOUTH mean? WORD OF MOUTH meaning & explanation
What is WORD OF MOUTH? What does WORD OF MOUTH mean? WORD OF MOUTH meaning & explanation
Published: 2016/08/31
Channel: The Audiopedia
WORD of MOUTH feat.12ος ΠΙΘΗΚΟΣ - I AM BEATBOX - [Official Video Clip]
WORD of MOUTH feat.12ος ΠΙΘΗΚΟΣ - I AM BEATBOX - [Official Video Clip]
Published: 2014/10/25
Channel: Word of Mouth BeatboxTeam
The Wanted - Word of Mouth Album Preview
The Wanted - Word of Mouth Album Preview
Published: 2013/10/22
Channel: The Wanted
Word of Mouth (live) - Shakey Graves
Word of Mouth (live) - Shakey Graves
Published: 2011/03/03
Channel: ClarksvilleStudios
Growing a business with word-of-mouth marketing: the case of iXiGO.com
Growing a business with word-of-mouth marketing: the case of iXiGO.com
Published: 2011/05/30
Channel: INSEAD
3 Tips for Harnessing the Power of Word of Mouth Marketing by OPEN Forum
3 Tips for Harnessing the Power of Word of Mouth Marketing by OPEN Forum
Published: 2013/10/20
Channel: American Express OPEN
Mike and the Mechanics "Word of mouth" SUBTITULADA AL ESPAÑOL
Mike and the Mechanics "Word of mouth" SUBTITULADA AL ESPAÑOL
Published: 2013/07/31
Channel: collinstestify81
Word of Mouth Marketing
Word of Mouth Marketing
Published: 2013/06/11
Channel: Gary Vaynerchuk
Word Of Mouth - Electro LIVE @ SCHOOLWAVE 2014
Word Of Mouth - Electro LIVE @ SCHOOLWAVE 2014
Published: 2015/01/18
Channel: Schoolwave Festival
Customer Referrals: The Power of Verbal Communication and Word of Mouth
Customer Referrals: The Power of Verbal Communication and Word of Mouth
Published: 2013/04/10
Channel: Brian Tracy
BrandsVietnam.com | Viral Marketing 2: Word of Mouth
BrandsVietnam.com | Viral Marketing 2: Word of Mouth
Published: 2015/04/06
Channel: Brands Vietnam
Jaco Pastorius /Word of Mouth - 1983 ft. Kazumi Watanabe, Tokyo
Jaco Pastorius /Word of Mouth - 1983 ft. Kazumi Watanabe, Tokyo
Published: 2015/02/22
Channel: Master Eddie
The Jacka Word Of Mouth
The Jacka Word Of Mouth
Published: 2015/04/26
Channel: Jacka Fan Sac916
Nirvana -  Word of Mouth Studios - Recording Session
Nirvana - Word of Mouth Studios - Recording Session
Published: 2014/02/17
Channel: McCake Band
Jaco Pastorius Word of Mouth- Donna Lee
Jaco Pastorius Word of Mouth- Donna Lee
Published: 2008/11/21
Channel: mistersloppy
The Wanted talk Word Of Mouth
The Wanted talk Word Of Mouth
Published: 2014/01/04
Channel: TheWantedLawson
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Word of mouth or viva voce,[1] is the passing of information from person to person by oral communication, which could be as simple as telling someone the time of day. Storytelling is a common form of word-of-mouth communication where one person tells others a story about a real event or something made up. Oral tradition is cultural material and traditions transmitted by word of mouth through successive generations. Storytelling and oral tradition are forms of word of mouth that play important roles in folklore and mythology. Another example of oral communication is oral history—the recording, preservation and interpretation of historical information, based on the personal experiences and opinions of the speaker. Oral history preservation is the field that deals with the care and upkeep of oral history materials collected by word of mouth, whatever format they may be in.

In marketing, word-of-mouth communication (WOM) involves the passing of information between a non-commercial communicator (i.e. someone who is not rewarded) and a receiver concerning a brand, a product, or a service.[2] When WOM is mediated through electronic means, the resulting electronic word of mouth (eWoM) refers to any statement consumers share via the Internet (e.g., web sites, social networks, instant messages, news feeds) about a product, service, brand, or company.[3] eWOM is typically executed via social media or social networking platforms.[4] The process in which the sender of word-of-mouth communication is rewarded is referred to as word-of-mouth marketing. This process relies on the added credibility of person-to-person communication, a personal recommendation.[5] Using WOM as an opposing force to commercially motivated word-of-mouth marketing has been coined Proconsumer WOM.[6] Researchers have formulated a series of recommendations for how nonprofits and public sector organizations can utilize Proconsumer WOM effectively.

WOM has been researched for many years and as a result much is known about what drives WOM (e.g. customer satisfaction, trust and brand commitment) and its far-reaching consequences (e.g. affective/emotional, cognitive, and behavioral) for both consumers and organizations.[7] WOM's effectiveness as an information source for consumers can be broken down into two factors: WOM's reach and WOM's impact. These two factors are in turn explained by 13 other drivers.[6]

Storytelling[edit]

Storytelling often involves improvisation or embellishment. Stories or narratives have been shared in every culture as a means of entertainment, education, cultural preservation and in order to instill moral values.

The earliest forms of storytelling were thought to have been primarily oral combined with gesture storytelling for many of the ancient cultures. The Australian Aboriginal people painted symbols from stories on cave walls as a means of helping the storyteller remember the story. The story was then told using a combination of oral narrative, music, rock art, and dance.

Traditionally, oral stories were committed to memory and then passed from generation to generation. However, in literate societies, written and televised media have largely replaced this method of communicating local, family, and cultural histories. Oral storytelling remains the dominant medium of learning in some countries with low literacy rates.

Oral tradition[edit]

Oral tradition (sometimes referred to as "oral culture" or "oral lore") is cultural material and traditions transmitted orally from one generation to another.[8][9] The messages or testimony are verbally transmitted in speech or song and may take the form, for example, of folktales, sayings, ballads, songs, or chants. In this way, it is possible for a society to transmit oral history, oral literature, oral law and other knowledges across generations without a writing system.

Sociologists emphasize a requirement that the material is held in common by a group of people, over several generations, and thus distinguish oral tradition from testimony or oral history.[10] In a general sense, "oral tradition" refers to the transmission of cultural material through vocal utterance, and was long held to be a key descriptor of folklore (a criterion no longer rigidly held by all folklorists).[11] As an academic discipline, it refers both to a set of objects of study and a method by which they are studied[12]—the method may be called variously "oral traditional theory", "the theory of Oral-Formulaic Composition" and the "Parry-Lord theory" (after two of its founders). The study of oral tradition is distinct from the academic discipline of oral history,[13] which is the recording of personal memories and histories of those who experienced historical eras or events.[14] It is also distinct from the study of orality, which can be defined as thought and its verbal expression in societies where the technologies of literacy (especially writing and print) are unfamiliar to most of the population.[15]

Oral history[edit]

Oral history is the recording of personal memories and histories of those who experienced historical eras or events.[14] Oral history is a method of historical documentation, using interviews with living survivors of the time being investigated. Oral history often touches on topics scarcely touched on by written documents, and by doing so, fills in the gaps of records that make up early historical documents. Oral history preservation is the field that deals with the care and upkeep of oral history materials, whatever format they may be in.[16]

Marketing[edit]

Word-of-mouth marketing implies that an organisation takes active steps to encourage WOM (e.g. offering a reward to the WOM sender), whereas normal WOM implies that the sender is not rewarded. Word-of-mouth marketing, which encompasses a variety of subcategories, including buzz, blog, viral, grassroots, brand advocates, cause influencers and social media marketing, as well as ambassador programs, work with consumer-generated media and more, can be highly valued by product, social media and performance marketers. Proconsumer WOM has been suggested to act as counterbalance to commercially motivated word-of-mouth marketing.[6] Because of the personal nature of the communications between individuals, it is believed that they are more credible. Research points to individuals being more inclined to believe WOMM than more formal forms of promotion methods; the listener tends to believe that the communicator is being honest and doesn't have an ulterior motive (i.e. the receiver believes that the sender is not rewarded for engaging in WOM).[17] Word-of-mouth depends on the extent of customer satisfaction with the product or service,[18] and on the degree of its perceived value.[19]

To promote and manage word-of-mouth communications, marketers use publicity techniques as well as viral marketing methods to achieve desired behavioral response. Companies can focus on brand advocates, the people who proactively recommend their favorite brands and products online and offline without being paid to do so.[20] Influencer marketing is also increasingly used to seed WOMM by targeting key individuals who have authority and many personal connections.

Marketers place significant value on positive word-of-mouth, which is traditionally achieved by creating products, services and customer experiences that generate conversation-worthy "buzz" naturally.[21] The relatively new practice of word-of-mouth marketing attempts to inject positive "buzz" into conversations directly. While marketers have always hoped to achieve positive word-of-mouth, intentional marketing relying on such techniques is subject to regulation in some jurisdictions. For example, in the United States, deliberate efforts to generate beneficial consumer conversations must be transparent and honestly conducted in order to meet the requirements of Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act that prohibits "unfair or deceptive acts or practices".[22] To help marketers understand the difference between legitimate and unfair practices, a number of professional organizations have put forward recommendations for ethical conduct.[23][24] A Nielsen global survey in 2013 found that word-of-mouth is not only the most trusted source of consumer information, but it is the most likely to be acted upon.

Despite the belief that most word of mouth is now online (or on mobile) the truth is the very opposite. The Ehrenberg-Bass Institute for Marketing Science Ehrenberg-Bass Institute for Marketing Science has shown that to achieve growth, brands must create word of mouth beyond core fan groups - meaning marketers should not focus solely on communities such as Facebook. According to Deloitte, further research has shown that ‘most advocacy takes place offline’.[citation needed] According to the Journal of Advertising Research: 75% of all consumer conversations about brands happen face-to-face, 15% happen over the phone and just 10% online. This is backed up by research by WOM specialists, Keller Fay.[25]

WOM and media are intertwined. Although WOM is seen by consumers as being different from and more credible than paid media, most instances of brands being mentioned in WOM refer to paid media and marketing touchpoints.[26] Furthermore, marketing mix modeling confirms the power of WOM (attributing 13% of sales across several industries), including a 15% uplift in paid-media effectiveness.[27] Thus, there can be synergy between WOM and other forms of marketing.

Systems[edit]

Long-established systems utilising word-of-mouth include:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.thefreedictionary.com/by+word+of+mouth
  2. ^ Dichter, Ernest (1966). "How Word-of-Mouth Advertising Works". Harvard Business Review. 44 (6): 147–166. 
  3. ^ Kietzmann, J.H., Canhoto, A. (2013). "Bittersweet! Understanding and Managing Electronic Word of Mouth" (PDF). Journal of Public Affairs. 13 (2): 146–159. doi:10.1002/pa.1470. Retrieved September 17, 2013. 
  4. ^ Jansen, B. J., Zhang, M, Sobel, K, and Chowdury, A (2009) Twitter Power: Tweets as Electronic Word of Mouth. Journal of the American Society for Information Sciences and Technology, 60(11), 2169–2188
  5. ^ http://www.entrepreneur.com/encyclopedia/term/82660.html
  6. ^ a b c Lang, Bodo; Lawson, Rob (2013). "Dissecting Word-of-Mouth's Effectiveness and How to Use It as a Proconsumer Tool". Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing. 25 (4): 374–399. doi:10.1080/10495142.2013.845419. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  7. ^ Lang, Bodo; Hyde, Ken (2013). "Word of mouth: What we know and what we have yet to learn". Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior. 26: 1–18. 
  8. ^ Vansina, Jan: "Oral Tradition as History", 1985, James Currey Publishers, ISBN 0-85255-007-3, ISBN 978-0-85255-007-6; at page 27 and 28, where Vasina defines oral tradition as "verbal messages which are reported statements from the past beyond the present generation" which "specifies that the message must be oral statements spoken sung or called out on musical instruments only"; "There must be transmission by word of mouth over at least a generation". He points out that "Our definition is a working definition for the use of historians. Sociologists, linguists or scholars of the verbal arts propose their own, which in, e.g., sociology, stresses common knowledge. In linguistics, features that distinguish the language from common dialogue (linguists), and in the verbal arts features of form and content that define art (folklorists)".
  9. ^ Ki-Zerbo, Joseph: "Methodology and African Prehistory", 1990, UNESCO International Scientific Committee for the Drafting of a General History of Africa; James Currey Publishers, ISBN 0-85255-091-X, 9780852550915; see Ch. 7; "Oral tradition and its methodology" at pages 54-61; at page 54: "Oral tradition may be defined as being a testimony transmitted verbally from one generation to another. Its special characteristics are that it is verbal and the manner in which it is transmitted."
  10. ^ Henige, David. Oral, but Oral What? The Nomenclatures of Orality and Their Implications Oral Tradition, 3/1-2 (1988): 229-38. p 232; Henige cites Jan Vansina (1985). Oral tradition as history. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press
  11. ^ Degh, Linda. American Folklore and the Mass Media. Bloomington:IUP, 1994, p. 31
  12. ^ Dundes, Alan, "Editor’s Introduction" to "The Theory of Oral Composition", John Miles Foley. Bloomington, IUP, 1988, pp. ix-xii
  13. ^ Henige, David. Oral, but Oral What? The Nomenclatures of Orality and Their Implications Oral Tradition, 3/1-2 (1988): 229-38. p 232; Henige cites Jan Vansina (1985). Oral tradition as history. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press
  14. ^ a b Oral History
  15. ^ Ong, Walter, S. J., "Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word". London: Methuen, 1982 p 12
  16. ^ Keakopa, M. (1998). The role of the archivist in the collection and preservation of oral traditions. S.A. Archives Journal, 40,87-93.
  17. ^ Grewal, R., T. W. Cline, and A. Davies, 2003. Early-Entrant Advantage, Word-of-Mouth Communication, Brand Similarity, and the Consumer Decision-Making Process. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 13(3).
  18. ^ Stach, A. and A. Serenko, 2010. The Impact of Expectation Disconfirmation on Customer Loyalty and Recommendation Behavior: Investigating Online Travel and Tourism Services. Journal of Information Technology Management, XX(3), p. 26-41.
  19. ^ Turel, O., A. Serenko, and N. Bontis, 2010. User Acceptance of Hedonic Digital Artifacts: A Theory of Consumption Values Perspective. Information & Management, 47(1), p. 53-59.
  20. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/11/08/us-vcj-zuberance-idUSTRE6A731G20101108
  21. ^ Word of mouth advertising: Marketing-made-simple.com
  22. ^ Laws Enforced by the Federal Trade Commission
  23. ^ Word of Mouth Marketing Association Ethics Code
  24. ^ American Marketing Association Best Practices for Word-of-Mouth Communications
  25. ^ "Social TV: "The Real Action is Not Online, It is Still Face-to-Face," says CBS’s Dave Poltrack - The Keller Fay Group". The Keller Fay Group. Retrieved 2015-09-14. 
  26. ^ "The Social Power of Television: What's In It For Advertisers - The Keller Fay Group". The Keller Fay Group. Retrieved 2015-09-14. 
  27. ^ "Results Worth Talking About: The ROI of WOM - WOMMA". WOMMA. Retrieved 2015-09-14. 
  28. ^ Dolgin, Alexander (2008). The Economics of Symbolic Exchange. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 228. ISBN 9783540798828. Retrieved 2014-12-03. Word of mouth can overcome the information cascade devised by marketing specialists. This is important as objective testimony to the power of the bush telegraph. 
  29. ^ "Luther asserted, 'It is the manner of the New Testament and of the gospel that it must be preached and performed by word of mouth and a living voice. Christ himself has not written anything, not has he ordered anything to be written, but rather to be preached by word of mouth.'" Quoted in: Whitford, David M (2014). "Preaching and Worship". T&T Clark Companion to Reformation Theology. Bloomsbury Companions. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 161. ISBN 9780567445087. Retrieved 2014-12-03. 

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