|Slogan||Say hello to the future|
|Model||A1865 (with Qualcomm modem)
A1901 (with Intel modem)
A1902 (sold in Japan)
|Compatible networks||GSM, CDMA2000, EV-DO, HSPA+, LTE, LTE Advanced|
|First released||November 3, 2017|
|Availability by country|
|Related||iPhone 8 (Plus)|
|Dimensions||H: 143.6 mm (5.65 in)
W: 70.9 mm (2.79 in)
D: 7.7 mm (0.30 in)
|Weight||174 g (6.1 oz)|
|Operating system||Original: iOS 11.0.1
Current: iOS 11.2.5, released January 23, 2018
|System on chip||Apple A11 Bionic|
|CPU||2.39 GHz hexa-core 64-bit|
|Modem||Models A1865/1902: Qualcomm MDM9655 Snapdragon X16 LTE
Model A1901: Intel XMM 7480
|Memory||3 GB LPDDR4X RAM|
|Storage||64 or 256 GB|
|Battery||3.81 V 10.35 W·h (2716 mA·h) Li-ion|
|Display||5.8 in (150 mm) Super Retina HD: AMOLED, 2436×1125 px resolution, (458 ppi)
625 cd/m2 max. brightness (typical), with dual-ion exchange-strengthened glass
|Rear camera||12 MP with six-element lens, quad-LED "True Tone" flash with Slow Sync, autofocus, IR filter, burst mode, f/1.8 aperture, 4K video recording at 24, 30, or 60 fps or 1080p at 30 or 60 fps, slow-motion video (1080p at 120 or 240 fps), timelapse with stabilization, panorama, facial recognition, digital image stabilization, optical image stabilization,
telephoto lens with 2× optical zoom / 10× digital zoom
Portrait Lighting (in beta), f/2.4 aperture, optical image stabilization
|Front camera||7 MP, f/2.2 aperture, burst mode, exposure control, face detection, auto-HDR, auto image stabilization, Retina flash, 1080p HD video recording
Portrait Mode, Portrait Lighting (in beta) and Animoji
|Other||IP67 IEC standard 60529 (splash, water, and dust resistant), Qi wireless charging, USB-C to Lightning (connector) fast charging|
|SAR||Model A1865: Head: 1.09 W/kg
Body: 1.17 W/kg
Model A1901: Head: 1.08 W/kg
Body: 1.17 W/kg
Model 1902: Head: 1.12 W/kg
Body: 1.19 W/kg
|Hearing aid compatibility||M3, T4|
|This article is part of a series on the|
|List of iPhone models|
iPhone X ("X" pronounced "ten" //) is a smartphone designed, developed, and marketed by Apple Inc. It was announced on September 12, 2017, alongside the iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus at the Steve Jobs Theater in the Apple Park campus. The phone was released on November 3, 2017. This iPhone marks the device's tenth anniversary, with "X" being the symbol for "ten" in Roman numerals.
The iPhone X is intended to showcase what Apple thinks is technology of the future, specifically adopting OLED screen technology for the first time in iPhone history, as well as using a glass and stainless-steel form factor, offering wireless charging, and removing the home button in favor of introducing Face ID, a new authentication method using advanced technologies to scan the user's face to unlock the device, as well as for the use of animated emojis called Animoji. The new, nearly bezel-less form factor marks a significant change to the iPhone user interaction, involving swipe-based gestures to navigate around the operating system rather than the typical home button used in every previous iteration of the iPhone lineup. At the time of its November 2017 launch, its price tag of US$999 also made it the most expensive iPhone ever, with even higher prices internationally due to additional local sales and import taxes.
The iPhone X received mixed to positive reviews. Its display and build quality were universally praised, and the camera also scored positively on tests. The phone received particularly polarized reception due to the sensor housing "notch" at the top of the screen and the introduction of an all-new authentication method. The notch was heavily mocked by users on social media, although app developers responded either neutrally or positively to the changes it brought to the user experience in their apps and games. Reviewers had mixed reactions, with some condemning it and others acknowledging it as unusual in the first moments of use before getting accustomed to its presence. Face ID facial recognition was praised for its simple setup, but criticized for requiring direct eyes on the screen.
Additionally, Face ID has sparked a debate about security and privacy. Apple claims it is significantly more advanced than Touch ID, having far less false positives, though media reports have discussed the fact that Face ID and other biometric unlocking systems do not have the same level of constitutional privacy as a passcode in the United States. Face ID has shown mixed results when trying to separate identical twins, and the promise of enhanced security has been challenged by hackers and mask makers trying to infiltrate it; at least one of such attempts has been successful, though difficult to perform. Third-party app developers can also request access to "rough maps" of user facial data for their apps, causing concerns among privacy advocates despite rigid requirements by Apple of how developers handle facial data.
The technology behind the iPhone X was in development for five years, as far back as 2012. Rumors of a drastic iPhone redesign began circulating around the time of iPhone 7's announcement in the third quarter of 2016, and intensified when a HomePod firmware leak in July 2017 suggested that Apple would shortly release a phone with a nearly bezel-less design, lack of physical home button, Face ID, and other new features. A near-final development version of the iOS 11 operating system was also leaked in September 2017, confirming the new design and features.
On August 31, 2017, Apple invited journalists to a September 12 press event, the first public event held at the Steve Jobs Theater on the company's new Apple Park campus in Cupertino, California. The iPhone X was unveiled during that keynote. Its US$999 starting price is the most expensive iPhone launch price. The price is even higher in international markets due to currency fluctuations, import fees and sales taxes.
The iPhone X has a 5.8-inch diagonal OLED color-accurate screen that supports DCI-P3 wide color gamut, sRGB, and high dynamic range, and has a contrast ratio of 1,000,000:1. The Super Retina display has the True Tone technology found on the iPad Pro, which uses ambient light sensors to adapt the display's white balance to the surrounding ambient light. Although the iPhone X does not feature the same "ProMotion" technology used in the displays of the second-generation iPad Pro, where the display delivers a refresh rate of 120Hz, it does sample touch input at 120Hz. OLED screen technology has a known negative trend of "burn-in" effects, in which particular elements consistently on the screen for long periods of time leave a faint trace even after new images appear. Apple acknowledged that its OLED screens were not excluded from this issue, writing in a support document that "This is also expected behavior". Greg Joswiak, Apple's vice president of product marketing, told Tom's Guide that the OLED panels Apple used in the iPhone X had been engineered to avoid the "oversaturation" of colors that using OLED panels typically results in, having made color adjustments and "subpixel"-level refinements for crisp lines and round corners. For out-of-warranty servicing for damages not relating to manufacturing defects, screen repairs of iPhone X cost US$279, while other damage repairs cost US$549.
The iPhone X has two color options; silver and space gray. The front and back of the phone are composed of surgical-grade stainless steel to improve durability, and the device has a glass casing. The design is intended to be IP67 water and dust resistant.
The iPhone X contains Apple's A11 Bionic system-on-chip, also used in the iPhone 8 and 8 Plus, which is a six-core processor with two cores optimized for performance (25% faster than the A10 Fusion processor), along with four cores optimized for efficiency (70% faster than the previous generation). It also features the first Apple-designed graphics processing unit and a Neural Engine, which powers an artificial intelligence accelerator.
Face ID replaces the Touch ID authentication system. The facial recognition sensor consists of two parts: a "Romeo" module that projects more than 30,000 infrared dots onto the user's face, and a "Juliet" module that reads the pattern. The pattern is sent to the Secure Enclave in the A11 Bionic chip to confirm a match with the phone owner's face. The system will not work with eyes closed, in an effort to prevent unauthorized access.
The iPhone X has two cameras on the rear. One is a 12-megapixel wide-angle camera with f/1.8 aperture, with support for face detection, high dynamic range and optical image stabilization. It is capable of capturing 4K video at 24, 30 or 60 frames per second, or 1080p video at 30, 60, 120 or 240 frames per second. A secondary, telephoto lens features 2× optical zoom and 10× digital zoom with an aperture of f/2.4 and optical image stabilization. A Portrait Mode is capable of producing photos with specific depth-of-field and lighting effects. It also has a quad-LED True Tone flash with 2× better light uniformity.
On the front of the phone, a 7-megapixel TrueDepth camera has an f/2.2 aperture, and features face detection and HDR. It can capture 1080p video at 30 frames per second, 720p video at 240 frames per second, and exclusively allows for the use of Animoji; animated emojis placed on top of the user's face that intelligently react to the user's facial expressions.
iPhone X also supports Qi-standard wireless charging. In tests conducted by MacRumors, the iPhone X's charging speed varies significantly depending on what types of cables, powerbanks, adapters, or wireless chargers are used.
Due to its different screen layout, iOS developers are required to update their apps to make full use of the additional screen real estate. Such changes include rounded corners, sensor "notch" at the top of the screen, and an indicator area at the bottom for accessing the home screen. Apple published a "Human Interface Guidelines" document to explain areas of focus, and discouraged developers from attempting to mask or call special attention to any of the new changes. Additionally, text within the app needs to be configured to properly reference Face ID rather than Touch ID where the authentication technology is used on iPhone X. In anticipation of the release of the phone, most major apps were quickly updated to support the new changes brought by iPhone X, though the required changes did cause delayed app updates for some major apps.
The traditional home button, found on all previous devices in the iPhone lineup, has been removed entirely, replaced by touch-based gestures. To wake up the device, users can tap the display or use the side button; to access the home screen, users must swipe up from the bottom of the display; and to access the multitasking window, users must swipe up similarly to the method of accessing the home button, but stop while the finger is in the middle of the screen, causing an app carousel to appear.
iPhone X's rear camera received an overall rating of 97 from DxOMark, a camera testing company, just barely short of the highest score of 98, awarded to Google's Pixel 2 smartphone. Consumer Reports, a non-profit, independent organization aiming to write impartial reviews of consumer products, ranked iPhone X below iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus, as well as below Samsung's Galaxy S8, S8+ and Note 8, due to less durability and shorter battery life, although it praised the X's camera as "the highest-rated smartphone camera" it had ever tested.
Nilay Patel of The Verge praised the display, calling it "polished and tight and clean" and "bright and colorful". He criticized the repeated lack of a headphone jack, the device's fragility despite Apple's claims of durability, and the sensor notch, calling it "ugly". Patel highlighted the fact that apps required updates to fit the new screen, writing that not all popular apps had received updates by the time of the review, resulting in some apps with "huge black borders" resembling iPhone 8. He especially criticized the positioning of the sensor notch while holding the phone in landscape mode, causing the notch to go "from being a somewhat forgettable element in the top status bar to a giant interruption on the side of the screen". The cameras were given positive feedback for maintaining detail in low-light. Patel particularly praised Animoji, calling it "probably the single best feature on the iPhone X", writing that "they just work, and they work incredibly well". Finally, he wrote that Face ID was the whole foundation of iPhone X, and stated that it "generally works great", though acknowledging the occasional misstep, in which users must "actively move the phone closer to your face to compensate". He specifically criticized the limited range of Face ID, with authentication only working when holding the phone 25–50 centimeters away from the face.
Chris Velazco of Engadget also praised the display, writing that, in his experience, the sensor "notch" goes from being "weird at first" to not being noticeable due to action in videos usually happening in the center. The build quality was given particular acclaim, being called "a beautifully made device" with a construction that "seamlessly" connects the front and back glass with the stainless-steel frame. Velazco noted that the new gesture-based interaction takes time getting used to, particularly the Control Center being moved from the bottom to the top right of the display. The camera, processor performance, and battery life were also given positive thoughts.
In a heavily negative review, Dennis Green of Business Insider significantly criticized the impossible one-handed use of iPhone X, writing that the new gestures to use the phone, such as swiping from the top down to access notifications and the Control Center, did not work when using the phone with only one hand due to not being able to reach the top. His review sparked outrage among Twitter users, many of whom used condescending tones, which Green reasoned as "I don't know whether the anger was directed toward me out of loyalty to Apple or to justify their own choice to spend $1,000 on a phone. It was obvious that much of the criticism came from people who had never used the phone".
Macworld's Roman Loyola praised the Face ID authentication system, writing that the setup process was "easy" and that its system integration was "more seamless" than the Touch ID fingerprint authentication of the past. That said, Loyola did note the "half-second" slower unlocking time than Touch ID as well as needing to look directly at the screen, making it impossible to unlock with the phone next to the user on a desk.
Face ID has raised concerns regarding the possibility of law enforcement accessing an individual's phone by pointing the device at the user's face. United States Senator Al Franken asked Apple to provide more information on the security and privacy of Face ID a day after the announcement, with Apple responding by highlighting the recent publication of a security white paper and knowledge base detailing answers.
However, despite Apple's promise of increased security of Face ID compared to the Touch ID fingerprint authentication system, there have been multiple media reports indicating otherwise. The Verge noted that courts in the United States have granted different Fifth Amendment rights in the United States Constitution to biometric unlocking systems as opposed to keycodes. Keycodes are considered "testimonial" evidence based on the contents of users' thoughts, whereas fingerprints are considered physical evidence, with some suspects having been ordered to unlock their phones via fingerprint. Many attempts to break through Face ID with sophisticated masks have been attempted, though most have failed. A week after iPhone X was released, Vietnamese security firm Bkav announced in a blog post that it had successfully created a $150 mask that tricked Face ID, though WIRED noted that Bkav's technique was more of a "proof-of-concept" rather than active exploitation risk, with the technique requiring a detailed measurement or digital scan of the iPhone owner's face, putting the real risk of danger only to targets of espionage and world leaders.
Additionally, Reuters reported in early November 2017 that Apple would share certain facial data on users with third-party app developers for more precise selfie filters and for fictional game characters to mirror real-world user facial expressions. Although developers are required to seek customer permission, are not allowed to sell the data to others nor create profiles on users nor use the data for advertising, and are limited to a more "rough map" rather than full capabilities, they still get access to over 50 kinds of facial expressions. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and the Center for Democracy and Technology raised privacy questions about Apple's enforcement of the privacy restrictions connected to third-party access, with Apple maintaining that its App Store review processes were effective safeguards. The "rough map" of facial data third-parties can access is also not enough to unlock the device, according to Reuters. However, the overall idea of letting developers access sensitive facial information was still not satisfactorily handled, according to Jay Stanley, a senior policy analyst with the ACLU, with Stanley telling Reuters that "the privacy issues around of the use of very sophisticated facial recognition technology for unlocking the phone have been overblown. … The real privacy issues have to do with the access by third-party developers".
Much of the debate about the iPhone X has revolved around the design of the sensor housing "notch" at the top of the display. The Outline described it as "a visually disgusting element", and The Verge posted a report focusing on public criticism and people mocking Apple's "odd design choice", but not every reviewer was equally negative in their opinions. Third-party iOS developers interviewed by Ars Technica said that, despite the work of restructuring design elements in their apps, the notch did not cause any problems, with some even arguing that the notch was a good push to simplify their designs. Just two weeks after iPhone X's release, Apple approved a "notch remover" app through the App Store, that places black bars across the top of the home screen to make the notch visually disappear. The approval was done despite the company's user interface guidelines discouraging developers from specifically masking the design.
In November 2017, early adopters of the new phone reported that they were experiencing activation issues on certain cellular carriers, most notably AT&T. AT&T announced within hours that the issue had been fixed on their end, and a spokesperson for the Verizon carrier told the media none of its customers were affected despite some reports of problems.
In November 2017, iPhone X users reported on Reddit that the device's screen would become unresponsive after experiencing rapid temperature drops. Apple released the iOS 11.1.2 update on November 16, 2017, fixing the issue.
Apple has been engaged in a legal battle with Qualcomm over allegedly anti-competitive practices and has been dual-sourcing Internet modem chips to reduce reliance on the semiconductor manufacturer. Starting with iPhone 7 in 2016, Apple has used about half Qualcomm modem chips and half Intel. Professional measurement tests performed by wireless signal testing firm Cellular Insights indicated that, as in the previous-gen iPhone 7, Qualcomm's chips outperform Intel's, resulting in some sources recommending the purchase of an unlocked iPhone X or one bought through cellular carrier Verizon, in order to get the models featuring the faster Qualcomm modem.
Additionally, CNET reported in September 2017 that the new iPhone models, including X, 8 and 8 Plus, do not have the ability to connect to the next-generation of wireless LTE data connection, despite 10 new Android devices, including flagships from main smartphone competitor Samsung, all having the capability to do so. While Apple's new smartphones have support for "LTE Advanced", with a theoretical peak speed of 500 megabits per second, the Android models have the ability to connect to "Gigabit LTE", allowing theoretical speeds up to 1 gigabit per second, doubling Apple's speed.
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